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On changing from one grade to another, the pupils observe the teaching of the critics for two days, and for one day the teacher whom they are to succeed in their practice. The teaching is all done under the careful supervision and criticism of the most capable teachers, selected with special reference to their adaptation to their work. After the close of the public schools at 37 o'clock, both divisions of the Training Class meet an hour and a half for instruction in methods.
A criticism lesson is given every Monday at 31 o'clock. At this exercise some member of the class previously appointed gives a lesson with the children on some subject assigned. At the close of the exercise the members of the class are called on in turn to criticise the teaching both as to the character and arrangement of the matter and method.
At the close of the exercise, in a kind of summary, the Principal criticises both teacher and critics.
The course of training embraces one year, one-half of the time being devoted to instruction in method and the philosophy of education, and the other half to teaching under criticism.
The Oswego Board of Education are the Executive Committee, to act under the advice and general direction of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
The Secretary of the Board, E. A. Sheldon, has acted as Principal of the school since the time Miss Jones returned to London.
The following extracts from a Circular of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction (Hon. Victor M. Rice) presents the conditions of admission, and the Course of Instruction for 1866:
Each county is entitled to as many pupil-teachers in the Oswego Normal and Training School as it has representatives in the Assembly, and other qualified applicants are received until the accommodations are exhausted.
To gain admission to the school pupils must possess good health, good moral character, and average abilities. They must be able to pass a fair examination in Spelling, Reading, Geography, and Arithmetic, (as far as the roots;) also to analyze and parse simple sentences. Ladies must be at least sixteen and gentlemen eighteen years of age. Those who shall have passed the examination will receive a formal appointment from the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and be admitted to all the privileges of the school.
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION.
Elementary Preparatory Course. This course is limited to one term of twenty weeks, which is devoted chiefly to instruction in Spelling, Reading, Writing, Book-keeping, (single entry,) Lin. ear and Object Drawing, Geography, (physical and political,) Arithmetic, (oral and written,) History. Grammar, Analysis of Words, to Exercises in Impromptu Composition, and to Weekly Essays.
It is desirable that all pupils, on entering the school, be thoroughly qualified in these common English branches. Those not found so qualitied will be required to pass through this course under thorough instruction before entering upon the Training Course.
Elementary Training Course This course is limited to one year of two terms, each twenty weeks; and includes instruction in methods of teaching the branches named in the Elementary Preparatory Course, and of miscellaneous subjects calculated to cultivate the perceptive faculties. Special attention will be directed to objective teaching, and to the philosophical yet simple methods of primary instruction.
B CLASS.—Methods of teaching the subjects comprised in the Elementary Preparatory Course; also instruction in the Philosophy of Education, School Economy, Physiology, Zoölogy, Botany, and Mineralogy, and Impromptu Composition, (oral and written.) Criticism lessons and essays weekly.
A CLASS.—The time of this class will be devoted to observation in the Model Schools, and teaching in the Practicing Schools, under the supervision of competent critics. Two hours, each day, will be devoted to Impromptu Composition, and to methods of teaching Form, Size, Measure, Color, Weight, Sounds, Objects, Animals, Plants, and giving Moral Instruction. Criticism lessons and essays weekly.
Students having satisfactorily completed the preceding courses will receive a diploma, signed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Superintendent of the School, the Head Master, and the Officers of the Board of Education of the city of Oswego.
This diploma will serve as a certificate of qualification to teach common schools.
Advanced Preparatory Course. Students to be admitted to this course must pass a satisfactory examination in the studies of the Elementary Preparatory Course; one much more critical than for admission to the Elementary Training Course.
As familiarity with any subject is essential to a consideration of the best methods of teaching it, no pupil will be admitted to the Advanced Training Class until properly prepared in all the subjects of this course. Those familiar with none of the branches herein named will require a full year and a half to complete the course; others, who have mastered a portion of them, may complete it in less time.
The students of this division may be arranged in three classes, according to their acquirements. Those conversant with some of the studies of each class may take up such studies as they need to pursue, in order to pass the required examination for the "Advanced Training Course."
SUBJECTS OF C CLASS.—Iligher Arithmetic, Algebra, Grammatical Analysis, Rhetoric, English Literature, Book-keeping, (double entry,) Linear and Object Drawing. Botany, and Impromptu Composition. Rhetorical Exercises and Essays weekly.
SUBJECTS OF B CLASS.— Algebra continued, Geometry, History, Natural Philosophy, Perspective Drawing, Chemistry, and Impromptu Composition. Rhetorical Exercises and Essays weekly.
SUBJECTS OF A CLASS. - Astronomy, Algebra completed, Trigonometry, Sur. veying and Mensuration, Mental and Moral Philosophy, Geology and Mineralogy, and Impromptu Composition. Rhetorical Exercises and Essays weekly.
Advanced Training Course. This course will occupy one term of twenty weeks, and will be devoted to instruction and practice in the best methods of teaching the branches named in the Advanced Preparatory Course.
In this course special attention will be directed to the Philosophy of Education, School History, School Law, Science of Government, School Organization, and Discipline; to the Theory and Practice of Teaching and School Economy generally. There will be frequent Criticism Lessons and Compositions.
A course of lectures will be given on Zoology, Physiology, and Hygiene, to be accompanied by reading on the part of the class. A portion of the time will be devoted to observation and practice in teaching under criticism.
To those who satisfactorily complete the course a diploma will be given, signed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Superintendent of the School, the Head Master, and the Officers of the Local Board, certifying that the graduate therein named is “deemed qualified to teach the English branches Ysually pursued in the High Saools and Academies of the State."
PLANS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE STATE NORMAL AND TRAINING SCHOOL AT
OsWEGO, NEW YORK. The accommodation provided for the Normal and Training School at Oswego, New York, is a large and commodious building, with ample grounds, located in a pleasant section of the city, and commanding a fine view of the town, lake, and surrounding country. The entire front is 153 feet, and its depth 130 feet, with ample accommodation for 600 pupils in the Model and Practicing Schools, and 300 in the Normal Department.
FIRST FLOOR.-1, Hall and Main Entrance to Normal School ; 2, 2, Recitation Rooms for Nor mal School; 3, Laboratory and Chemical Apparatus ; 4, Philosophical Apparatus and Cabinet ; (Between rooms 2 and 3, and 2 and 4, are sliding doors so that two rooms can be thrown into one when required ;) 5, Office ; 6, 6, Assembly Rooms for Practicing Schools ; 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, Recitation Rooms for Pupil-Teachers; 8, Model Graded School-Room; 9. Girls' Hall and Main Entrance to Model and Practicing Schools ; 10, Boys' Hall and Main Entrance to Model und Prac. ticing Schools; 11, Entrance from Court-Yard; 12. Covered Passage Way to Water Closets; 13, 13, 13, Girls' Clonk Rooms; 14, 14, 14, Boys' Cloak Rooms; 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, Teachers' Closets; 16, 16, 16, 16, Piazzas; 17, 17. Sinks for soft water.
SECOND FLOOR.–1, 1, 1, 1, 1, Halls; 2, Assembly Room and Hall, capable of seating from 800 to 1,000
persons; 3, Lecture Room; 4. Natural History Room; 12
5, Ladies' Dressing-Room ; 6, Teachers' DressingRoom; 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, Recitation Rooms for PupilTeachers, with children from Praeticing Schools; 8. Model Ungraded School-Room; 9, Closk Room for G rls; 10. Cloak Room for Boys; 11, 11, 11, 11, Teachers' Closets; 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 12, 12, 12, Ventilators, (Robinson's ;) 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, Piazzas; 14, Stairway and Covered Passage ; 15, 15, Janitor's Rooms.
THIRD FLOOR.–1, 1, Halls; 2, 2, Recitation Rooms; 3, Library and Reading Room; 4, Gentlemen's
Dressing-Room; 5. Apparatus Room; 6, 6, Janitor's Rooms; 7,7,7,7, Rooms for the solitary confinement of refractory children. These rooms are properly warmed and lighted.
MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT. The importance of making early and efficient provision for a sufficient number of well qualified teachers, for the public schools of Michigan, was pointed out by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Hon. John D. Pierce, in his first Report, dated December 27th, 1836, in which he remarks that “ The most perfect organization of the entire system of schools in all the varied departments of instruction, must fail of securing the desired results without a sufficient number of competent teachers. Whatever system may be adopted and however perfect in form, it will prove itself essentially defective, unless it provides a sufficient number of teachers well educated and learned in the profession, men qualified and competent, men who can elevate and leave their mark upon their pupils. And such teachers may be had—efficient measures will soon furnish us with a full supply unless indeed intellect degenerates in this Western world. Such schools for the education of teachers as exist in Prussia and New York will furnish them.” In the same Report, the Superintendent recommends that in “each county of a sufficient number of inhabitants, a school or branch of the University. be established, with a department for the education of teachers for primary schools, and a course of instruction be provided for the same, which would occupy three years.” Several of these departments were established, and Mr. Pierce in his report for 1838, recommends that more ample means be set apart for sustaining them on account of their importance to the success of primary schools, “ being as they are, the sole means of obtaining a full supply of competent teachers." And again, in 1841, in alluding to these departments, he says: “We can look to no other source for educated, well qualified, and competent teachers.”
His successor, Francis Sawyer, Jr., in his report for 1842, reiterates the importance of these departments, and also recommends that a regular school for teachers, with a model school connected, be established.
The successor of Mr. Sawyer, Hon. C. C. Comstock, in his report for 1853, refers to this subject, and recommends the establishment of Normal and Model Schools. Hon. Ira Mayhew, Superintendent in 1843, in his annual report, says: “Normal Schools, designed expressly for the education of professional teachers, are indispensable to the perfection of any system of national education.” In subsequent reports he still further recommends the establishment of a Normal School.