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Following the classifications of Carleton, of Haeckel, and of Kornicke and Werner, and perfecting them by adding new data, by extending to smaller subdivisions, by giving world distribution, and, for the sake of unity and completeness, by giving the essential characteristics of each division, there is given below a descriptive and distributive outline of the division Hordeae given on Page 2.

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1.3 Aegilops (section). Species ovata taken as type. Found in southern Europe to Turkestan in Asia. Twelve species in all are recognized. 2.3 Sitopyrus. 1.4 Triticum monococcum.

1.5 2.5

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}; None in English. German Einkorn preferred. French
Characteristics: Spikelets three flowered but one grained; hardy;
non-shattering: short, thin narrow-leaved plant, seldom over 3 feet
high. Very constant in fertility; does not give fertile cross with
common wheat; only species in which paleae fall in two parts at
maturity; spikelets awned; spike compact.
Distribution: Found from Achaia in Greece to Mesopotamia. Present
in Swiss Lake dwellings of stone age. Cultivated to a limited extent
in Spain, France, Germany Switzerland and Italy. Unknown in
America except to experimenters.
Varieties: Einkorn; Engra in double (two grains).

}: oy for bread; usually for mush and “cracked wheat,” and
or fodder.

Name: Polish wheat a misnomer; Giant or Jerusalem rye. Perhaps
native in Mediterranean region.
Characteristics: Only species in which lowest flower has palea as long
as its glume; outer glumes at least as long as flowering glumes; two
to three seeded; tall; stems pithy within ; heads and kernels extremely
large; macaroni gluten; drought and rust resistant; resembles, rye,
Distribution: Spain; Italy; Abyssinia; Southern Russia and Turke-
stan: Brazil: Northwestern United States.
Varieties: Only one, White Polish, is widely known.
Use: Principally for macaroni.

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Triticum sativum dicoccum.

Name: None in English, often erroneously called spelt; German emmer preferred.

1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Veg. Phys. and Path., Bul. 24, p. 6. * Minn. Bul. 62, p. 392.

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Characteristics: Probably derived from Einkorn; leaves usually
velvety hairy; plants pithy or hollow; heads very compact and flat
almost always bearded; threshing does not remove chaff; spikelets
two-grained; non-shattering; some varieties drought and rust
Distribution: Extensively in Russia and Servia; Germany: Spain:
Abyssinia; Switzerland; to some extent, in France, and Italy; also
perhaps in northern India Thibet, and , in , portions of China; in
the United States; cultivated in prehistoric times.
Varieties: Red chaff; white chaff; etc.
Use: Quite extensively for human food in portions of Russia, Ger-
many, Switzerland and Italy as "kaska," a sort of porridge from
crushed emmer; grist; “pot barley;” bread; also used for feed.

Triticum sat. spelta.

Name: English, spelt; German, spels or dinkel; French epeautre.
Characteristics: Grows fully as tall as wheat; heads loose, narrow.
rather long, bearded or bald; very brittle rachis; spikelets two to
five-grained; far apart in head; hardy; non-shattering; constancy
in fertility; retains chaff in threshing.
Distribution: The oldest grain cultivated in ancient Egypt, Greece
and the Roman Empire. With emmer is the principal bread grain
of southwest German Empire; raised widely in Russia, Switzerland.
Belgium, France, Italy, Spain. In Canada and the United States
it is known only to experimenters.
Varieties: Winter and spring varieties white-bearded; black-bearded;
red; smooth; white.
Use: Flour is placed in same rank as common wheat flour; fed to


5.4 Triticum sat. compactum.

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Name: Club or square head wheats; also “hedgehog wheat,”
“dwarf wheat.”
Characteristics: Little more than two feet high, being a dwarf; heads
very short, often squarely formed; commonly white, at times red;
bearded or bald; spikelts very close, three or four-grained; grain
short and small, red or white; great yielding power; stiff straw;
non-shattering; eary maturity; drought resistant.
Distribution: Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the
United States; Chile; Turkestan; Abyssinia; to slight extent in
Switzerland, Russia, and a few other districts of Europe.
Varieties: Generally known as “club" or “square head"; dwarf:
hedgehog. - - - ---
}.: Yield the flour desired in certain localities; crackers; breakfast

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Name: Poulard or llard wheats; English (a misnomer), rivet;
German, bauchiger Weiccm; French, ble petanielle; also known as
English wheat; Egyptian wheat.
Characteristics: Rather tall; broad velvety leaves; stems thick and
stiff; heads long, often square; bearded; spikelets compact, two to
four-grained; grains hard and light color; resistant to rust and
Distribution: France, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Southern Rus-
sia, other Mediterranean and Black Sea districts, and experimentally
in the United States.
Varieties: Poulard; composite wheats (T. compositum), known as
Miracle, Egyptian or Mummy wheats, having branched or compound
heads whose grains develop unequally.
Use: Macaroni and other pastes; bread: mixed with bread wheats
to produce flour desired by certain French markets.

7.4 Triticum sat. durum. 1.5 Name: Durum, macaroni, or flint wheats. 2.5 Characteristics: Hardest grain and longest beard known among wheats;

plants tall; leaves smooth with hard cuticle; heads slender, compact, at times very short; always bearded; grains glassy, sometimes rather transparent, yellowish, long; very sensitive to changes of environment; high gluten, content; drought and rust resistant; spikelets

two to four-grained.


4.5 1.6

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Distribution: Practically the only wheat of Algeria, Spain, Greece,
Mexico, and Central America; extensively raised in south and east
Russia, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Egypt, Tunis, Sicily, Italy, India,
Chile, Argentina, United States, and Canada.
Gharnovka, Velvet Don, and Arnautka (Azov Sea region, Russia)
United States.
Kubanka (east of Volga river, Russia), United States.
Saragolla (southeast Italy).
Goose wheat (Canada. Dakota).
Trigo candeal and Anchuelo (Argentina).
Nicaragua (Central America, Texas).
There are perhaps several dozen other varieties.
Uses: Macaroni; semolina; noodles; all kinds of pastries; bread; it is
coming to be used for all purposes, in some regions, as ordinary
wheat flour.

8.4 Triticum vulgare.

1.5 2.5

3.5 4.5

Name: This is the common bread wheat.
Characteristics: Well known; heads rather loosely formed; bearded
or bald; chaff usually smooth but may be velvety; spikelets gener-
ally three-grained, but may be two, and rarely four; stem usually
hollow; all the characteristics vary widely (see varieties).
Distribution: Practically over the whole globe, within the limits
already given (see varieties).
Varieties: (Carleton's division, based not on botanical but on environ-
mental characteristics).

1.6 Soft winter wheats: Grain amber to white; produced by moist

mild climate of even temperature; found in eastern United States, western and northern, Europe, Japan, and in portions of China India, Australia, and Argentina.

2.6 Hard winter wheats: Usually red-grained; usually bearded: rela

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tively high gluten content; grown on black soils in climate charac-
terized by extremes of temperature and moisture. Found chiefly
in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United
States (the wheat of Crimean origin known as “Turkey red"), in
Argentina (the Italian wheat, Barletta), in Hungary and Rouma-
nia, in southern and southwestern Russia, and to some extent in
Canada, northern India, Asiatic Turkey, and Persia.
Hard spring wheats: What has been said of the hard winter wheats
also applies to this group, the difference being that the growing
season is shorter, and the winter too severe for winter varieties.
They are found in central and western Canada, the north central
states of the United States (these are the fife and blue-stem wheats),
east Russia and western and southern Siberia.

4.6 White wheats: Soft and very starchy; grains harder and much

5. 6

5.5 1.6

drier than those of the soft winter wheats; fall or spring sown, even
in same locality; grown chiefly in the Pacific coast and Rocky
Mountain states of the United States, in Australia, in Chile, in
Turkestan, and the Caucasus.
Early wheats: Grain soft or semi-hard, amber to red; main charac-
teristic is that they ripen early. Found in Australia and India,
have a slight representation in California, and include some of the
dwarf wheats of Japan. -
Districts in the United States (Carleton's division).
Soft wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 143 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.

1.8 Fultz. 5.8 Iones' Winter Fife.

2.8 Fulcaster. 6.8 ed Wonder.

3.8 Early Red Clawson. 7.8 Gold Coin.

4.8 Longberry. 8.8 Blue Stem.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Harder-grained, more glutinous varieties.
2.8 Hardier winter varieties for the most northern portions.
3.8 Early maturity.

4.8 Rust resistance.

2.6 Semi-hard winter wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.

1.8 Fultz. 5.8 Valley.

2.8 Poole. 6.8 Nigger.

3.8 Rudy. 7.8 Dawson's Golden Chaff 4.8 Mediterranean. 8.8 Early Red Clawson.

3.7 Needs of the grower.
1.8 Hardness of grain.
2.8 Rust resistance.
3.8 Hardy winter varieties.

3.6 Southern wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 93 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties now grown.
Red May.
Everett's High Grade.
Currel's Prolific
Purple Straw.
Needs of the grower.
Rust resistance.
Early maturity.
Resistance to late spring frosts.
.8 Stiffness of straw.
Hard spring wheat.
Present average yield per acre, about 13 bushels.
Chief varieties.
Saskatchewan Fife.
Scotch Fife.
Power's Fife.
Wellman's Fife.
Hayne's Blue Stem.
Bolton's Blue Stem.
Minnesota 163.
Needs of the grower.
Early maturity.
2.8 Rust resistance.
3.8 Drouth resistance.
4.8 Hardy winter varieties.
5.6 Hard winter wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 121 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.
1.8 Turkey.
2.8 Kharkov.
3.8 Big Frame.
.7 Needs of the grower.
1.8 Drouth resistance.

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8 Hardy winter varieties. 8 Early maturity. 6.6 Durum wheat. 1.7 Present average yield per acre, 11% bushels. 2. Chief varieties. .8 Nicaragua. .8 Turkey. .8 Arnautka. .8 Kubanka. Needs of the grower 1.8 Durum varieties. 2.8 Drouth resistance. 3.8 Rust resistance. 4.8 Early maturity. 7.6 Irrigated wheat. 1.7. Present average yield per acre, about 21 bushels. 2.7 Chief varieties. ^8 Sonora.



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