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But if any teacher of an academy had a right to be jealous of the Normal Schools, it was a gentleman now before me, who, at the time when the Bridgewater Normal School came into his town, and planted itself by the path which led to his door, and offered to teach gratuitously such of the young men and women attending his school, as bad proposed to become teachers of Common Schools, instead of opposing it, acted with a high and magnanimous regard to the great interests of humanity. So far from opposing, he gave his voice, his vote, and his purse, for the establishment of the school, whose benefits, you, my young friends, have since enjoyed. (Great applause.) Don't applaud yet, said Mr. Mann, for I have better things to tell of him than this. In the winter session of the Legislature of 1840, it is well known that a powerful attack was made, in the House of Representatives, upon the Board of Education, the Normal Schools, and all the improvements which had then been commenced, and which have since produced such beneficent and abundant fruits. It was proposed to abolish the Board of Education, and to go back to the condition of things in 1837. It was proposed to abolish the Normal Schools, and to throw back with indignity, into the hands of Mr. Dwight, the money he had given for their support.

That attack combined all the elements of opposition which selfishness and intolerance had created, -whether latent or patent. It availed itself of the argument of expense. It appealed invidiously to the pride of teachers. It menaced Prussian despotism as the natural consequence of imitating Prussia in preparing teachers for schools. It fomented political partisanship. It invoked religious bigotry. It united them all into one phalanx, animated by various motives, but intent upon a single object. The gentleman to whom I have referred was then a member of the House of Representatives, and Chairman of the Committee on Education, and he, in company with Mr. Thomas A. Greene, of New Bedford, made a minority report, and during the debate which followed, he defended the Board of Education so ably, and vindicated the necessity of Normal Schools and other improvements so convincingly, that their adversaries were foiled, and these institutions were saved. The gentleman to whom I refer is the Hon. John A. Shaw, now Superintendent of schools in New Orleans.

[Prolonged cheers ;-and the pause made by Mr. Mann, afforded an opportunity to Mr. Shaw, in his modest and unpretending manner, to disclaim the active and efficient agency which he had had in rescuing the Normal Schools from destruction before they had had an opportunity to commend themselves to the public by their works :-but all this only increased the animation of the company, who appeared never before to have had a chance to pay off any portion of their debt of gratitude. After silence was restored, Mr. Shaw said that every passing year enforced upon him the lesson of the importance and value of experience in school-keeping. Long as he had taught, he felt himself improved by the teachings of observation and practice; and he must therefore express his joy and gratitude at the establishment and the prosperity of the school at that place, whatever might be the personal consequences to himsell.]

Nor, continued Mr. Mann, is this the only instance of noble and generous conduct which we are bound this day to acknowledge. I see before me a gentleman who, though occupying a station in the educational world far above any of the calamities or the vicissitudes that can befall the Common Schools,—though, pecuniarily considered, it is a matter of entire indifference to him whether the Common Schools flourish or decline,-yet, from the beginning, and especially in the crisis to which I have just adverted, came to our rescue, and gave all his influence, as a citizen and as a teacher, to the promotion of our cause; and whom those who may resort hither, from year to year, so long as this building shall stand, will have occasion to remember, not only with warm emotions of the heart, but, during the wintry season of the year, with warm sensations of the body also.* I refer to Mr. Geo. B. EMERSON.

(Mr. Emerson was now warmly cheered, until he rose, and in a heartfelt address of a few moments, expressed his interest in the school, and in the cause of education, which he begged the young teachers not to consider as limited to this imperfect stage of our being.]

These, said Mr. Mann, are some of the incidents of our early history. The late events which have resulted in the generous donations of individuals, and in the patronage of the Legislature, for the erection of this, and another edifice at Westfield, as a residence and a home for the Normal Schools,—these events, I shall consult my own feelings, and perhaps I may add, the dignity and forbearance which belong to a day of triumph, in passing by without remark.

a • Mr. Emerson has furnished, at his own expense, the furnace by which the new school-house

is to be warmed.

[This part of the history, however, was not allowed to be lost. As soon as the Secretary had taken his stat, the Rev. Mr. Waterston, who had been instrumental in getting up the subscrip tion w erect the two school-houses, arose, and eloquently completed the history. He stated, in brief, that the idea of providing suitable buildings for the Normal schools originated with some thirty or forty friends of popular education, who, without distinction of sect or party, bad ni, in Boston, in the winter of ldii-5, to express their sympathy with Mr. Mann in the vexatious codflict which he hud so successfully maintained; and who desired, in some suitable way, to express their approbation of his course in the conduct of the great and ditlicult work of reforming our Common Schools. At this meeting, it wils at first proposed to bestow upon Mr. Mann some token evincive of the personal and public regard of its members; but, at a subsequent meeting, it was suggested that it would be far more grateful and acceptable to him to furnish some substantial and efficient aid in carrying forward the great work in which he had engaged, and in removing those obstacles and hinderances both to his own success and to the process of the cause, which nothing but an expenditure of money could effect. No way seemed so well adapted to this purpose as the placing of the Normal Schools upon a firm and lasting basis, by furnishing them with suitable and permanent buildings; and the persons present thereupon pledged themselves to furnish $3000, and to ask the Legislature to furnish a like sum for this important purpose. The grant was cheerfully made by the Legislature, whose good-will has since been further expressed by a liberal grant, to meet the expenses of those temporary Normal Schools, called Teachers' Institutes. Mr. Munn, who had not yet taken his seal, ihen continued as follows:)

I have, iny young friends, former and present pupils of the school, but a single word more to say to you on this occasion. It is a word of caution and admonition. You have enjoyed, or are enjoying, advantages superior to most of those engaged in our Common Schools. Never pride yourselves upon these advantages. Think of them often, but always as motives to greater diligence and exertion, not as points of superiority. As you go forth, after having enjoyed the bounty of the State, you will probably be subjected to a rigid examination. Submit to it without complaint. More will sometimes be demanded of you than is reasonable. Bear it meekly, and exhaust your time and strength in performing your duties, rather than in vindicating your rights. Be silent, even when you are misrepresented. Turn aside when opposed, rather than confront opposition with resistance. Bear and forbear, not defending yourselves, so much as trusting to your works to defend you. Yet, in counseling you thus, I would not be understood to be a total non-resistant,-a perfectly passive, non-elastic sandbag, in society; but I would not have you resist until the blow be aimed, not so much at you, as, through you, at the sacred cause of human improvement, in which you are engaged,-a point at which forbearance would be allied to crime.

To the young ladies who are here-teachers and those who are preparing themselves to become teachers,—I would say, that, if there be any human being whom I ever envied, it is they. As I have seen them go, day after day, and month after month, with inexhaustible cheerfulness and gentleness, to their obscure, unobserved, and I might almost say, unrequited labors, I have thought that I would rather fill their place, than be one in the proudest triumphal procession that ever received the acclamations of a city, though I myself were the crowned victor of the ceremonies. May heaven forgive them for the only sin which, as I hope, they ever commit,—that of tempting me to break the commandment, by coveting the blissfulness and purity of their quiet and secluded virtues.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL

AT SALEM, MASS.

HISTORY

On account of an earnest demand made by the people in the northeastern part of the State in 1853, the Board of Education recommended to the Legislature the establishment of a fourth Normal School, to be located in Essex County. In accordance with the recommendation, an appropriation of $6,000 was promptly made. The advantages presented by the city of Salem for the accommodation of a State School were so manifest, and the liberality which the city extended to the school was so satisfactory, that the Board of Education determined to locate a Normal School for female teachers at Salem. The authorities of the city furnished a suitable lot of land, and erected thereon an acceptable and properly furnished building, at an expense of $12,000 beyond the 6,000 appropriated by the State, and $2,000 contributed to the enterprise by the Eastern Railroad Company. The building was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, Sept. 14, 1854. Governor Washburn presided on the occasion, and a formal Address was delivered by Ex-Governor Geo. L. Boutwell.

The school opened under favorable auspices; sixty-two young ladies were adınitted on the first day, and thirteen afterwards joined the class.

ORGANIZATION AND INSTRUCTION. Candidates for admission must be at least sixteen years of age; must present a satisfactory certificate of good moral character; must declare their full intention of faithfully observing the regulations of the school, during their connection with it, and of afterwards teaching in the public schools of Massachusetts; and must pass a satisfactory examination in Geography, the History of the United States, and Algebra (through Equations of the First Degree with one unknown quantity).

Pupils are admitted from any State without charge for tuition, in case they declare their purpose to teach in the public schools of Massachusetts. Young ladies who intend to teach in private schools, or in other States, are allowed the privileges of the school on paying a tuition fee of $30.00 a year.

To all pupils who propose to teach in the public schools of the State, tuition is free; and to all the members of the school, the requisite textbooks are, with few exceptions, furnished gratuitously. To defray inci. dental expenses, $2.00 a term is paid by each pupil.

For the assistance of those who would find even the moderate expenses of the school burdensome, the Commonwealth makes an annual appropriation of a thousand dollars. One half of this amount is distributed at the close of each term, among pupils from Massachusetts who may merit and need the aid, in sums varying according to the distance of their resi. dence from Salem, and their necessary expenses in attending the school, but not exceeding in any case $1.50 per week. In this distribution, the first term of the pupil's connection with the school is not reckoned, unless she enters prepared to complete the prescribed course of study in less than two years.

Aid is also rendered, in case of special merit and need, from the income of a fund of five thousand dollars, for which the school is indebted to the munificent bequest of Nathaniel I. Bowditch, Esq., of Brookline.

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School Terms-Studies. The regular course of study, from the organization of the school down to 1865, occupied three terms of twenty weeks each, the terms at first beginning respectively, on the second Wednesday of March and the second Wednesday of September.

Commencing with 1865, the regular course of study has occupied two years, or four terms, each of twenty weeks. This change was made for the purpose of allowing more ample time for thorough instruction and training in the various subjects taught.

Advanced Class. Ladies who have successfully completed the regular course of study, are allowed to remain in school and pursue a higher course. Former studies are carried on to a greater extent, and new studies, such as belong to a High School course, are introduced. Three terms were assigned to the course until 1866, when it was reduced to two terms.

Course of Study. Some studies are attended to through the entire course, viz: Reading, Spelling, Etymologies, Rhetoric, English Composition, Mental Arithmetic, Drawing, (including pencil, crayon, and black-board drawing), Vocal Music, and Physical Culture.

In addition to the foregoing, the studies pursued during the successive terms, are as follows:

First Term. Arithmetic, Algebra, English Grammar, Geography of the Western Continent, History of the United States, Writing, (with especial reference to the way of teaching it), Anatomy and Physiology, and Chemistry.

Second Term. Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, English Language, (its History and Construction), Geography of the Eastern Continent, and Botany.

Third Term. Arithmetic, Algebra, Natural Philosophy, Mental Philos. ophy, English Literature, General History.

Fourth Term. Astronomy, Geology, Physical Geography, Mental Philosophy, Logic, Constitution of the United States, School Laws of Massachusetts, and Principles and Methods of Teaching, and of School Management

Optional Studies. Soon after the commencement of each term, pupils who are able to do more than the work assigned in the regular course, are formed into special classes, in the French and Latin languages, attention being chiefly given to the modes of teaching those languages.

Advanced Course. Graduates of the regular course are permitted to remain in the school one additional year. During this time they attend to the Higher Mathematics, (including Plane and Spherical Trigonometry), English Literature, Latin and French, and pursue to a greater extent some of the studies of the undergraduate course, especially Natural Philosophy and Chemistry.

Aims and Methods of Study and Training. The ends aimed at in this school are chiefly two, viz: The acquisition of the necessary knowledge, and art of teaching.

From the beginning to the end of the course, all studies are conducted with especial reference to the best ways of teaching them. Recitations alone, however excellent, are not satisfactory, unless every pupil is able to teach others that which she has herself learned. In every study, the pupils in turn occupy temporarily the place of teacher of their classmates, and are subjected to their criticisms as well as those of the regular teacher. Teaching exercises of various kinds form a large and important part of the school work. During the Senior term, object lessons are daily given to classes of children from an adjacent primary school, so that every pupil obtains, before graduating, considerable experience in teaching young children to observe, think and give expression to thought.

Nearly all the studies are conducted upon the topical plan. Text-books are used chiefly as books of reference. Topics are assigned from day to day by the teacher, and the scholars are required to obtain the requisite knowledge from the various sources at command. The committing of text-books to memory is avoided as far as possible, the scholars being trained to depend upon thoughts rather than words.

The great object of the school is to make the pupils investigate, think and speak for themselves; to make them independent, self-reliant, and ready to meet whatever difficulties may arise.

Discipline. The discipline of the school is made as simple as possible. Pupils are expected to govern themselves; to do without compulsion what is required, and to refrain voluntarily from all improprieties. Those who are unwilling to conform cheerfully to the known wishes of the Principal and his Assistants, are presumed to be unfit to become teachers.

It is not deemed necessary to awaken a feeling of emulation in order to induce the scholars to perform their duties faithfully. The ranking of

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