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29. A. B. and C. D. are each of them equal to E. F.: therefore they are equal to each other.

30. Protection from punishment is plainly due to the innocent: therefore, as you maintain that this person ought not to be punished, it appears that you are convinced of his innocence.

31. All the most bitter persecutions have been religious persecutions: among the most bitter persecutions were those which occurred in France during the revolution: therefore they must have been religious persecutions.

32. He who cannot possibly act otherwise than he does, has neither merit nor demerit in his action: a liberal and benevolent man cannot possibly act otherwise than he does in relieving the poor : therefore such a man has neither merit nor demerit in his action. (See Appendix, pp. 314, 315.]

33. What happens every day is not improbable : some things against which the chances are many thousands to one, happen every day: therefore some things against which the chances are many thousands to one, are not improbable.

34. The early and general assignment of the Epistle to the Hebrews to Paul as its author, must have been either from its professing to be his, and containing his name, or from its really being his; since, therefore, the former of these is not the fact, the Epistle must be Paul's.

35. “ With some of them God was not well pleased : for they were overthrown in the wilderness.”

36. A sensualist wishes to enjoy perpetual gratifications without satiety: it is impossible to enjoy perpetual gratifications without satiety: therefore it is impossible for a sensualist to obtain his wish.

37. If Paley's system is to be received, one who has no knowledge of a future state has no means of distinguishing

virtue and vice: now one who has no means of distinguishing virtue and vice can commit no sin: therefore, if Paley's system is to be received, one who has no knowledge of a future state can commit no sin.

38. The principles of justice are variable: the appointments of nature are invariable: therefore the principles of justice are no appointment of nature. [Arist. Eth. B. v.]

39. Every one desires happiness: virtue is happiness : therefore every one desires virtue. (Arist. Eth. B. iii.]

40. A story is not to be believed, the reporters of which give contradictory accounts of it; the story of the life and exploits of Buonaparte is of this description: therefore it is not to be believed. [Vide Elements, p. 28.]

41. When the observance of the first day of the week as a religious festival in commemoration of Christ's resurrection, was first introduced, it must have been a novelty: when it was a novelty, it must have attracted notice: when it attracted notice, it would lead to inquiry respecting the truth of the resurrection : when it led to this inquiry, it must have exposed the story as an imposture, supposing it not attested by living witnesses: therefore, when the observance of the first day of the week, fc. was first introduced, it must have exposed as an imposture the story of the resurrection, supposing it not attested by living witnesses.

42. All the miracles of Jesus would fill more books than the world could contain: the things related by the Evangelists are the miracles of Jesus: therefore the things related by the Evangelists would fill more books than the world could contain.

43. If the prophecies of the Old Testament had been written without knowledge of the events of the time of Christ, they could not correspond with them exactly; and if they had been forged by Christians, they would not be preserved and acknowledged by the Jews : they are

preserved and acknowledged by the Jews, and they correspond exactly with the events of the time of Christ: therefore they were neither written without knowledge of those events, nor were forged by Christians.

44. Of two evils the less is to be preferred: occasional turbulence, therefore, being a less evil than rigid despotism, is to be preferred to it.

45. According to theologians, a man must possess faith in order to be acceptable to the Deity: now he who believes all the fables of the Hindoo mythology must possess faith: therefore such an one must, according to theologians, be acceptable to the Deity.

46. If Abraham were justified, it must have been either by faith or by works: now he was not justified by faith, (according to St. James,) nor by works (according to St. Paul): therefore Abraham was not justified.

47. No evil should be allowed that good may come of it; all punishment is an evil: therefore no punishment should be allowed that good may come of it.

48. Repentance is a good thing : wicked men abound in repentance (Arist. Eth. B. ix.]: therefore wicked men abound in what is good.

49. A person infected with the plague will (probably) die (suppose three in five of the infected die]: this man is (probably) infected with the plague (suppose it an even chance]: therefore he will (probably) die. [Query. What is the amount of this probability ? Again, suppose the probability of the major to be (instead of }) 7, and of the minor, (instead of 5) to be ş, Query. What will be the probability of the conclusion ?]

50. It must be admitted, indeed, that a man who has been accustomed to enjoy liberty cannot be happy in the condition of a slave : many of the negroes, however, may be happy in the condition of slaves, because they have never been accustomed to enjoy liberty.

51. Whatever is dictated by Nature is allowable: devotedness to the pursuit of pleasure in youth, and to that of gain in old age, are dictated by Nature [Arist. Rhet. B. ii.]: therefore they are allowable.

52. He is the greatest lover of any one who seeks that person's greatest good: a virtuous man seeks the greatest good for himself: therefore a virtuous man is the greatest lover of himself. [Arist. Eth. B. ix.]

53. He who has a confirmed habit of any kind of action, , exercises no self-denial in the practice of that action: a good man has a confirmed habit of Virtue: therefore he who exercises self-denial in the practice of Virtue is not a good man. [Arist. Eth. B. ij.]

54. That man is independent of the caprices of Fortune who places his chief happiness in moral and intellectual excellence: a true philosopher is independent of the caprices of Fortune : therefore a true philosopher is one who places his chief happiness in moral and intellectual excellence.

55. A system of government which extends to those actions that are performed secretly, must be one which refers either to a regular divine providence in this life, or to the rewards and punishments of another world: every perfect system of government must extend to those actions which are performed secretly: no system of government therefore can be perfect, which does not refer either to a regular divine providence in this life, or to the rewards and punishments of another world. [Warburton's Divine Legation.]

56. For those who are bent on cultivating their minds by diligent study, the incitement of academical honours is unnecessary; and it is ineffectual, for the idle, and such as are indifferent to mental improvement: therefore the incitement of academical honours is either unnecessary or ineffectual.

57. He who is properly called an actor, does not endeavour to make his hearers believe that the sentiments he expresses and the feelings he exhibits, are really his own: a barrister does this: therefore he is not properly to be called an actor.

58. He who bears arms at the command of the magistrate does what is lawful for a Christian : the Swiss in the French service, and the British in the American service, bore arms at the command of the magistrate : therefore they did what was lawful for a Christian.

59. If Lord Bacon is right, it is improper to stock a new colony with the refuse of Jails: but this we must allow not to be improper, if our method of colonizing New South Wales be a wise one: if this be wise, therefore, Lord Bacon is not right.

60. Logic is indeed worthy of being cultivated, if Aristotle is to be regarded as infallible : but he is not: Logic therefore is not worthy of being cultivated.

61. All studies are useful which tend to advance a man in life, or to increase national and private wealth: but the course of studies pursued at Oxford has no such tendency: therefore it is not useful.

62. If the exhibition of criminals, publicly executed, tends to heighten in others the dread of undergoing the same fate, it may be expected that those soldiers who have seen the most service, should have the most dread of death in battle: but the reverse of this is the case: therefore the former is not to be believed.

63. If the everlasting favour of God is not bestowed at random, and on no principle at all, it must be bestowed either with respect to men's persons, or with respect to their conduct: but “ God is no respecter of persons:" therefore his favour must be bestowed with respect to men's conduct. [Sumner's Apostolical Preaching. ]

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