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PREFACE

The great industries which have been essential to the rise of state or nation have never received the attention which their importance should command, and the chronicling of their events greatly extends the meaning of economics and history proper. Industrial history has indeed received a certain amount of consideration, but in the main it has been somewhat desultory, and the field is so new that only a few of the great basic industries, such as those of cotton, corn, alfalfa and coal, have even been attempted. It is my purpose in this book to add other volume to the industrial-economic literature which o eals with industries in their entirety. While many important *works are available that cover certain phases of the wheat industry very adequately, and a few which cover a number of phases very admirably for the limited space that is devoted to them, there is, however, no general work treating the entire subject as completely and extensively as is merited by the industry which furnishes the most staple food of the civilized world. Unquestionably the need of such a book on wheat is patent. A work of this nature is of direct or indirect interest to all consumers of bread. The historical or evolutionary aspect is of universal significance. Those directly interested in the wheat industry, whether as growers, dealers, or millers, not

only should be familiar with the technicalities of the phase of the industry in which they are engaged, but they should have accessible a general knowledge of the whole industry. No agricultural college or experiment station should be without a text-book on the subject. The agricultural or economic section of every library should certainly contain a general reference book on wheat. The method of treating the subject demanded by these needs was one that would appeal to the popular reader as well as to the student, instructor and experimenter. Treated from the American point of view, the subject demanded a less detailed consideration for foreign countries. The book is the result of fifteen years of personal experience in the wheat fields of our Northwest, and of a careful study of the works listed in the appended bibliography. Not a little additional information was obtained from several hundred letters written on phases of the subject with which I was not sufficiently familiar, and concerning which little material that was recent or reliable could be found in the literature. Space limited the references in footnotes to the most important ones. If more detailed information is desired on certain subjects than the limits of the book have permitted, references quite ample for all purposes will be found in the topical index of authors included in the bibliography. P. T. D.

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New Haven, Conn., May 1, 1908.

ILLUSTRATIONS

The Bonanza Harvester . . . . . . .
Development of Wheat Plant . . . . .
Distribution of Wheat Varieties . . . .
Root System of Wheat Plant . . . . .
Organs of Wheat Reproduction . . . .
Coats of a Wheat Kernel . . . . .
Cross Section of Wheat Grain . . . .
A Stool of Wheat . . . . . . . . .
Opening of Wheat Flowers . . . . . .
Harvesting Minnesota Blue Stem Wheat
Crossing as a Cause of Variation . . .
Diagram of Pedigree of Hybrid . . . .
Durum Wheat Districts . . . . . . .
Wheat Plants from Good and Poor Seed .

Combined Steam Plow, Harrow and Seeder.

Typical Farm Wheat Drill . - - -
A Modern Press and Disc Drill . . . .
Typical Force Feed Broadcast Seeder.
Forms of Early Sickles and Scythes .
Early and Modern Cradles . -
Gallic Header - - - - - -
Wheat Header in Operation . . . . .
An Early English Reaper . . . . .
A Modern Self-Rake Reaper .
A Modern Self-Binding Harvester .

Section of a Modern Threshing Machine .

Combined Harvester and Thresher .

PAGE

Frontispiece

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PAGE Sections of Smutted Wheat Straw . . . . . . . . 158 Stinking and Loose Smut . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Aecidia on Barberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Two Forms of Rust Spores . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Black and Red Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Hessian Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Hessian Fly on Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Chinch Bug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Wheat Midge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Wheat Plant Louse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Rocky Mountain Grasshopper . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Grain Aphis or Green Bug . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Granary Weevil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Grain Moth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Flour Moth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Transportation of Wheat on Water . . . . . . . . 191 Typical Small Storage Elevators . . . . . . . . . . 202 Storage in Open on a Farm . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Wheat Awaiting Shipment by River . . . . . . . . 216 Storage at Primary Market . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Mexican Hand Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 American Indian Foreign Mortar . . . . . . . . . .263 The Quern Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Details of a Dutch Windmill . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Section of Large Modern Flour Mill . . . . . . . . 272 New Buffalo Flour Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Field of Durum Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 American Reaper in Russian Wheat . . . . . . . . .306

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