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(s) State the length of walk especially adapted to pleasure walking.
(If of variable width, the walks may be classified according to width of
each, and the length of each class given.) (0) What is the surface material of the walk?
(As screened gravel, powdered shell, asphalte, coal or pine-tar concrete, &c.)
B. (a) To what localities are delicate children, cripples, feeble aged people, invalids
and convalescents taken for sunning and airing? (6) What is the means of access to this locality from the denser parts of the
town? (c) What accommodations required especially by delicate and feeble persons are provided in the locality ? (Such as seats and level walks sheltered from chilling winds and open to
the sun; baths, warm milk, mineral waters. &c.) (d) What is the usual charge for the hire of an easy carriage for a drive of an
hour, on roads well adapted to the exercise of a feeble person?
C. (a) To wbat localities do your citizens resort for open-air exercise of a more
active or vigorous character than walking or driving ? (6) State if there are special arrangements for the enjoyment of base-ball, football, cricket, dancing, croquet, or any other recreative exercises ? If so, describe each, giving the area of ground occupied; the arrangements
for spectators and for the rest and refreshment of players. (c) State if rowing or skating are popular amusements, and what are the public
facilities for engaging in them? (d) State if there are public arrangements for gympastic exercises, and if so,
under what regulations they are used. (e) To what places do young men most resort during the hours of the day
when they are not engaged at their homes or in business duties? (f) Are healthful and improving recreations prepared for young people, on holy days? If so, describe the arrangements and indicate to what extent they are
availed of. (9) What resources of every day amusement, entertainment or recreation are
most available and most used by young men ? (h) Are your leading philanthropic and patriotic citizens generally warmly in
terested in means of instruction, encouragement and assistance to young people in the formation of habits of temperate, healthful and virtuous recreation? (Note. The recklessness, unhealthful excitement and brutal indifference to
the rights and feelings of the community which have been often manifested of late years, in connection with the public, athletic contests of young men, have excited much astonishment and profound anxiety, as indicating that their education was a failure in respect to the most important object of education. The symptoms referred to have been exhibited both by young men educated in the country and at common schools, and by those educated in large towns, and at the higher institutions of learning. It is questioned whether if young men did not from childhood generally find that in the indulgence of a propensity to engage in manly recreations, they could expect neither instruction, sympathy, fellowship, nor encouragement and judicious assistance from the better part of society, they would be equally liable to fall into the excesses referred to. Any facts or observations bearing upon this question will be valuable for the purposes of this circular.)
D. (a) On the occasion of a reception of public guests or other civic formalities,
celebrations, exhibitions or festivities; or of demonstrations of public opinion or congratulatory meetings, too large or of an unsuitable character to be held within buildings, (as where horses are used, or fireworks exhibited,) what localities are resorted to and what is the character of the accommodations they offer, and in what respects are their surroundings suitable to be asso
ciated with such proceedings ? (6) On occasions of public ceremony or festivities, is it customary to call upon
the public schools to take a suitable and honorable part, and are accommodations provided of such a character that children may be present, under the
government of their teachers, without danger of accident or excessive fatigue ? (c) What public grounds are provided for the military training of citizens and
for parades ? (d) To what localities do school children commonly resort in the largest num
bers for out-of-door play? (e) What is the area of ground especially prepared for them? (3) What are its attractions, and what conveniences or encouragements are
provided in connection with it for healthful recreation ? (g) If convenient, estimate the number of children who come together (h) Is there a public swimming school? (1) If so, under what regulations do the children use it, and how are its
expenses met ? (j) If there is no regular swimming school, do any of your common school
teachers systematically go on bathing excursions with their scholars and give
instructions in swimming ? (k) What public conveniences or encouragements are provided to induce chil.
dren to bathe and learn to swim ?
E. (a) Does the system of public education (of higher or lower grade) include any
systematic training, or instructions in the judicious use of the physical powers? (6) If so, describe the means and facilities for demonstration and practice. (c) Are prizes offered for proficiency in recreative exercises, or do indolence
and neglect of the requirements of health and morality in this respect, affect in any way the school standing of scholars, on the merit-roll or otherwise ?
F. (a) Is there any Arboretum; or Botanic, Horticultural, Geological, or other open-air Scientific Collection, to which school children are freely admitted ? If so, describe it, giving its specialty, the extent of the collection, the
ground occupied, when and by whom prepared; by what arrangements maintained, and indicate to what extent it is used with direct educational intention. Indicate to what extent it is also resorted to as a place of general public recreation.
(6) What facilities and incentives other than those already indicated, are offered
children to educate their perceptive faculties by observation of natural objects ? (c) Is this department of education systematically pursued, either by daily
occasional rambles with or -without walking lectures and demonstrations, in places adapted to favor the acquisition of a familiar knowledge of many nat
ural objects ? (d) If so, describe the ground gone over. (e) Have healthful holiday excursions by public conveyances to a distance
been organized, by which children benefit? (1) If so, describe the advantages of the localities visited, the time occupied,
the expense, and the manner in which it is defrayed, the number attending such excursions, and at what intervals they occur.
Note A (a.),
A special schedule of inquiries has been prepared in regard to Cemeteries, which will be supplied when desired.
Note A (i.) For concise returns, the following classifications may be observed :Where the promenade is an ordinary town street, with no special attractions
except such as are found in unusual amplitude, gayer shops and finer build.
ings, it may be classed as Urban. Where in an otherwise ordinary street, sufficient tree-borders have been intro
duced, or fine shade trees planted in such a manner that they can remain permanently in a flourishing condition without seriously interfering with the
general requirements of a street, it may be classed as Sylvan-Urban. A suburban or country road of the latter character, generally well shaded,
although the arrangement of trees is not complete, or thoroughly well carried out, may be classed as Sylvan Sub-Urban. If in this case its character is changing for the worse, or if it is evident that its suburban attractions must soon give way to the demands of business or the enlargement of the town,
the fact may be stated. An urban street or a public place, not a green, decorated with objects of art,
monuments, statues, fountains, vases, flower-pots, trophies, with or without screens or walls of verdure, or formal plantations, may be designated, Urban
Architectural. An inclosure of ground within a town, in which the surface is mainly kept in
turf, with trees planted on the border; but with walks on the border or crossing the turf, provided it is in such a manner or to so limited an extent that the general impression which an observer has of the whole space is of
an unobstructed broad green field, may be termed a Green. An inclosure similar to the above, but in which the turf is decorated with a few
choice trees, shrubs or plants, the turf being well prepared and of fine char
acter throughout the Summer, may be termed a Lawn- Green. A large space of turf without decoration, open in all its parts to public use,
(without restriction to prepared walks,) may be termed a Common. An inclosure, with much ground under cultivation, and in which the attraction
is mainly in the detail, requiring, to be fully appreciated, much close observation, as flowers, or shrubbery planted chiefly with regard to effects when in bloom, may be termed a Garden.
The term Park should be applied only to a pleasure ground of sufficient area to
possess a landscape character within itself, and which is characterized by a large proportion of fair meadow-like surface, with low branching, umbrageous
trees standing singly or loosely associated in clusters. If within such a park there are established conveniences for and incitements to
recreation of several kinds, such as a circuit drive, ride and walks; arrangements for base ball, foot ball, cricket or hockey; for skating, swimming, rowing, curling, gymnastics, dancing, archery, promenade concerts, etc.; and if it includes architectural and sculptural features of a permanent and dignified character, it may be classed as an Urban Park. If on the other hand it has but few obvious advantages for the recreation of great numbers of people of diverse conditions and tastes, except such as might be found in any district of fertile and well-wooded country if no part of it were divided into fields, or
occupied by crops, it may be classed as a Rural Park. Roads which lie mainly in the country, whether it is mostly agricultural land
or of a wild character, may be designated rural roads. In describing landscape attractions, the term grand should be reserved for
scenery the elements of which are on a very large scale, as in the view from the old public garden on the bluff at Natchez; picturesque, for scenery the elements of which are of highly interesting and somewhat impressive character, as at the Seal-Rock end of the principal pleasure drive of San Francisco; the Wissahickon drive of Philadelphia, or the bolder parts of the rocky sea. shore of New England; the words "wild," "pastoral," "pleasing," prefixed to topographical terms, as mountain, valley, meadow, prairie, savanna, will give a sufficient indication of the character of most other scenery except when the views are very extensive and the elements diversified.
Note A (j.) Roads of different classes may be classified in the returns as follows:First Class Stone Road; a road formed of stone broken to a nearly uniform
size, (each piece measuring not more than three inches across the longest way.) laid to a sufficient depth to resist frost, thoroughly compacted and made smooth on the surface, properly under-drained and furnished with sufficient arrangements for the immediate removal of all surface water, and in all respe proof against inju by rain or frost; Or, a road similar to the above, except that the lower stratum consists of well compacted pavement of larger
stone, on the Telford plan. Second and Third Class Stone Roads; similar to the above, but more rudely
constructed. (An earth road with stone merely strewn upon it should not be
called a stone road, the stone in such cases being an injury.) First Class Gravel Road; similar to above, but with a surface stratum three
inches in depth, of well rolled, screened, hard gravel, (the best construction
for a road designed for public pleasure-driving.) Second and Third Class Gravel Roads; similar to the last, but more rudely con
structed or imperfectly finished. First Class Graveled Earth Roads; well drained and not liable to be muddy. Second Class Graveled Earth Roads ; similar to the last, but imperfectly pre
pared, sometimes rough and not suitable for pleasure-driving. "Earth roads," "Belgian," "Cobble stone," "Plank,” and “Patent wood-block
roads," need no description.
SPECIAL SCHEDULE OF INQUIRIES IN REGARD TO RURAL CEMETERIES. Rural Cemeteries are so generally used for public drives and promenades, and their grading, planting, memorials, and monuments are so far indicative of the public taste, as well as influential in forming it, that the following details respecting them are solicited, in the belief that when properly edited the results will prove interesting and instructive. Where the information sought has been given in printed documents, a simple reference, with a copy of the same, will be sufficient.
I. Corporation. (a) Name, date, and circumstances of incorporation; officers for 1868. (6) Basis of operations: 1, self-sustaining; 2, sustained in part by the corporation, or trustees; 3, sustained by lot-holders, income of funds, bequests, etc.
II. Grounds. (a) Area in acres-original purchase, addititions, total. (6) Distance from central portion of city or town. (c) Formation: 1, surface-plain, undulating, hilly, and proportion of each; 2,
soil and subsoil-clay, sand, gravel, hard-pan, rock; 3, soil, as to drainage
dry, wet, springy; 4, water-springs, rills, brooks, streams, lakes or ponds. (d) Natural growth of trees and shrubs. (e) Views-near and distant, hills, valley, water.
III. Plan of Development. A. General plan: 1, lawn plan; 2, lot system; 3, single interments. See ex
planatory note at end. B. Details. (a) Entrances—number, buildings connected with each, and style of same. (6) Roads—1, Proportion of all roads in length, to the acre, in the whole area;
2, width and length of principal roads; 3, width and length of section roads; 4, do. do. of service roads; 5, bridges-number, length, width and style. For classification of roads, as to construction, see Note A. (j) in Circulur
respecting Public Grounds. (C) Walks: 1, length and breadth of walks communicating with sections or
divisions; 2, length and breadth of walks through ornamental grounds; 3,
proportion of entire length of walks to the acre of the improved grounds. (d) Section or division grounds for burial purposes: 1, total area laid out and
improved in proportion to the whole area ; 2, number of sections; 3, area of lots, largest, smallest, average; 4, area, on the average, in each section pre
served for ornamental purposes. (e) Grading of sections: 1, how far done by corporation on a general plan; 2,
how far done by each individual lot owner, under the general direction of the
superintendent. (f) Drainage : 1, regular system ; 2, local; 3, material of each ; 4, length of
deep drains (8 feet;) 5, length of tile drains (3 to 4 feet ;) 6, length of open drains ; 7, total length of drains; 8, number of sink or silt basius, and mode
of construction. (9) Artificial water-works—lakes, ponds, cascades, fountains, wells. (h) Planting: 1, how far according to a general plan by the corporation; 2, how
far according to the caprice of lot owners; 3, names of trees and shrubs which