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more highly developed must be the resisting qualities of wheat to overcome them. By the law of the survival of the fittest, a very detrimental condition in climate or soil develops in wheat a correspondingly great power of resistance. This is the scientific foundation of the importation of seed wheat. It has been recognized and taken advantage of to a certain extent, but not as fully as might have been, and consequently this point will merit subsequent mention. Advantageous importations are well illustrated by the introduction of hardy and drought and rust resistant varieties from the cold and the hot and dry parts of Russia into sections of the United States having a similar climate. A low altitude and an abundance of moisture seem to produce softer wheats. Soil and Climate.-Many characteristics of wheat are due to the combined insluences of soil and climate. Environments that differ widely are characterized by peculiar varieties of wheat varying in composition and physical appearance. Soft wheat repeatedly sown on heavy, black, upland soil tends to become hard, while hard wheat becomes soft after years of successive planting on bottom lands. Experiments have shown that the environment of Colorado affects the composition of wheat by increasing its gluten content at the expense of the starch content, while the environments of Oregon, California and North Carolina have the opposite effect. A study of the map' showing wheat districts will show the general effects of climate and soil in the United States. Broadly speaking, the hard, red wheats are found in the central, elevated plains, and the grain becomes softer and of lighter color as either ocean is approached. American, Russian and Algerian wheats have about 12 per cent of moisture, while those of Europe have about 14 per cent.” As early as 1884 it was determined by chemical analyses that the wheats of the Pacific coast in the United States have a smaller percentage of albuminoids than those of the rest of the country. In recent years there has also been a gradual deterioration in the gluten content of North Dakota wheats. The attention of the Department of Agriculture was called to these deteriorations, which are due to the combined effects of soil and climate, and extensive experiments were carried on to determine the exact causes and afford relief.

1 See p. 9. * Girard & Lindet, I, e Froment et sa Mouture, pp. 86-93.

Wheats are easily changed as to the season in which they are sown, the winter to spring and the spring to winter varieties. The change is most readily effected in warm, arid climates, where irrigation is practically the sole source of moisture. It can also be accomplished by sowing the winter wheats later and the spring wheats earlier each season. Winter wheat may be sown in spring and spring wheat in the fall. Only a very few plants will ripen seed, but when this is continuously sown, in three years the spring variety will be changed to the winter, and vice versa. In 1857 Klippart wrote that red bearded wheat could be changed to white, smooth wheat, and vice versa. Kubanka, a yellowish-white spring wheat, found in its perfection east of the Volga on the Siberian border, developed into a red winter wheat in the Caucasus. Red wheat is usually more hardy than white wheat, while bald wheat is usually not so well adapted to a hot, dry climate or alkali soil as bearded wheat. When seed from irrigated soft wheat has been planted without irrigation, it has been known to harden remarkably in a single year.


Seed Wheat—In each kernel of wheat are embodied the latent possibilities of its future development. Consequently, it is very important to select the seed which will bring the best results possible in the environment under which it must be grown. A knowledge of the importance of good seed wheat, and of the principles of its development, does not eliminate all of the practical difficulties involved in securing good seed. Frequently the grower is so situated that he must purchase his seed, and he should not follow the common practice of waiting to do this until the sowing season has arrived. It is then too late to ascertain the origin and history of the grain, or even to test its vitality. The speculative markets do not trade in seed wheat, and they are not a factor in determining its price. The great bulk of seed wheat does not move far, but is grown in the locality where it is to be used. Good seed of any of the different classes of wheat may generally be procured from the section in which that class is most commonly grown. For example, Turkey Red wheat should be bought in Kansas, Ne

1 Carleton, Macaroni Wheats, p. 11.

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braska or Iowa; Sonora wheat in California; and hard spring wheats in the Dakotas or Minnesota. Dealers in seed may be divided into three classes according to the methods which they pursue. One class buys seed in the open market and sells it as that variety for which it was bought. Such dealers should be required either to improve their methods or to seek a new occupation, for usually the most advantageous disposition that can be made of their seed is at the nearest grist mill. Another class buys by sample in the open market, using all care possible under the circumstances to secure correctly named seed of good quality. They make germination tests, reclean the seed if necessary, remove light and injured seeds, and offer for sale only those which are good and sound. There is a small class of dealers each of whom makes a specialty of some variety which he has grown under contract. Two points of great importance in regard to their seed is that it is usually of the highest quality and almost always true to name. The grower, in looking for a wheat with the proper origin and history, should have a knowledge of the main facts and laws set forth in this and the previous chapter, and should select seed according to the needs of his environment. He should buy by sample in the fall or winter before sowing. Its purity he can have determined, and a simple home germinating test will give its capacity in germination. Many farmers may not yet be able thus to procure intelligently the seed best suited to their environment, but they have a number of institutions at their command whose business it is to dispense information of exactly this nature. Some experimentation must always be engaged in. It is only within a few years that the quality of commercial seeds has been subjected to any tests other than those made by the reliable seed firms. This shows a great lack of appreciation of one of the essential factors of agriculture. It is one of the most remarkable and unaccountable facts in connection with the development of the United States Department of Agriculture that it spent a neat fortune in distributing seeds for over a half century, and never once tested the quality of the seeds sent out. In 1895, “for the first time in the history of the department did its authorities know the real quality of the seeds they had distributed.”"

1 Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1897, p. 94.

There are no statistics to show how great is the loss resulting from the impositions of unreliable seed firms, but it must be millions of dollars. The loss from sowing poor seed grown on the farm is also great. Frequently, especially among the uneducated classes, any wheat which is injured too badly for market purposes, either by such diseases as smut, or by improper harvesting or storing, is used for seed purposes. Many experiments with immature seed wheat have been made. While its germinating powers may be greater, the conclusion is that smaller and less vigorous plants are produced, resulting in a lower yield.”

It is very questionable whether wheat frozen in ripening, or burned in the stack or bin, can be safely used for seed. It certainly should not be sown if badly affected, and the only way to determine its value is by a germination test. A low germinating power often means a lack in quality as well as in quantity, which makes the use of such seed very hazardous.

Whether seed will “run out,” and whether it is profitable occasionally to “change seed’’ or not, has long been a mooted question. A change of seed, especially if the change is between very distant sections, is almost invariably accompanied by some disadvantages. If it is merely a promiscuous exchange, as is so often the case, it is very likely that the disadvantages will greatly outweigh the advantages. The principles above pointed out throw some light on this question and show that there is one case in which a change of seed is advantageous, namely, from an environment unfavorable in certain conditions to one more favorable in these same conditions and having no new disadvantages which counterbalance the good results. It is obvious that if the transfer is from a favorable to an unfavorable environment, the wheat must, by a selective process, adapt itself to the new conditions before it can yield as much as that which is already adapted. This, of course, has reference only to the one variety which is under consideration. There are also other considerations, however. In the first place, the custom of changing seed is a costly one in actual expenditure of cash. Farmers purchase annually many thousands of bushels of seed wheat, paying fancy prices and freightage

1 Rept. N. D. A gr. Col., 1902, p. 32; Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1896, p. 306,

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