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With the completion of the railway, foreign conception underwent a great change, and Siberia suddenly became the “future granary of the world.” Subsequent developments have not met expectations, for the true Siberia is a mean between these conceptions. This enormous country, which is 24 times as large as the German Empire, and nearly twice as large as the United States proper, has a very rigorous climate, and perhaps only half of it is habitable, while a still smaller portion is suitable for agriculture. This still leaves an immense area, however, upon which the cultivation of wheat is not only possible, but probable. Wheat is at present the most important crop of Siberia. It is exceedingly difficult to foretell the rôle which the Russian Empire is destined to play in the world's future wheat production. The possibilities are tremendous. Since, however, they are so largely dependent upon social, economic and institutional evolution, it is very improbable that Russia will duplicate the rapid development of wheat production which took place in the United States. While the development will be gradual, it is probable that Russian production will be one of the great permanent factors in the wheat industry.”

India's Wheat Production.—The two factors which enabled India to become a large exporter of wheat were the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the subsequent development of the railroads. The former gave an enormous stimulus to wheat cultivation. Wheat thrives best on the dry plains of the Punjab and on the plateaus of the central provinces. Agricultural conditions in different parts of India, and meteorological conditions in different parts and in different seasons, are so diverse that the annual production varies greatly and is extremely difficult to predict. India wheat as a factor in the world market is made still more uncertain by the fact that domestic consumption is unusually susceptible to variations resulting from changes in the price that may be obtained in the export markets.

In recent years the annual wheat area in British India has been approximately 28,000,000 acres. About one-fourth of this is planted in the United Provinces, and about one-fourth in the Punjab. Of the remaining wheat area, the Central Provinces

* Rubinow, Russia's Wheat Surplus, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bu. of Sta., Bul. 42, 1906,

have annually about 3,000,000 acres; Central India and Bombay about 2,000,000 acres each; Bengal about 1,500,000 acres; and Rajputana, Hyderabad and the Northwest Frontier Province each about 1,000,000 acres. Beror and Sind are the only other important wheat-growing provinces, and each has an annual area of about 500,000 acres. The wheat is harvested during our spring months. The wheat from the Central Provinces is shipped from Bombay. That of the Punjab is collected at Multan and shipped from Karachi. There has also been a large export of flour, which is ground at Bombay and other centers.


(In round millions)

Exports in following year British Years in bushels P o - rice of wheat of Area Bushels per quarter 31 To United Total Kingdom S D 1890 204.100 23 866 15,451 31 11 1891 229,200 50,511 23,110 37 o 1892 184 500 24,955 16,543 30 3 1893 239,766 20,261 12,381 26 4 1894 225,700 11,483 8,480 22 10 1895 209,310 16673 12,893 23 1 1896 183,698 3,185 2,510 26 2 1897 163,095 3 988 1,798 30 2 1898 222,891 32 533 17,790 34 O 1899 211,320 16,173 10,915 25 8 1900 162,323 83 26 11 1901 225 523 12,203 26 9 1902 202,116 17,153 28 1 1903 258 870 43,185 26 9 1904 312,916 83.128 ---- ---1905 283,000 37,477 1906 319,600 | ..... ----

Argentina's Wheat Production.—The wheat industry of Argentina is similar to that of Russia in some of its most important phases. While the country is of much smaller extent, its land, climate and railroad extension are available potentials for an enormously expanded wheat production. As in Russia, the wheat area cannnot be definitely determined without years of experimentation and a great increase in population. Here, too, there are vast arable plains of great fertility, a fertility of which little is known to the world on account of poor methods of farming and on account of the fact that much of the land has not been under cultivation. The cattle industry was first developed in Argentina, and for many years it completely overshadowed agriculture. Thousands and even hundreds of thousands of acres were owned by the great cattle kings who had no desire to have their land broken up, because they knew nothing of its agricultural value. Another controlling factor is the dependence of agricultural work upon immigrants and their descendants. These immigrants differ greatly in character from those found upon the new lands of the United States and Canada. The great number of illiterate peddlers, laborers, cobblers, and what-not of Italy, Spain and Russia do not become intelligent farmers. They do not endeavor to become permanent additions to the population by securing ownership of the land which they cultivate. They are chiefly Italians having a very low standard of living and little efficiency as laborers. Many of them return to Italy within a year after their coming. According to the census of 1900, not one farmer in three is a renter in the United States, but in Argentina two out of every three do not own the land which they till. Two systems of renting are in vogue in the latter country, the ‘‘medianero,” or share system, and the “arrendatario,” or cash system. The government encourages immigration by offering free transportation from Europe and by making easy the acquisition of land. There are Jewish, Russian, Swiss, German, Austrian, Italian, Spanish and Scandinavian settlements. The number of immigrants averages about 100,000 per annum, and the number of emigrants at least half this number. Generally speaking, the Argentine wheat farmer will submit to life conditions that would not be endured in North America, for he has been accustomed to hardships in Europe. He is slow in understanding what a republic means. Class distinctions between rich and poor are sharply drawn. Agricultural methods and conditions are improving, however, and Argentina is certain to assume a higher rank as a producer of wheat and other cereals. Twenty-five years ago not enough wheat was produced for domestic consumption. During the


last decade wheat has been the principal crop, and approximately 50,000,000 bushels have been exported annually. The total area of Argentina is over a million English square miles, an area equal to all of that portion of the United States which lies east of the Mississippi, with the Dakotas, Minnesota and Iowa added. Wheat growing began in the north and extended in that direction farther than was advantageous. It is estimated that there are at least 60,000,000 acres of land that will eventually be producing wheat. One great advantage is that

wheat statistics of ARGENTINA’
(In round thousands)

Exports Average Year | Production o: or Acres Wheat Flour in bushels bushel in Argentina Bushels | Value | Barrels | Value

1880 ---- 48 $45 16 1890 ---- 12,048 9,493 135 1892 77 17,273 14,182 212 1893 63 37,042

1894 48 59,092

1895 59 37,121

1896 73 19,547

1897 86 3,742

1898 85 23,705

1899 58 62,957

1900 63 70,903

1901 75 6,045 33,227

1902 ---- 8,893 23,696

1903 75,000

1904 84,684

1905 105,391

1906 ---- - -------

1907 155,993 ---- - -------- - -------

the land can be worked at almost any time of the year, for the climate is comparatively moderate. It is probable that the development of the wheat industry in Argentina will be more rapid than in Russia.” Canadian Wheat Production.—Canada has greater possibilities of an immediate and rapid increase in wheat production than any other country. It holds this position of pre-eminence by virtue of its large area of fertile land, land so well suited to the growing of wheat that the grain produced is of a quality not generally equaled by other countries, and by virtue of the intelligent and industrious settlers who are rapidly taking up the unoccupied lands. Estimates vary greatly as to the actual wheat area available in Canada. The best lands are located in Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is probable that there are at least 150,000,000 acres within these limits upon which wheat could be profitably grown, an area approximately three times as great as that annually sown in wheat in the United States. As yet there is not more than about 5 per cent of this land under cultivation, but over 100,000,000 bushels of wheat are annually produced. The hard wheat of the Canadian Northwest ranks with the world's best wheat, and the Toronto papers quote it at a price about 15 cents above that of Ontario wheat. In some years over half of the crop grades No. 1 hard, and it is greatly desired by the millers for mixing with lower grade wheats for the purpose of maintaining a desirable and uniform strength of flour. The yield of wheat per acre is larger in Canada than in the United States. The average yield of spring wheat in Manitoba from 1891 to 1900 was 19 bushels. During the same period of time the yield in the Dakotas was about 11 bushels, while that for the whole of the United States was 13.3 bushels. The land of Canada seems to be more productive, the climate more favorable, and the methods of farming better. About one-fourth of the country is capable of tillage. The settlement of Canadian lands is progressing rapidly. A large proportion of the immigrants and a great amount of capital come from the United States. From March to August of 1902, about 25,000 emigrants went from the United States to Canada. 12,000,000 acres of land have been settled in one year. In effect, the homestead laws of Canada are similar to those of the United States. Transportation facilities are being rapidly developed in order to meet the demands of the increased population, and some of the largest modern grain elevators are being constructed. It appears as if Canada is destined eventually to produce the bulk of North American export wheat. The cold climate is unfavorable to the production of corn and many

* U. S. Dept. Agr., Bu. of Sta., Bul. 27, 1904. * Bicknell, Wheat Production and Farm Life in Argentina, U. S. Dept. Agro, Bu. of Sta., Bul. 27, 1904.

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