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duties of school inspectors and local school committees, which are always, although not exclusively, composed of clergymen. Such instruction, whether given by lectures, or by class-book and recitation, should be deemed essential to graduation in any College or Academy or High School, which are the natural sources to supply teachers to the schools below. Originally the degree of Bachelor and Master of Arts were evidence of the scholarship and authority of the holders to establish, teach, and govern schools. Such knowledge should enter into the training of all liberally educated American citizens, whose services are in constant demand as trustees and committees of schools of different grade. When such courses are supplemented by practical training in a Normal School, it forms a valuable part of the professional education of a teacher.

V. Itinerating Normal Agents and Organizers of Schools, to hold Teachers' Institutes, to act as Inspectors of Schools, assist in the establishment of new institutions, and imparting life and efficiency to schools which have run down under inefficient teachers, and bring up to a normal standard the schools and the public sentiment of particular districts. The efforts of an indefatigable Normal Agent like William S. Baker, so highly appreciated in Connecticut and Rhode Island, or of a School Organizer like those sent out by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, or the British and Foreign School Society, by familiar conversation with teachers, and practical illustrations in their schoolrooms, of improved methods of arranging the studies, and conducting schools will reach more widely than a Normal School.

VI. Teachers' Institutes, or gatherings of teachers, both for conference and instruction, for a period of not less than one, nor more than four weeks, in successive years in different localities, and including in its operations school officers and parents. Such gatherings of teachers, old and young of both sexes, and of schools of different grades; in such numbers as will develop the sympathies and power of a common pursuit, and yet not so large as to exclude the freedom of individual thought and action; for a period of time, long enough to admit of a systematic plan of operations, and yet not so protracted as to prove, a burdensome expense, or an interruption to other engagements; under the direction of men, whose claim to respect and continued attention is their large experience and acknowledged success as educators and teachers ; in a course of instruction, at once theoretical and practical, combined with opportunities of inquiry, discussion, and familiar conversation such gatherings of teachers so organized and conducted as to exclude professional jealousy, and at the same time to enlist the coöperation and attendance of school officers and parents, by assigning to the evening lectures and discussions, all topics of general interest to the community, as well as to teachers, will begin the work of renovation and improvement at once in the home and the school, in the heads and hearts of parents, in the enthusiasm, enlarged knowledge and practical skill of teachers, and in the well considered and liberal action of school officers, and the public generally. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL

VII. A system of examination, by which only persons of the right spirit, character, attainments, and practical skill, are licensed to teach, combined with modes of school inspection, by which incompetent and unworthy members are excluded from the profession.

VIII. Plans of associations of the teachers of a school, city, or larger district, for periodical conferences for mutual and professional improvement, and for occasional visits to each others' schools.

IX. Legal recognition of the true value of the teacher's office, by exemption from all services which interfere with the full performance of its duties, or imply that the constant care and highest nurture of children and youth are of secondary interest; and by provision for its permanence and adequate compensation, independent of the negligence or parsimony of parents and municipal authorities.

X. A system of promotion from a less desirable school, to one more so in respect to studies, location, and salary, dependent not upon favoritism, but upon an open and impartial examination.

XI. Access to books on the theory and practice of teaching, and to educational periodicals, by which the young and inexperienced teacher is made acquainted with the views of experienced teachers in his own and other times, in his own and other countries.

XII. Facilities for the acquisition of some industrial pursuit, out of school hours, which will add to the happiness and emoluments of the teacher, without diminishing his personal influence as the educator of the community.

XIII. A system of savings, aided and guaranteed by the government, but founded in habits of thrift and forecast in the teachers, by which provision is made for themselves in old age, or sickness, and for their families, in case of death.

By these and other institutions, agencies, and means, already recog. nized or established to some extent, the office of teacher has been greatly elevated in usefulness and in social and pecuniary consideration. It is the object of this work to bring together the experience of different states in this most important department of the whole field of educational labor, as presented in official documents, and the observations of intelligent and trustworthy educators.

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The design of the Normal Schools is strictly professional; that is, to prepare, in the best possible manner, the pupils for the work of organizing, governing, and instructing the Public Schools of the Commonwealth.

To this end there must be the most thorough knowledge: first, of the branches of learning required to be taught in the schools; and, second, of the best methods of teaching those branches.

The time of the course extends through a period of two years; and is divided into terms of twenty weeks each, with daily sessions of not less than five hours, five days each week. The branches of study to be pursued are as follows:

First Term. 1. Arithmetic, oral and written, begun. 2. Geometry begun. 3. Chemistry. 4. Grammar and Analysis of the English language.

Second Term. 1. Arithmetic completed; Algebra begun. 2. Geometry completed; Geography and History begun. 3. Physiology and Hygiene. 4. Grammar and Analysis completed. 5. Lessons once or twice a week in Botany and Zoölogy.

Third Term. 1. Algebra completed; Book-keeping. 2. Geography and History completed. 3. Natural Philosophy. 4. Rhetoric and English Literature. 5. Lessons once or twice a week in Mineralogy and Geology.

Fourth Term. 1. Astronomy. 2. Mental and Moral Science—including the principles and art of Reasoning. 3. Theory and Art of Teaching,—including:

(1.) Principles and Methods of Instruction.
(2.) School Organization and Government.

(3.) School Laws of Massachusetts.
4. The Civil Polity of Massachusetts and the United States.

In connection with the foregoing, constant and careful attention to be given throughout the course to drawing and delineations on the blackboard ; music; spelling, with derivations and definitions; reading, including analysis of sounds and vocal gymnastics; and writing.

The Latin and French languages may be pursued as optional studies, but not to the neglect of the English course.

General exercises in composition, gymnastics, object lessons, &c., to be conducted in such manner and at such times as the Principals shall deem best.

Lectures on the different branches pursued, and on related topics, to be given by gentlemen from abroad, as the Board or the Visitors shall direct, and also by the teachers and more advanced scholars.

The order of the studies in the course may be varied in special cases, with the approval of the Visitors.

The Board deem it unwise to encourage the formation of regular advanced classes, whose instruction can not fail to divert considerable amount of the time and attention of the teachers from the under-graduate course; but graduates who wish to review any part of their course, or to make more thorough attainments in particular branches, and wbo are willing to render such assistance as may be needed in giving instruction in the schools, may, with the consent and under the direction of the Visitors, remain at the schools for a period not exceeding two terms.

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THE STATE NORMAL School at Framingham, the first Normal School under State auspices in America, was opened at Lexington, with a formal Address by Gov. Everett, July 3d, 1839.* Three young ladies were all that presented themselves as candidates for examination. The school commenced with these, and the number increased in a few weeks to twelve. In October, a Model School was organized and placed under the charge of Miss Mary Swift. The school continued at Lexington for five years. In May, 1844, having outgrown its accommodations, it was removed to West Newton, where Josiah Quincy Jr., purchased a building, formerly used as a private Academy, which he gave to the Secretary of the Board of Education, who had searched in vain for a suitable structure within the means of the Board. The building was out of repair, but at the expense of Mr. Mann, and the contribution of the citizens of West Newton, it was put in proper order for the use of the school. The school increased in numbers, and additional accommodations were provided in the rooms at first occupied by the Model Department, which were vacated on the removal of the Model School to other quarters provided by the town,

In 1850 and 1851, the Board of Education took measures to bring before the Legislature the increasing wants of the school, and in May, 1852, the sum of $ 6,000 was placed at the disposal of the Board, to defray the expenses of providing a more commodious site and building. The Board were directed to receive propositions from towns and individuals, and afterwards to make such selection as would, in their opinion, best subserve the interests of the institution. After carefully considering the propositions presented, the Board determined to transfer the school to Framing. ham, where it was opened December 15th, 1853.

The building now occupied by the State Normal School, with the preparation of the grounds, and the furniture, cost about $20,000. The site, consisting of five and three-quarter acres of land, was presented by individuals. The town appropriated $2,500, and the Boston and Worcester Railroad Company $2,000, in aid of the erection of the building.

The first Principal, Rev. Cyrus Peirce, was compelled to resign on account of ill health, in 1842. His successor, Rev. Samuel J. May, had charge of the school from Sept. 1842, to Aug. 1844, when he resigned, and Mr. Peirce, who had recovered his health, was re-appointed, and re

* This Address was repeated at Barre, on the 5th of September, 1839, on the opening of the Normal School at that place.

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