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undergoing a peculiar metamorphosis, in which the young animal is generally aquatic and breathes by gills. (Examples,

Frogs, Toads, and Newts.) BOULDERS.—Large transported blocks of stone generally imbedded

in clays or gravels. BRACHIOPODA.-A class of marine Mollusca, or soft-bodied animals,

furnished with a bivalve shell, attached to submarine objects by a stalk which passes through an aperture in one of the valves, and furnished with fringed arms, by the action of

which food is carried to the mouth. BRANCHIÆ.—Gills or organs for respiration in water. BRANCHIAL.—Pertaining to gills or branchiæ.

CAMBRIAN SYSTEM.-A Series of very ancient Palæozoic rocks,

between the Laurentian and the Silurian. Until recently

these were regarded as the oldest fossiliferous rocks. CANIDÆ.— The Dog-family, including the Dog, Wolf, Fox, Jackal,&c. CARAPACE.— The shell enveloping the anterior part of the body in

Crustaceans generally; applied also to the hard shelly pieces

of the Cirripedes. CARBONIFEROUS.—This term is applied to the great formation

which includes, among other rocks, the coal-measures. It be

longs to the oldest, or Palæozoic, system of formations. CAUDAL.—Of or belonging to the tail. CEPHALOPODS.—The highest class of the Mollusca, or soft-bodied

animals, characterised by having the mouth surrounded by a greater or less number of fleshy arms or tentacles, which, in most living species, are furnished with sucking-cups. (Ex

amples, Cuttle-fish, Nautilus.) CETACEA.-An order of Mammalia, including the Whales, Dolphins,

&c., having the form of the body fish-like, the skin naked, and

only the fore-limbs developed. CHELONIA.—An order of Reptiles including the Turtles, Tortoises,

&c. CIRRIPEDES.- An order of Crustaceans including the Barnacles and

Acorn-shells. Their young resemble those of many other Crustaceans in form ; but when mature they are always attached to other objects, either directly or by means of a stalk, and their bodies are enclosed by a calcareous shell composed of several pieces, two of which can open to give issue to a bunch of curled, jointed tentacles, which represent the limbs.

Coccus.—The genus of Insects including the Cochineal. In these

the male is a minute, winged fly, and the female generally a

motionless, berry-like mass. Cocoon.- A case usually of silky material, in which insects are

frequently enveloped during the second or resting-stage (pupa) of their existence. The term “ cocoon-stage” is here used as

equivalent to “pupa-stage." CELOSPERMOUS.-A term applied to those fruits of the Umbellif

eræ which have the seed hollowed on the inner face. COLEOPTERA.—Beetles, an order of Insects, having a biting mouth

and the first pair of wings more or less horny, forming sheaths for the second pair, and usually meeting in a straight line

down the middle of the back. Column.—A peculiar organ in the flowers of Orchids, in which

the stamens, style and stigma (or the reproductive parts) are

united. COMPOSITÆ or COMPOSITOUS PLANTS.–Piants in which the inflores

cence consists of numerous small flowers (florets) brought together into a dense head, the base of which is enclosed by a

common envelope. (Examples, the Daisy, Dandelion, &c.) CONFERVÆ.—The filamentous weeds of fresh water. CONGLOMERATE.-A rock made up of fragments of rock or pebbles,

cemented together by some other material. COROLLA.—The second envelope of a flower usually composed of

coloured, leaf-like organs (petals), which may be united by

their edges either in the basal part or throughout. CORRELATION.—The normal coincidence of one phenomenon, char

acter, &c., with another. CORYMB.—A bunch of flowers in which those springing from the

lower part of the flower stalk are supported on long stalks so

as to be nearly on a level with the upper ones. COTYLEDONS.—The first or seed-leaves of plants. CRUSTACEANS.-A class of articulated animals, having the skin of

the body generally more or less hardened by the deposition of calcareous matter, breathing by means of gills. (Examples,

Crab, Lobster, Shrimp, &c.) Curculio.—The old generic term for the Beetles known as Wee

vils, characterised by their four-jointed feet, and by the head being produced into a sort of beak, upon the sides of which

the antennæ are inserted. CUTANEOUS.–Of or belonging to the skin.

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DEGRADATION.—The wearing down of land by the action of the sea

or of meteoric agencies. DENUDATION.—The wearing away of the surface of the land by

water, DEVONIAN SYSTEM or formation.— A series of Palæozoic rocks, in

cluding the Old Red Sandstone. DICOTYLEDONS or DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS.-A class of plants

characterised by having two seed-leaves, by the formation of new wood between the bark and the old wood (exogenous growth) and by the reticulation of the veins of the leaves.

The parts of the flowers are generally in multiples of five. DIFFERENTIATION.—The separation or discrimination of parts or

organs which in simpler forms of life are more or less

united. DIMORPHIC.—Having two distinct forms.—Dimorphism is the con

dition of the appearance of the same species under two dis

similar forms. Diecious. Having the orga:is of the sexes upon distinct indi

viduals. DIORITE.—A peculiar form of Greenstone. DORSAL.-Of or belonging to the back.

EDENTATA.—A peculiar order of Quadrupeds, characterised by the

absence of at least the middle incisor (front) teeth in both

jaws. (Examples, the Sloths and Armadillos.) ELYTRA.—The hardened fore-wings of Beetles, serving as sheaths

for the membranous hind-wings, which constitute the true

organs of flight. EMBRYO.—The young animal undergoing development within the

egg or womb. EMBRYOLOGY.— The study of the development of the embryo. ENDEMIC.—Peculiar to a given locality. ENTOMOSTRACA.-A division of the class Crustacea, having all the

segments of the body usually distinct, gills attached to the feet or organs of the mouth, and the feet fringed with fine

hairs. They are generally of small size. EOCENE.—The earliest of the three divisions of the Tertiary epoch

of geologists. Rocks of this age contain a small proportion of

shells identical with species now living. EPHEMEROUS INSECTS.— Insects allied to the May-fly.

Fauna.—The totality of the animals naturally inhabiting a cer

tain country or region, or which have lived during a given

geological period. FELIDÆ.—The Cat-family. FERAL.-Having become wild from a state of cultivation or domes

tication. FLORA.—The totality of the plants growing naturally in a country,

or during a given geological period. FLORETS.–Flowers imperfectly developed in some respects, and

collected into a dense spike or head, as in the Grasses, the

Dandelion, &c. FETAL.-Of or belonging to the fætus, or embryo in course of de

velopment. FORAMINIFERA.-A class of animals of very low organisation, and

generally of small size, having a jelly-like body, from the surface of which delicate filaments can be given off and retracted for the prehension of external objects, and having a calcareous or sandy shell, usually divided into chambers, and perforated

with small apertures. FossiLIFEROUS.—Containing fossils. FosSORIAL.-Having a faculty of digging. The Fossorial Hymen

optera are a group of Wasp-like Insects, which burrow in

sandy soil to make nests for their young. FRENUM (pl. Frena).- A small band or fold of skin. FUNGI (sing. FuxGUS).—A class of cellular plants, of which Mush

rooms, Toadstools, and Moulds, are familiar examples. FURCULA.—The forked bone formed by the union of the collar

bones in many birds, such as the common Fowl.

GALLINACEOUS BIRDS.- An order of Birds of which the common

Fowl, Turkey, and Pheasant, are well-known examples. GALLUS.—The genus of birds which includes the common Fowl. GANGLION.—A swelling or knot from which nerves are given off as

froin a centre. GANOID Fishes.-Fishes covered with peculiar enamelled bony

scales. Most of them are extinct. GERMINAL VESICLE.—A minute vesicle in the eggs of animals, from

which development of the embryo proceeds. GLACIAL PERIOD.-A period of great cold and of enormous exten

sion of ice upon the surface of the earth. It is believed that glacial periods have occurred repeatedly during the geological

history of the earth, but the term is generally applied to the close of the Tertiary epoch, when nearly the whole of Europe

was subjected to an arctic climate. GLAND.—An organ which secretes or separates some peculiar prod

uct from the blood or sap of animals or plants. GLOTTIS.—The opening of the windpipe into the æsophagus or

gullet. GNEISS.-A rock approaching granite in composition, but more or

less laminated, and really produced by the alteration of a sedi

mentary deposit after its consolidation. GRALLATORES.—The so-called Wading-birds (Storks, Cranes, Snipes,

&c.), which are generally furnished with long legs, bare of feathers above the heel, and have no membranes between the

toes. GRANITE.—A rock consisting essentially of crystals of felspar and

mica in a mass of quartz.

HABITAT.—The locality in which a plant or animal naturally lives. HEMIPTERA.—An order or sub-order of Insects, characterised by

the possessiou of a jointed beak or rostrum, and by having the fore-wings horny in the basal portion and membranous at the extremity, where they cross each other. This group includes

the various species of Bugs. HERMAPHRODITE.—Possessing the organs of both sexes. HOMOLOGY.—That relation between parts which results from their

development from corresponding embryonic parts, either in different animals, as in the case of the arm of man, the foreleg of a quadruped, and the wing of a bird; or in the same individual, as in the case of the fore and hind legs in quadrupeds, and the segments or rings and their appendages of which the body of a worm, a centipede, &c., is composed. The latter is called serial homology. The parts which stand in such a relation to each other are said to be homologous, and one such part or organ is called the homologue of the other. In different plants the parts of the flower are homologous, and in general

these parts are regarded as homologous with leaves. HOMOPTERA.-An order or sub-order of Insects having (like the

Hemiptera) a jointed beak, but in which the fore-wings are either wholly membranous or wholly leathery. The Cicada,

Frog-hoppers, and Aphides, are well-known examples. Hybrid.—The offspring of the union of two distinct species.

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