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requires every part of the building to be heated to 700 Fahrenheit, at the same time in the coldest weather, and also that the whole atmosphere of the building should be exhausted in twenty minutes, aud renewed as often with the outer air, which in winter is to be warmed and thrown into the building. The following is a description of the means and appliances to secure these ends:
The entire breating apparatus (except a few direct radiators in the hals) is placed in the basement or cellar. The boilers are subdivided, and form two distinet heaters, placed front and back, incased with brickwork, forming heat chambers, and external air introduced; the heat from the boiler surface is utilized, so that in mild weather the building can be teripered withcut any perceptible pressure of steam.
The steam is conducted to groups of radiators placed in chambers under the fiues leading to the different rooms, so arranged that all rooms are warmed by distinct heat chambers, and pure fresh air from outside the building conducted through air ducts under them; creating a constant influx of pure external air heated by contact with the radiators; maintaining a temperature of sevento degrees in winter, and entering in a natural condition at other times.
The ventilation is natural, by what is known as the downward principle, produced by means of a double stack four feet in diameter, with an inner fue o cast-iron, heated by the smoke and escape heat from the boilers when in opretà tion, and hy a large cannon stove at other times; thus forming a vacuum ani strong upward column.
In the stack, at each floor, openings are left connected with air spaces between the ceilings and floors, forming a clear air space under the entire surface of the floors. Openings covered with iron gratings are placed in the floors through which the cool and impure air from the lower part of the rooms escapes to the heated stack, and induces the warm air to come down to the floor, passes under the children's feet, equalizes the temperature throug)out the entire building, and changes it every half hour. Top ventilation is also secured by the same means when necessary to waste the heat.
I must not close without reference to an appliance for tiltering the water which is to be used by the children; and I am gratified to note that ameng all the appliances for health, the subject of pure water is not forgotten. The filters are buried eight feet under ground, and are thus described, viz.:
It is made of glass cut into equal lengths, about three-fourths of an icci in width, and one-eighth of an inch in thickness. These pieces are placed together, so as to form a circle fixed upon a basin composed of metal, which is the receptacle for the material filtered from the water. The glass is so arranged as to be almost water-tight, and it is only the pressure of a head that forces the water through. The water is filtered into a reservoir composed of stone jars or iron tanks, as may be preferred, the stop-cock being made so that no pressur is upon the reservoirs except when the hydrant is in use. The filtered water is drawn from the reservoirs, and the hydrant is so constructed that by moving the nozzle to one side, you draw the filtered water, and hy reversing it, the ordinary water is drawn, which at the same time cleanses the filter of the actumulation of sediment, it being a self-cleansing apparatus.
EDW. SHIPPEX. PHILADELPHIA, Dec. 12, 1867.