« AnteriorContinuar »
daries, having the copula (in regular order) placed between
them. In speaking of a syllogism, the word is often under-
stood to imply the extremes of the Conclusion, 57.
Fallacy.-Any argument, or apparent argument, which professes
to be decisive of the matter at issue, while in reality it is
False-in its strict sense, denotes the quality of a Proposition
which states something not as it is, 63, 342.
Figure of a Syllogism—denotes a certain situation of its middle
term in reference to the Extremes of the Conclusion—The
Major and Minor terms, 83.
Generalization.—The act of comprehending under a common
name several objects agreeing in some point which we
abstract from each of them, and which that common name
serves to indicate, 128.
Genus.-A Predicable which is considered as the material part
of the Species of which it is affirmed, 129.
Hypothetical Proposition—is one which asserts not absolutely,
but under an hypothesis, indicated by a conjunction. An
hypothetical Syllogism is one of which the reasoning depends
on such a proposition, 100.
Illative Conversion—is that in which the truth of the Converse
follows from the truth of the Exposita, or Proposition
Impossible.—The Matter of a Proposition is so called when the
extremes altogether disagree, 68—Ambiguity of, 311.
Indefinite Proposition-is one which has for its Subject a Com-
mon term without any sign to indicate distribution or
Indefinite terms, 126.
Individual. An object which is, in the strict and primary sense,
one, and consequently cannot be logically divided; whence
the name, 136.
Induction.—A kind of argument which infers, respecting a whole
class, what has been ascertained respecting one or more
individuals of that class, 228.
Infer.—To draw a conclusion from granted premises, 266.-See
Infima Species-is that which is not subdivided, except into
Inseparable accident-is that which cannot be separated from
the individual it belongs to, though it may from the
Judgment.—The second operation of the mind, wherein we pro-
nounce mentally on the agreement and disagreement of two
of the notions obtained by simple Apprehension, 54.
Logical definition—is that which assigns the Genus and Diffe-
rence of the Species defined, 139.
Major term of a Syllogism—is the Predicate of the conclusion.
The Major Premiss is the one which contains the Major
term. In Hypothetical Syllogisms, the Hypothetical Pre-
miss is called the Major, 78, 101.
Middle term of a categorical Syllogism—is that with which the
two extremes of the conclusion are separately compared,
Minor term of a categorical Syllogism—is the subject of the
conclusion. The Minor Premiss is that which contains the
Minor term. In Hypothetical Syllogisms, the Categorical
Premiss is called the Minor, 78, 101.
Modal categorical proposition—is one which asserts that the
Predicate exists in the Subject in a certain mode or manner,
Mood of a categorical Syllogism—is the designation of its three
propositions, in the order in which they stand, according to
their quantity and quality, 81.
Necessary matter of a proposition—is the essential or invariable
agreement of its terms, 68.—Necessary, ambiguity of, 320.
Negation—conversion by (otherwise called conversion by contra-
Negative categorical proposition—is one which asserts the dis-
agreement of its extremes, 62.
Negative terms, 125.
Nominal Definition—is one which explains only the meaning of
the term defined, and nothing more of the nature of the
thing signified by that Term than is implied by the Term
itself to every one who understands the meaning of it,
Opposed.-Two propositions are said to be opposed to each
other, when having the same Subject and Predicate, they
differ either in quantity or quality, or both, 66.
Opposition of terms, 126.
Part-logically, Species are called Parts of the Genus they come
under, and individuals, parts of the Species; really, the
Genus is a part of the Species, and the Species, of the
Particular proposition—is one in which the Predicate is affirmed
or denied of some part only of the subject, 63.
Per Accidens.—Conversion of a proposition is so called when
the Quantity is changed, 71.
Physical definition—is that which assigns the parts into which
the thing defined can be actually divided, 140.
Positive terms, 125.
Predicate of a proposition—is that Term which is affirmed or
denied of the other, 57.
Predicable.-A Term which can be affirmatively predicated of
several others, 130.
Premiss.-A proposition employed to establish a certain conclu-
Privative terms, 125.
arguments, 96, 261.
Property.-A Predicable which denotes something essentially
conjoined to the essence of the Species, 132.
Proposition.—A sentence which asserts, i.e. affirms or denies, 61.
Prove.—To adduce Premises which establish the truth of a
certain conclusion, 266.
Proximum Genus of any Species—is the nearest or least remote
to which it can be referred, 132.
Pure categorical proposition—is one which asserts simply that the
Predicate is, or is not, contained in the Subject, 62, 95.
Real definition-is one which explains the nature of the thing
defined ; viz. either the whole nature of it (as in Mathema-
tics), or else something beyond what is necessarily under-
stood by the Term, 141, 253.
References-fallacy of, 206.
Relative terms, 123.
Quality of a Proposition—is its affirming or denying.
denying. This is
the Quality of the expression, which is, in Logic, the essen-
tial circumstance. The Quality of the matter, is, its being
true or false ; which is, in Logic, accidental, being essential
only in respect of the subject-matter treated of, 62.
Quantity of a Proposition—is the extent in which its subject is
taken; viz. to stand for the whole, or for a part only of its
Question. That which is to be established as a Conclusion stated
in an interrogative form, 73.
Second intention of a term, 185.
Separable accident—is one which may be separated from the
Significate. —The several things signified by a Common Term
are its Significates (Significata), 63.
Singular term—is one which stands for one individual. A Sin-
gular proposition is one which has for its Subject either a
Singular term, or a Common term limited to one individual
by a singular sign, e. g. “This," 60, 64, 123.
Sorites.-An abridged form of stating a series of Syllogisms, of
which the Conclusion of each is a Premiss of the succeed-
Species.-A predicate which is considered as expressing the
whole essence of the individuals of which it is affirmed, 129.
- peculiar sense of, in Natural History, 284.
Subaltern Species and Genus—is that which is both a Species of
some higher Genus, and a Genus in respect of the Species
into which it is divided. Subaltern opposition, is between
a Universal and a Particular of the same Quality. Of these,
the Universal is the Subalternant, and the Particular the
Subalternate, 68, 132.
Subcontrary opposition—is between two particulars, the affir-
mative and the negative, 68.
Subject of a proposition is that term of which the other is
affirmed or denied, 57.
Summum Genus—is that which is not considered as a Species
of any higher Genus, 132.
Syllogism.-An argument expressed in strict logical form ; viz.
so that its conclusiveness is manifest from the structure of
the expression alone, without any regard to the meaning of
the Terms, 73.
Syncategorematic words-are such as cannot singly express a
Term, but only a part of a Term, 58.
Term.—The Subject or Predicate of a Proposition, 57.
True Proposition—is one which states what really is, 63.
Universal Proposition—is one whose Predicate is affirmed or
denied of the whole of the Subject, 63.
Univocal.-A Common term is called Univocal in respect of
those things to which it is applicable in the same signifi-