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7. They have not the right of constituency for the diets and the Reichsrath.
10. They are not authorized to act as undertakers, directors, or managers of public meetings, the object of which is the discussion of political affairs.
11. They have not the right of election for the common council and cannot be elected as such members.
12. They cannot obtain the position of a sworn broker, (agent of exchange.) 13. They cannot exercise the profession of hawker.
14. Physicians, surgeons, and midwives, as well as apothecaries, if foreigners, are not admitted to the practice of their respective professions till they have passed the legal examinations of the country.
15. Foreigners cannot be directors of public schools or educational establishments; as little can they become professors of a university or of any public institute.
16. The personal capacity of foreigners is in regard of their transactions to be judged of according to the laws of their own country, viz: Although an Austrian has become of age by completion of his 24th year, a foreigner, however, of 24 years cannot be regarded as of age if the laws of his country requires a greater number of years. In this regard the foreigners may not be able to enjoy the same rights as the Austrians. Vienna, 220 June, 1868.
STUTTGART, July 14, 186R. MY LORD: In conformity with your lordship's instructions of the 12th June, I have the honor to inclose herewith translation of a note addressed by Baron Freydorf to Mr. Baillie, containing information with respect to the position of aliens in the Grand Duchy of Baden, from which it will be perceived that aliens are practically subject there to no disabilities whatever, except exclusion from political and municipal rights. I have, &c.,
G. J. R. GORDON. Lord STANLEY, M. P.,
Sc., f'c. fc.
Within the whole compass of private rights, especially in respect to the right of acquiring and possessing property of every kind, landed property included, aliens stand according to Baden law upon a footing of complete equality with native subjects.
As regards the right of settlement and of engaging in trade or industry, the Baden government are entitled, if they please, to demand reciprocity as the condition of admission to such rights. They have, however, never as yet taken any advantage of their authority in this respect, so that in point of fact aliens residing in Baden are sul ject to no disabilities in regard to the right of settlement, or of engaging in trade or industry.
On the other hand, aliens are of course excluded from political rights, from offices in church and state, and from such rights as appertain to persons as members of a corporate community. I avail, &c.
FREYDORF. E. M. BAILLIE, Esq.,
ft., fc. Sc., d'c., 8c.
MUNICH, July 10, 1868 MY LORD: Mr. Fenton having, on the receipt of your lordship's circular dispatch, of the 16th ultimo, applied to the Bavarian government for the information desired by your lordship, for the use of the Naturalization Commission, on the disabilities to which aliens residing in Bavaria might be subjected, I yesterday evening received in reply from Prince Hohenlohe the note of the 5th instant and the memorandum of which I have the honor to inclose herewith copies and translations.
This memorandum contains such full particulars on the legal position of foreigners in Bavaria that I have no occasion to add any further explanations on the subject.
Your lordship will perceive that Prince Hohenlohe remarks in his note that as the principles of the Bavarian poor-law and communal legislation are at present undergoing a legislative revision, it had been necessary to omit treating, in the memorandum, of the position of foreigners with respect to these two institutions. I have, &c.,
HENRY F. HOWARD. The Lord STANLEY, M. P.,
fc., &*c., fc.
MUNICH, July 5, 1868. The undersigned has had the honor to receive the note of the 22d ultimo, by which the royal British chargé d'affaires ad interim, Mr. H. P. Fenton, requested communication of the regulations in force in the kingdom relative to the disabilities to which foreigners are liable in this kingdom. The inclosure contains a review of the legal provisions which are in force in this respect, and the only remark to be made is, that the principles of the poor-law and of the communal legislation are at present undergoing a legislative transformation, on which account a discussion of the position of foreigners with regard to these two institutions has had to be omitted. I have, &c.,
PRINCE HOHENLOHE. Sir HENRY F. HOWARD, K. C. B.,
8c., fc., fc.
THE LEGAL POSITION OF FOREIGNERS IN BAVARIA.
The general principle rules that a foreigner enjoys equal rights with a native of the country, to which the only exception made is where such exception is legally enacted, or when a royal ordinance applies the principle of retaliation on account of disadvantages to which Bavarian subjects are liable abroad, as compared to persons belonging to the country which imposes the disadvantages.
The legal disabilities relate to:
1.-The domain of civil law and ciril proceedings.
While a preference to,native creditors or debtors is excluded by $ 34 of the code of priority of the 1st of June, 1822, in cases of bankruptcy, paragraph 81 of the code of procedure of the 22d of July, 1819, leaves it optional to the defendant, being a native of the country, to require of the foreign plaintiff, when he does not possess any estate situated in Bavaria, the deposit of a security for the future payment of the costs of the lawsuit. With regard to foreigners, and as is the case generally when there is the danger of loss, the judicial code affords the security of arrest, which likewise then determines the forum arresti. In this respect, likewise, international treaties, as, for example, with Würtemberg, have introduced milder enactments in favor of the subjects of the respective states. Moreover, article 76 of the introductory law to the German commercial code places the citizens of the states of the former German Confederation on an equality with natives of the country. Foreigners are likewise capable of acquiring real property on the condition of reciprocity.
II.-Penal law and penal procedure. Foreigners are subject to the Bavarian penal jurisdiction when they have either committed a penal act in the country or when they shall have been guilty beyond the Bavarian frontiers of such an act against the king, the Bavarian state, or a person belonging to it.--A, 12, penal code.
If a foreigner has been condemned in Bavaria on account of a crime, he will be expelled from the conntry after having undergone his punishment; the same takes place with regard to convictions on account of offenses or contraventions in the cases letermined by law.–Art. 43, loc. cit.
In actions for libel the demand of a security for the costs from a foreign pl..intiff is optional, according to article 61, section 3, of the introductory law to the penal code.
In respect to foreigners, concerning whom well-founded doubts may be entertained of their appearing before the court if summoned to do so, preliminary arrest is morever admissible, according to article 41, section 3, loc cit., on account of any penal act.
III.—In the domain of the constitutional and administratire law the foreigner is excluded.
1. As not being in possession of the Bararian naturalization, (indigenat,) from all ciril rights.- 9 of the first edict of the constitution.
If he acqnires the naturalization, it is only after the expiration of six years that he enters into the enjoyment of the above-mentioned rights. The foreigner, as such, is therefore excluded from the active and passive electoral franchise for communal, district, provincial, and parliamentary elections, from admission into state offices and the possession of benefices; he cannot be elected as a juryman, nor as a member of a committee of taxation. Crown and superior court offices, superior military posts, are closed to the foreigner, although it is not the possession of the fullest rights of citizenship, but merely that of naturalization, which gives a claim to many of the abovenamed rights.
2. The trade law of the 18th of January, 1868, only reserves in article 2 the sanction of the state for foreign joint-stock companies, branch establishinents, and other companies established for trading purposes, inasmuch as the provisions of state treaties do not determine otherwise. Even 0 21 of the ordinance relative to the hawking trade, of the 28th of April of last year, places foreigners on a complete equality with the natives of the country, excepting in cases of retaliation. Foreign medical men receive froin the provincial governments or from the ministry of state for the interior the permission temporarily to practice in the country. Medical men who only sojourn tempo rarily in Bavaria, and who are entitled to practice in their own conntry only, have the right of giving consultations, not however that of ordinary practice.- 15, ordinance of the 29th of January, 1865, concerning the medical art.
3. Article 10, section 2, of the military law of the 30th of January of this year, prohibits the permanent residence in the kingdom, as foreigners, of those emigrants who have not yet attained their 32d year.
4. Foreigners are permitted to reside in any commune of the kingdom when they can bring sufficient proof of their nationality and place of legal settlement, and when there is no legal impediment to their residence. The expulsion of a foreigner from a commune is only admissible on the same legal grounds (article 45 of the law of settlement of the 16th of April of this year) in virtue of which the expulsion of a Bavarian subject not having a right of settlement in the locality could likewise take place. It is only the ministry of the interior which, except in the aforesaid cases, is entitled to expel a foreigner from the country on grounds connected with the internal or external security of the state.
5. Only the person who possesses the Bavarian naturalization can acquire a right of settlement in a commune of the kingdom ; foreigners are consequently excluded from it.-Article 1-10, loc. cit.
A foreign woman, however, who marries a Bavarian acquires thereby the naturalization (indigenat) and the settlement of the husband.-93 of annex 1 to the constitution and article 3 of the law of settlement.
6. Foreigners can likewise marry in Bavaria when they can prove to the respective district police authorities that, according to the laws in force in the country of the husband, the contracting of this marriage is admissible, and has the same effects as if it had taken place in that country.
If the future wife is a foreigner she has to produce a permission of emigration, if such a permission is necessary according to the laws of her own country for emigration. -Article 34, &c., and article 39 of the law of settlement.
7. Foreigners, independently of cases of retaliation, and with the sole exception of those who carry on a wandering trade, or who belong to the class of journeymen, ser. vants, and trade assistants, require no permit for trareling.- 2 of the royal ordinance of the 9th of December, 1865, respecting passports.
BRUSSELS, July 4, 1868. MY LORD: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your lordship's dispatch circular of the 16th instant, instructing me to furnish you with a report on the disabilities, if any, to which aliens residing in Belgium are subjected by Belgian law.
The disabilities under which aliens labor in this country are so various that I found it necessary to apply to the government for more details than I felt myself competent to afford, but as your lordship desires that information on the subject should be supplied with as little delay as possible I herewith transmit copies of two laws which bear directly upon the residence of foreigners in Belgium, and which may be considered as embodying the material features of Belgian practice toward aliens.
The first is a law which is renewed from time to time, the last renewal being on the 7th of July, 1865, for a period of three years, investing the government with the control over the residence of foreigners. The government exercises the power of sending aliens ont of the country in cases, Ist, of vagrancy, or when the resources for subsistence are not proved when required to be declared.
2d. Of scandalous, immoral, or turbulent conduct offensive to the public.
3d. Of political proceedings by agitation, writing, or conspiracy against the tranquility of a friendly state in abuse of the hospitality here afforded them.
The second law in question passed this year extends the power hitherto in force for the extradition of foreigners accused or guilty of crimes committed in their own countries, and constitutes the basis of the extradition treaties of which copies were forwarded in my dispatch of January 20.
Until April, 1865, British subjects were not entitled to hold or inherit freehold property situate in Belgium. At present all foreigners in that respect are placed upon the same footing as Belgians. Further, distinctions between foreigners and natives are made in regard to judicial processes; for instance, in civil actions, a foreigner cannot obtain an order of provisional arrest either against a Belgian or another foreigner; in commercial actions he is under the same disability. But the Belgian can obtain an order of provisional artest against a foreigner upon a simple petition through his - avoué" to the President of the Tribunal of Première Instance. In all tribunals except the Tribunal of Commerce he can be called upon at a stage of proceedings to give security for costs, unless he has letters of domicile from the King. For a foreigner to acquire the same civil position as a Belgian he requires a letter of domicile from the King. To acquire a position political as well as civil he requires an act of legislature. The letter of domicile confers on the foreigner the right of provisional arrest in all cases where a Belgian would have such rights. He cannot be called upon as plaintiff in any action to give security for costs; he is also exempt from provisional arrest except in such cases where a Belgian would not be exempt, for instance, in criminal or correctional proceedings.
The foreigner is not liable to the conscription for the army, nor is active service required of him in the Civic Guard, though, for the latter, he is called upon to contribute a pecuniary amount. I have, &c.,
HOWARD DE WALDEN. The Lord STANLEY, M. P., 8c., fc., f'c.
MINISTÈRE DE LA JUSTICE.
Loi relative aux étrangers.?
LÉOPOLD, roi des Belges, à tous présents et à venir, salut :
Les chambres ont adopté et nous sanctionnons ce qui suit: ART. I. L'étranger résidant en Belgique, qui, par sa conduite, compromet la tranquillité publique, ou qui a été poursuivi ou condamné à l'étranger pour les crimes ou délits qui donnent lieu à l'extradition, conformément à la loi du 1 octobre 1833, peut être contraint par le gouvernement de s'éloigner d'un certain lieu, d'habiter dans un lieu déterminé, ou même de sortir du royaume.
L'arrêté royal enjoignant à un étranger de sortir du royaume par ce qu'il compromet la tranquillité publique sera délibéré en conseil des ministres.
ART. II. Les dispositions de l'article précédent ne pourront être appliquées aux étrangers qui se trouvent dans un des cas suivants, pourvu que la nation à laquelle ils appartiennent soit en paix avec la Belgique :
1o. À l'étranger autorisé à établir son domicile dans le royaume.
20. À l'étranger marié avec une femme belge, dont il a des enfants nés en Belgique pendant sa résidence dans le pays.
39. À l'étranger décoré de la croix de fer.
ART. III. L'arrêté royal porté en vertu de l'art. 1er sera signifié par huissier à l'étranger qu'il concerne.
Il sera accordé à l'étranger un délai qui devra être d'un jour franct au moins.
"Not printed for the Commission.
2 Chamber des representants, session de 1864-1865: Documents parlementaires. Expose des motifs et texte du projet de loi. Séance du 17 novembre 1864, pp. 108. Rapport. Séance du 7 juin 1865, pp. 833-836. Annales parlementaires. Discussion générale. Séances des 22 juin 1865, pp. 1235-1246 ; 23 juin, pp. 1247–1957; 24 juin, pp. 1259–1270 : 27 juin. pp. 1271-1283 ; et 28 juin, pp. 1285–1296. Discussion des articles et adoption. Séance du 29 juin, pp. 1297-1311. Senat: -Documents parlementaires. Rapport. Séance du 30 juin 1865, p. lxxii. Annales parlemen
et 1865, pp, 526-527. Discussion des articles et adoption, Séance dn 5 juillet pp. 529-530.
signer la frontière par laquelle il sortira ; il recevra une feuille de route réglant l'itnéraire de son voyage et la durée de son séjour dans chaque lieu où il doit passer. En cas de contravention à l'une ou l'autre de ces dispositions, il sera conduit hors du royaume par la force publique
ART. V. Le gouvernement pourra enjoindre de sortir du royaume à l'étranger qui quittera la résidence qui lui aura été désigné.
ART. VI. Si l'étranger auquel il aura été enjoint de sortir du royaume rentre sur le territoire, il pourra être poursuivi et il sera condamné, pour ce fait, à un emprisonnement de quinze jours à six mois ; et à l'expiration de sa peine, il sera conduit à la frontière.
Art. VII. La présente loi ne sera obligatoire que pendant trois ans, à moins qu'elle ne soit renouvelée.
Promulguons la présente loi, ordonnons qu'elle soit revêtue du sceau de l'état, et publiée par la voie du Moniteur. Donné à Laeken, le 7 juillet 1865.
Scellé du sceau de l'état:
BRUSSELS, July 16, 1868. MY LORD : With reference to my dispatch of the 4th instant, I have the honor herewith to inclose a copy of a note which I have received from the minister of foreign affairs, affording the information regarding the disabilities which affect aliens in this country, which was desired for the use of the naturalization commission in your lordship’s dispatch of the 16th ultimo. I have, &c.,
HOWARD DE WALDEN AND SEAFORD. The Lord STANLEY, M. P., 8-c., 8-c., fc.
BRUXELLES, 13 juillet 1868. MY LORD : Sous la date du 20 juin dernier votre excellence m'a exprimé le désir de recevoir des rensignements sur les incapacités légales auxquelles sont soumis, en Bel gique les étrangers qui y résident.
En ce qui concerne les droits politique, my lord, les étrangers en sont exclus. Ils ne sont ni électeurs ni éligibles pour la formation des corps politiques. Ils ne peuvent être nommés à des fonctions publiques ni être temoin dans un acte notarié. (Art. 9, loi 25 ventose an XI.)
L'étranger naturalisé est assimilé au Belge. Toutefois la loi exige la grande naturalisation pour être électeur ou éligible pour la formation des chambres legislatives. (Art. 1 et 41 de la loi du 3 mars 1831.)
Quant aux droits civils, l'étranger jouit en Belgique des mêmes droits que ceux qui sont accordes aux Belges par les traités de la nation à laquelle l'étranger appartient. (Article 11 du code civil.)
L'étranger qui a été admis par autorisation royale à établir son domicile en Belgique y jouit de tous les droits civils tant qu'il continue d'y résider. (Article 10 du même code.)
En dehors et abstraction faite des cas prévus par ces deux dispositions la condition des étrangers n'est déterminée par aucune règle bien certaine, et est diversement appréciée dans la doctrine et la jurisprudence.
Pour ce qui est des incapacités auxquelles ils peuvent être soumis la loi n'a expressement determinée que la suivante :
L'étranger demandeur dans un procès en matière civile est tenu de donner cantion pour le paiement des frais et dommages-intérêts résultant du procès, à moins qu'il ne possède en Belgique des immeubles d'une valeur suffisante pour assurer ce paiement. (Article 16 du code civil.) L'étranger est passible de la contrainte par corps pour l'exécution de tout jugement de condamnation, conformément à l'article 10 du 21 mars 1859.
Aux termes de l'article 11 de cette loi, il peut même être arrêté provisoirement avant le jugement de condamnation, en vertu d'une ordonnance du président du tribunal de 1re instance ; mais la legislature se trouve actuellement saisie d'un projet de loi portant l'abolition de la contrainte par corps même à l'égard des étrangers.
L'étranger débiteur n'est pas admis au bénéfice de la cession de biens, (article 905, e. proc. civile.)
Les étrangers ont le droit de succéder, de disposer, et de recevoir de la même manière