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though repulsed four times, yet gaining it over from Holkar at the last, he followed him through regions untrodden by a British army; crossed the Sutlej in such array, as to prevent the fugitive chieftain from finding new alliances among a warlike people; and finally forced him to surrender himself and the kingdom on his saddle's bow,' at Umritsur. Who will deny that in this instance the roaring flood poured onwards, covering all things ?'

There is yet a third point of view in which the arrangements of Lord Lake as a general, were admirable, worthy even of imitation in the present day. We allude to the facility which he so happily exercised of moving his troops and their baggage. * The march of our army,' writes Major Thorn, had the appearance of a moving town or citadel in the form of an oblong square, whose sides were defended by ramparts of

glittering swords and bayonets. On the one side moved the ' line of infantry, on the opposite that of the cavalry, parallel 'to, and preserving its encamping distance as near as possible ' from the infantry, and keeping the head of the column in a line with the former. The front face was protected by the

advance guard, composed of all the pickets coming on duty, ' and the rear by all the pickets returning from duty, and then

forming the rear guard. The parks and columns of artillery ' moved inside the square, always keeping the high road, and next to the infantry, which moved at a short distance from it. The remainder of the space within the square, was occupied by the baggage, cattle, and followers of the camp. Notwith

standing the immense magnitude of this moving mass, and * the multifarious elements of which it consisted, nothing could 'exceed the regularity observed by the troops in maintaining 'their respective distances, and adhering closely to the order of • formation on the march. This was the case in an ordinary march against an enemy, but we find from the same authority, how advantage was always taken of local circumstances to alter it. Thus, in advancing from Muttra, in face of the entire cavalry of Holkar,—the cavalry led, followed by the infantry; between them and the river Jumna, the course of which was followed, were placed the baggage and camp followers,—a mode of advance, which effectually prevented depredations, and gave free scope to the action of the army. To enable him to make those unsurpassed marches, the rapidity of which contributed as much as any other cause to the defeat of the enemy, it was the practice of Lord Lake to serve out gratuitously to each fighting man and public follower, six pounds of flour. This quantity lasted six days, and being carried by the men, reduced the carriage. The diminution in that respect more than defrayed its cost.

· In other respects Lord Lake fulfilled all the requirements of a great general. A strict disciplinarian,

A strict disciplinarian, he carefully consulted the comforts of the soldier. Their toils, their privations, their fatigues, their exposure, he shared with them. It needed only that an officer or soldier should shew himself zealous and active to ensure notice from the Commander-in-chief. He knew no distinction of service. That man was rewarded, who best knew, and who best did, his duty. No man ever possessed a greater power of attaching others to himself. In private life, he was equally to be esteemed. Generous, unselfish, and open-hearted, he was a favourite everywhere. If his temper was quick, he never hoarded up an enmity. His anger often cooled down before the cause of it had been removed. No mau had a larger or more attached circle of friends.

He left India, as we have stated, in February, 1807, and reached England in the following September. He received the most flattering welcome from his countrymen, and, on the 31st October following, was created by his sovereign a viscount, and was appointed governor of Plymouth. He did not, however, live long to enjoy these dignities and honours. In the month of February following, he was attacked by an illness, which on the 21st terminated fatally. He died, as he had lived, in the performance of his duty.

With no more appropriate sentence could we conclude our necessarily imperfect outline of the life of this famous warrior. It forms alike an epitome of his career, and a justification to us for having undertaken it. It is possible that to some this long record of battles fought and won; of sieges undertaken; of pursuits followed up; of advances and pursuits; coloured only by details of slaughter, and an account of the sufferings of the wounded, may appear tedious and purposeless. But we do not hesitate to avow that to our minds there are few stories more instructive, none more interesting, than that of the career of a noble and successful soldier, fighting the battles of his country. There is something inspiriting even in the idea of men giving themselves up to a career of this nature,-a career in which everything is to be risked, and little that is material to be gained,-a career promising great toil, exposure of the most trying kind, and an ever recurring chance of loss of life or limb. There must at least be much that is unselfish in the yearning that prompts a young man to undergo all this labour for so little profit. For, the real soldier, be it always remembered, fights not that he himself may gain, but that his country may benefit by his exertions. To that country he gives the best years of his life, his best energies of body and mind, often too those prospects of a peaceful life which will not always be banished even from his imagination. He gives all these, careless of the consequences, not only careless of, but rejoicing in, the fatigues, difficulties, and dangers he may encounter; doubly happy if fortune will but give him the chance that may connect his name with the scene of the triumph of his country's arms. To the general reader, indeed, the contemplation of the career of a great soldier, such as Lord Lake was, presents a lesson of a character more practical and instructive. Does not the story of his constant advances, his eagerness to close with the enemy, his grappling with him till he had overcome him,-does not that indicate a state of things which comes within the lifeexperience of most men ? Do we not realise the fact that the military career of a soldier is but the type of the every-day life of an ordinary man? If the soldier is cowardly, indifferent, and careless, he will assuredly be beaten by his enemy, just in the same way as the man who is cowardly, indifferent, and careless in every-day life, is overcome by the temptations which are to him a formidable foe. When, on the other hand, we read of Lord Lake ever advancing, caring for no obstacle, riding at the long grass which he knew covered the guns behind them, do we not at once recognise the type of the man of every-day life, who, conscious of his own dignity, confident of the rectitude of his motives, advances in the path marked out to him, thrusting down every temptation, careless of the sneers of the world, scorning to compromise with evil, resisting the seductions which are disguised under some plausible title? Well would it be for men in general, if they would not disdain to take a lesson from this simple-minded warrior, if they would treat the sins that beset them as Lord Lake treated his enemies, taking no breath until they were utterly and for ever subdued. In that view of the question, the study of his life may not be quite valueless to all.

We cannot conclude without expressing the opinion we entertain of Major Thorn's contribution to the military history of that period. It must ever be the text book of the campaigns against Scindia and Holkar, more especially of that portion of them conducted by Lord Lake in person, throughout which the Major bore a part. We have followed his account in all important particulars, excepting, indeed, when he speaks of the numbers of the Mahrattas. On that question Major L. F. Smith, who was himself in the service of Dowlut Rao Scindia, is a far more safe and trustworthy authority. The exaggeration, however unintentional, of the number of troops brought into the field by a defeated enemy, is no compliment to the conquering army, for it induces doubts as to the real merit of the victories achieved.

57

ART. II.--Memorials of serrice in India. From the Correspon

dence of the late Major Samuel Charters Macpherson, C. B., Political Agent at Gwalior during the mutiny and formerly employed in the suppression of human sacrifices in Orissa. Edited by his brother William Macpherson. London. John Murray. Albemarle Street.

THERE was a critical time during the late mutinies when

the fate of the empire appeared to depend upon the part taken by two potentates of Central India, -Scindia of Gwalior, and the Nizam of the Deccan,—the one the head of the Mahratta, the other of the Mahomedan, people. Between the circumstances of these two states there was a striking similarity, inasmuch as each was managed by a youthful minister, who had learnt to understand and appreciate the English character and the English power. To the wisdom and firmness of Dinkur Rao, the minister of Scindia, and of Salar Jung, the minister of the Nizam, must be mainly attributed the safety of Southern India. Upon the fidelity of these two remarkable men no doubt was even thrown. Whatever fears may have been felt that their masters would not be able to resist the pressure put upon them to place themselves at the head of their nation, and by completing the overthow of the English to gain for themselves the vacant empire, such temptations fell barmless on the enlightened minds of their ministers. Nor did the similarity between the circumstances of these two states end here. It happened that each had just received marked proofs of the friendly feelings of the British Government, and the assurance that there was no intention of applying to them that system of annexation which had spread such alarm through the native states of India. In the spring of 1857, Scindia paid a visit to Calcutta accompanied by the political agent, and besides witnessing the wonders of the railway, the steam engine, the telegraph, and the shipping, and other evidences of British resources, he was gratified by the attentions of the Governor General and by assurances from Lord Canning himself, that in case of his death without male issue, the Government would not be disposed to assert its right of succession by lapse, but would recognize an adopted son. In the Deccan the event was still more striking. In no state of India had the annexation of Oudh caused greater consternation

H

than in that of the Nizam, for in none was there a stronger similarity of circumstances. The Nizam's life was known to be most precarious, and although there was an heir to the throne, the impression was almost universal, that his death would be the occasion for the British Government to do with the Deccan as it had done with Oudh.

So strong was this impression that when, in December, 1856, Mr. Bushby, the resident of Hydrabad, died, and a rumour was spread that Outram was to be his successor, Salar Jung was said to have remonstrated against an appointment which would have so greatly increased the apprehensions of the nobles already 60 seriously roused. Had this state of restless anxiety as to the policy of the British Government existed when the mutinies burst upon us, it would have been difficult, by any after-course the Government might have pursued, to re-assure men's minds as to what its intentions had been. But providentially the death of the Nizam called for a declaration of this policy to be followed, and the electric telegraph conveyed the instruction of the Governor General, that the son and heir of the deceased sovereign was to ascend the throne of his ancestors. While the British officers were assembled in the place of the Nizam to do honour to his installation, the post was bearing to Hydrabad the accounts of the massacres of Meerut and Delhi. To these providential circumstances it is mainly to be attributed, that in our hour of greatest need we had in Central India two allies personally favourably to the English cause. But these princes were themselves involved in difficulties of the greatest magnitude, and it was a happy circumstance that at this critical moment the office of political agent at Gwalior was held by one, whom previous service of no usual kind had thrown into intimate intercourse with the people of India, who had thus acquired a thorough knowledge of their feelings and mode of thought, who interested himself deeply in their welfare, and who by these qualifications and a kindly heart was calculated to win their confidence and affection.

Major Samuel Charters Macpherson is one of the long list of able and courageous statesmen, whose high qualities and

personal influence effected the salvation of our Indian empire, but whose lives fell a sacrifice, not before their work was done, but before they either saw the full effects of their labours, or received their rewards.

Major Macpherson was born in 1806, second son of Dr. Hugh Macpherson, Professor of Greek in the University of Aberdeen.

In consequence of delicate health in childhood, the years which most boys pass at school, were spent by him at home under

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