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64. If transportation is not felt as a severe punishment, it is in itself ill-suited to the prevention of crime: if it is so felt, much of its severity is wasted, from its taking place at too great a distance to affect the feelings, or even come to the knowledge, of most of those whom it is designed to deter; but one or other of these must be the case: therefore transportation is not calculated to answer the purpose of preventing crime.

65. War is productive of evil: therefore peace is likely to be productive of good.

66. Some objects of great beauty answer no other perceptible purpose but to gratify the sight: many flowers have great beauty; and many of them accordingly answer no other purpose but to gratify the sight.

67. A man who deliberately devotes himself to a life of sensuality is deserving of strong reprobation: but those do not deliberately devote themselves to a life of sensuality who are hurried into excess by the impulse of the passions: such therefore as are hurried into excess by the impulse of the passions are not deserving of strong reprobation. [Arist. Eth. B. vii.]

68. It is a difficult task to restrain all inordinate desires : to conform to the precepts of Scripture implies a restraint of all inordinate desires : therefore it is a difficult task to conform to the precepts of Scripture.

69. Any one who is candid will refrain from condemning a book without reading it: some Reviewers do not refrain from this : therefore some Reviewers are not candid.

70. If any objection that can be urged would justify a change of established laws, no laws could reasonably be maintained : but some laws can reasonably be maintained: therefore no objection that can be urged will justify a change of established laws,

71. If any complete theory could be framed, to explain the establishment of Christianity by human causes, such a theory would have been proposed before now; but none such ever has been proposed : therefore no such theory can be framed.

72. He who is content with what he has, is truly rich : a covetous man is not content with what he has: nó covetous man therefore is truly rich.

73. A true prophecy coincides precisely with all the circumstances of such an event as could not be conjectured by natural reason: this is the case with the prophecies of the Messiah contained in the Old Testament: therefore these are true prophecies.

74. The connection of soul and body cannot be comprehended or explained; but it must be believed: therefore something must be believed which cannot be comprehended or explained.

75. Lias lies above Red Sandstone; Red Sandstone lies above Coal: therefore Lias lies above Coal.

76. Cloven feet belonging universally to horned animals, we may conclude that this fossil animal, since it appears to have had cloven feet, was horned,

77. All that glitters is not gold: tinsel glitters: therefore it is not gold.

78. A negro is a man: therefore he who murders a negro murders a man.

79. Meat and Drink are necessaries of life : the revenues of Vitellius were spent on Meat and Drink: therefore the revenues of Vitellius were spent on the necessaries of life.

80. Nothing is heavier than Platina : feathers are heavier than Nothing: therefore feathers are heavier than Platina.

81. The child of Themistocles governed his mother; she governed her husband; he governed Athens ; Athens,

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Greece; and Greece, the world : therefore the child of Themistocles governed the world.

82. He who calls you a man speaks truly: he who calls you a fool, calls you a man: therefore he who calls you a fool speaks truly.

83. Warm countries alone produce wines: Spain is a warm country: therefore Spain produces wines.

84. It is an intensely cold climate that is sufficient to freeze Quicksilver: the climate of Siberia is sufficient to freeze Quicksilver : therefore the climate of Siberia is intensely cold.

85. Mistleto of the oak is a vegetable excrescence which is not a plant; and every vegetable excrescence which is not a plant, is possessed of magical virtues: therefore Mistleto of the oak is possessed of magical virtues.

86. If the hour-hand of a clock be any distance (suppose a foot) before the minute-hand, this last, though moving twelve times faster, can never overtake the other; for while the minute-hand is moving over those twelve inches, the hour-hand will have moved over one inch; so that they will then be an inch apart; and while the minute-hand is moving over that one inch, the hour-hand will have moved over i' inch, so that it will still be a-head; and again, while the minute-hand is passing over that space of ta inch, which now divides them, the hour-hand will pass over 18+ inch; so that it will still be a-head, though the distance between the two is diminished; &c. &c. &c., and thus it is plain we may go on for ever: therefore the minute-hand can never overtake the hour-hand.

[This is one of the sophistical puzzles noticed by Aldrich (the moving bodies being Achilles and a Tortoise;) but he is not happy in his attempt at a solution. He proposes to remove the difficulty by demonstrating that, in a certain given time, Achilles would overtake the Tortoise: as if any one had ever doubted that. The very problem proposed is to surmount the difficulty of a seeming demonstration of a thing palpably impossible; to show that it is palpably impossible, is no solution of the problem.

I have heard the present example adduced as a proof that the pretensions of Logic are futile, since (it was said) the most perfect logical demonstration may lead from true premises to an absurd conclusion. The reverse is the truth: the example before us furnishes a confirmation of the utility of an acquaintance with the syllogistic form; in which form the pretended demonstration in question cannot possibly be exhibited. An attempt to do so will evince the utter want of connection between the premises and the conclusion.)

87. Theft is a crime: theft was encouraged by the laws of Sparta : therefore the laws of Sparta encouraged crime.

88. Every hen comes from an egg: every egg comes from a hen: therefore every egg comes from an egg.

89. Jupiter was the son of Saturn: therefore the son of Jupiter was the grandson of Saturn.

90. All cold is to be expelled by heat: this person's disorder is a cold: therefore it is to be expelled by heat.

91. Wine is a stimulant: therefore in a case where stimulants are hurtful, wine is hurtful.

92. Opium is a poison ; but physicians advise some of their patients to take Opium : therefore physicians advise some of their patients to take poison.

93. What we eat grew in the fields; loaves of bread are what we eat: therefore loaves of bread grew in the fields.

94. Animal-food may be entirely dispensed with : (as is shown by the practice of the Brahmins and of some monks ;) and vegetable-food may be entirely dispensed with (as is plain from the example of the Esquimaux and others;) but all food consists of animal-food and vegetable-food: therefore all food may be dispensed with.

95. No trifling business will enrich those engaged in it: a mining speculation is no trifling business: therefore a mining speculation will enrich those engaged in it.

96. He who is most hungry eats most: he who eats least is most hungry: therefore he who eats least eats most. [See Aldrich's Compendium: Fallaciæ : where this is rightly solved.]

97. Whatever body is in motion must move either in

the place where it is, or in a place where it is not: neither of these is possible: therefore there is no such thing as motion. [In this instance, as well as in the one lately noticed, Aldrich mistakes the character of the difficulty: which is, not to prove the truth of that which is self-evident, but to explain an apparent demonstration militating against that which nevertheless no one ever doubted. He says in this case, “solvitur ambulando;” but (pace tanti viri) this is no solution at all, but is the very thing which constitutes the difficulty in question ; for it is precisely because we know the possibility of motion, that a seeming proof of its impossibility produces perplexity.—See Introduction, p. 4.]

98. All vegetables grow most in the increase of the moon: hair is a vegetable : therefore hair grows most in the increase of the moon.

99. Most of the studies pursued at Oxford conduce to the improvement of the mind : all the works of the most celebrated ancients are among the studies pursued at Oxford : therefore some of the works of the most celebrated ancients conduce to the improvement of the mind.

100. Some poisons are vegetable : no poisons are useful drugs: therefore some useful drugs are not vegetable.

101. A theory will speedily be exploded, if false, which appeals to the evidence of observation and experiment: Craniology appeals to this evidence: therefore, if Craniology be a false theory, it will speedily be exploded. [Let the probability of one of these premises be to; and of the other : Query. What is the probability of the conclusion ?]

102. Wilkes was a favourite with the populace; he who is a favourite with the populace must understand how to manage them; he who understands how to manage them, must be well acquainted with their character: he who is well acquainted with their character, must hold them in contempt: therefore Wilkes must have held the populace in contempt. 103. To discover whether man has

any moral should be viewed in that state in which all his faculties

sense, he

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