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the sulphate of iron be the mordant used, the re-pounds of the lac spirit, in which dissolve six can I affirm, that very strong ley may not inire sult will be sulphate of lime and an oxyde of pounds eight ounces of lac-dye, six pounds eight the germinating of the seed ; but, with suctius iron, and changes will be produced more or less ounces of cream of tartar, four ounces of tumeric, have tried, I know that it will not; as I have id on every mordant used. When pure water is eight ounces of cochineal, and one pound of saf-seed to remain in the ground for several wt. K employed, none of these changes can take place. Power; when these ingredients are well stirred from drought, and then come up well. This, h e With a knowledge of these facts, and also, that in, add to the mixture four ounces of diluted sul-ever, can be tried on a small scale, by placin, the different waters contain different alkaline earths phuric acid. It must now be well stirred for one seed so prepared, in a warm piace, before the 5*• and oxydes in solution, in innumerable propor-hour, and let it remain in the sand heat, until the ing of the crop generally. The cultivating of gice tions, we shall no longer be surprised at the va- following morning. To dye a scarlet, one pound of seed cotton being altogether given up, in the ; riety of receipts given by different artists to pro- the compost is used to two pounds of woollen. of the country in which I reside, I shall renew my duce the same color.

HOPSON. experiment this year and, should it be attenued P.8. “In extracting the colors of many color

with the success anticipated, will feel much hap ing drugs, as yellow and red, it seems to me,

piness in communicating it. that a full boiling heat ought to be avoided. ON THE ROT IN THE GREEN SEED Hence I should approve of the method employed

COTTON. in the English dyehouses, on the recommenda

Charleston, S. C. Feb. 8th, 1822. From the Archieves of Useful Knowledge. tion of Count Rumford, of boiling by steam.” · The heat of steam is used by very few of the Should you deem the following observations on

To Make Soft Soap. English dyers, and where used, is done from a the rot in green seed or upland cotton, worthy of a Take five bushels of ashes, damp them the principle of economy, not from an idea of dying place in your truly useful paper, I beg you will give roughly on the ground, and let them stand from below a boiling heat. Madder reds are never them an insertion, and oblige one of your subscri-five hours to two days, as may be convenient ; boiled, because the yellow of the madder, whichbers from South Carolina."

then make up the heap in an oblong form, open can be imbibed only at a boiling heat, injures In the vear 1818, my cotton was first visited by the middle, and put in three pecks of perfectly the color. There are but few colors that the this dreadful malady, the rot, and suffered consid-fresh lime, and sprinkle about three or four quarte pores of wollen will absorb below a boiling erably. From frequent conversations with sever- of water over it, and cover up : observe to use hot heat ; and yellows require a strong boiling:- al intelligent and observant planters, I became water in very cold weather. In large experiSteam heat will answer in some colors, but in convinced, that the injury was caused by an insect's ments, cold water will answer in any weather. the greater number it will not, for scarlet and ma- puncturing the pod, and most probably for the pur- In half an hour, the lime will heat, and burst ny others chat bave been tried by steam were pose of depositing its egg, which might be pro-lopen the heap of ashes, when the whole must be found to have only an external coloring. Hence tected through the winter, by the woolly fibres well and quickly mixed, and put into the ley tub, the reason why those who use steam, have a which adhere to the seed. In 1819, I tried the to the depth of one foot, and beaten moderately: grate under each furnace, to be made use of| following experiment, particularly on a small field another layer of ashes, of the same depth as the when necessary.

of rich land contiguous to my dwelling house. Ear-first, is then to be added and beaten as before, P. 16. “Nicaragua, Peach, Cam, and Barlly in the winter I had the stalks collected and and so on until the tub it filled within six inches woods. These are now imported, and used as burnt ; and finding that many pods, destroyed by of the top; water is then to be poured in steadily very inferior and cheap substitutes for Brazille rot, had fallen off and were lying about the field, until the ashes are nearly or entirely spent. The and Crazitutto. It would be well worth while to I had them carefully raked up and burnt. A few ley must be of a strength scarcely sufficient to make a set of comparative experiments, as tol days before sowing, I had several casks got, in each float a newly laid egg: four gallons of this ley are the quality and brightness of coloring matter they of which were put about one bushel of ashes to to be put into a large kettle, and thirty or forts contain, for the purpose of ascertaining their re-labout twenty gallons of water, taken from a manure pounds of fat added, and well stirred, over a renJative value. The nitro-muriat of tin should be head, and a gallon or two of pickle, which had been tle heat. When it is perceived, that the sharp the precipitant for these woods.”

used for curing meat during the winter. The mix-taste of the mixture is lost, more ley is to be adCam and Bar woods, produce colors of a very ture being well stirred, was allowed to stand for ded occasionally, until the soap becomes transpadifferent kind, from Brazille wood, and are much

24 hours--the seed was then put in carefully, a rent and very thick, and toward the last of the more permanent, therefore, their relative value

small quantity at a time, and stirred, so as to sepa- operation the liquid must be made to boil briskly. cannot be expressed, by any comparison of the

rate them. They were allowed to steep about 20 When the soap is made, let it stand for a day; proportion of their precipitates. Neither can an hour an

an an hours, and then rolled in ashes, mixed with a small when, if it does not grow thin, in that time, ne abundant precipitate be always considered as an

sidered as a quantity of lime, until each sced was completely apprehensions need be excited as to the occurproof of superiority, for it is often only apparent,

rent, covered. On the 25th of March, the field was rence of that circumstance. The kettle should and is owing to a feculent matter, which adheres

planted immediately after the seed was roiled) (be covered, and should hold more liquid than it to the acid, and is carried down with the preci

the preci-Jand, although the season was cold, came up well. is intended to boil, to give room for a brisk ebulpitate.

Towards autumn I perceived a little rot among it. lition towards the close. P. 17. “ Stick lac: seed lac: shell lac. The

The produce, when gathered in, was kept sepa-l For HARD SOAP, mild ley is to be used. Ted colouring matter of the resin lacca, is very...

acca, is very rate from all other cotton, and yielded 285 lbs. of When the soft soap is finished, and the mixture frequently used as a dying material on the con-les

conclean good cotton per acre. I mention this, to shew still tolerably hot, add sea salt until the ley drops tinent of Europe; but in England, I believe lach

that the effect of rot must have been inconsidera- clear from the soap : if it closes, add more salt, is only used for sealing-wax, and black paper var- ble My other fields were treated in a similar man- and at the same time, slacken the fire ; then boil nish.'

ner, with the exception of raking up the fallen pod, until the froth becomes as light as a featherThe coloring matter of shell-lac, has been used

used which was found tedious. These, likewise, suf-Draw the fire, and pour in salt and water into the in England about fourteen years, as a substitute

Helfered rot very materially. The next year, being mixture to cool it, observing to make a rapid for cochineal. It is extracted in the East Indies,l.

es, absent from home at planting time, I directed the stream, and not to let any drops fall in turning up and precipitated with muriate of tin ; from

om same process to be followed ; but am inclined to the bucket. When the soap is too strong of the whence it is imported in square cakes, and the

the think, it was not done with the same attention. I alkali, it will not grain ; in that case, add clean Best quality has been sold at about half the price nadir

the price had more rot this year, but very far less than my fat by degress, until it granulates, stirring it all of cochineal.

neighbors. I have, however, abandoned the cul- the time over a gentle heat. When it boils, no I discovered the process, by which scarletture of thie green for that of the black seed cotton, more fat need be added. pould be coloured from lac lake, in the year 1807 ;|(from its dreadful effects in the lower country)] It is to be observed, that if the ashes have been and entered a caveat with intention to secure a which is îree from this evil; and, although I have too tightly pressed in the ley tub, the ley will not patent rigkt. But on leaving the country the fol- observed the small dark speck (which is the inci-filtrate; and if they have not been sufficiently lowing year, I gave up all idea of reaping any ad- pient stage of rot with green seed) upon the pods, pressed, the water will run foul. In the first case, vantage from the discovery. The following is the it appears to have done no harm, from the pod be-the ashes may be loosened with a long iron scew process, now followed, to color scarlet with the iny probably of a firmer and more impenetrable er ; in the latter, they must remain some hours to jac-dye, which I have lately obtained from Eng-ltexture.

settle, and also be pressed. land.

I am of opinion, that ifthis plan was tried through-1 Observation.-The foregoing receipts were First. A lac spirit must be prepared, by dis- out a neighborhood generally, the disastrous ef-some years since given to the Editor, by one of solving four ounces of tin in each pint of muriatic fects of rot might be much diminished, if not alto- the best manufacturers of soap in Philadelphia, acid ; which must be done by digesting the mix-gether prevented; but it may not have the desired and he had it tried under his direction, with sucture in a sand heat. This is called the lac spirit. effect in solitary instances, as the insects may cess. He has even recently recovered a large When the tin is dissolved, the following compost transport themselves from fields infected, to those quantity of half made soap, by knowing the promust be prepared in a sand heat also ; take ten/ where the precaution may have been used. Nor portions of the several ingredients employed, and

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y supplying the deficient ones agreeably to the for some hours. On his return home, the first [ 0 BATHING .
rece ; after the female farm servant declared question he asked was “have you disposed of the
hat the mass was worth nothing. Rather less dog?” to which to his great surprise the servant

the servant From Willich's Domestic Encyclopedia, edited by resh lime was used than is directed.

answered “No sir, I could not find in my heart to Professor Cooper, and for sale by Abraham kill the poor dumb brute, and as he seemed by Small, Bookseller, Philadelphia.

his violent scratching to have something in his Bath, in the general acceptation of the term, REMARKS

throat or mouth, that caused his illness, I got a signifies a convenient receptacle of water adaptOn Hydrophobia, more particularly as it occurs friend to assist me, who held him down while I ed to the various purposes of washing or cleansin Dogs; in a letter from a gentleman of obser-Jopened his mouth for the purpose of examining it ing, and bracing the body, either by plunging, or vation and experience in New-Jersey, dated and his throat, when under his tongue, I observed continuing in it for a certain time. March 15, 1822.

a large Blob or Tumour, which I opened with a Baths may be divided into cold, cool, warm, and SIR-I lately read with much pleasure, in the penknife, and out of it came a great deal of nasty hot : and these again into natural and artificial. New York Spectator of the 1st instant, Mr. Mid- matter, which the dog threw out of his mouth, In order to treat this interesting subject systedleton's letter to you, accompanying Dr. Maro- immediately leapt up, frisked about the room as if matically, we shall consider it according to the chetti's very interesting report on the symptoms sensible of the cure that had beer effected on division above-mentioned. and cures of hydrophobia.

him, and he is now as well as ever he was.” Mr. Cold Baths are those of a temperature varying As I consider it the duty of every member of Grant could hardly believe the story ; but the en- from the 33d to the 56th degree of Fahrenheit's the human race, to communicate any thing that trance of the dog into the room in his usual man- thermometer. The general properties of the may in any way tend to elucidate or corroborate ner, to his great joy, confirmed the truth of it. cold bath consist in its power of contracting the this wonderful discovery, (the greatest that has On Mr. G.'s relating these circumstances to me, Janimal fibres, while it dissipates the caloric (or

et been made in medical science, I beg leave to mentioned to him that I thought the matter of matter of heat that exists betwcen their intersubmit to your consideration two cases which so great consequence, that he ought to draw up a stices, and thus effects a greater approximation of within these eighteen months have fallen within statement, and communicate it to some medical the particles, which were before dilated and remy personal knowledge and information, that may friend, as it might, perhaps, be the means of find-llaxed by heat. That such is the natural influde depended on.

ing out a cure for the distemper in dogs, which I ence of cold, cannot be doubted ; and hence this On the morning of the 18th of December, 1820,\then thought it was, though was convinced, from species of bath, by its powerful action on the while living in Canada, a favorite dog belonging to Dr. M.'s report, that it was the real hydrophobia. Wnole system, is one or tn me of the Setter breed, showed what I imagined As I soon after left that country. I do not know

not know cinal remedies presented by the hand, and, as it to be symptoms of madness, on which I immediwhether or not Mr. G. followed my advice; but

were, supplied by the very bosom of nature. ately directed my servant to tie him up in an out-1; in case he has not, I now give you all the circum

I Even in the most remote times, cold bathing house, and to give him some salt and water, as he e stances of both cases, well convinced that they

was resorted to, with obvious advantage, by nerappeared from scratching his neck and throat un".cannot be placed in better hands ; leaving you at

vous and debilitated persons; but in the dark or til it absolutely bled, to have something sticking W liberty to make such use as you may think proper, la

middle ages, this genuine source of health was in it ; this made him in a short time throw up a P.a of this information.

totally neglected, till the good sense of Euroquantity of yellow frothy matter, and seemed to

peans again adopted it as a general restorative, Telieve him very much: so that at 12 o'clock hel As Dr. M. mentions having the hands properly

so that at 12 o'clock hel As Dr. M. mentions having the hands properly when the prevailing diseases of relaxation and appeared free from every species of complaint.

batony rendered the use of such a remedy inestiSoon after, the servant gave him some water would peg leave to suggest your publishing what mabie. which he lapped freely and immediately threw material you deem a proper and necessary cover

cover The superior advantages of cold bathing over wo a large quantity of the same yellow frothying for the hand; with which, and a lancet, at!.

at all internal corroborants, consists chiefly in its matter. some of it in large lumps. From these least one person in each village or large family:

my immediate salutary action on the solids, without symptoms I was induced to think he had swallow-Tought, in case of accidents to be provided, as it

as the intervention of the organs of digestion and nued some poisonous substance, on which account I there are many parts of this extensive country\trition : without havi Cave him some milk and water and fat mutton, where medical aid cannot be procured, or the pa-lth

the pa through numerous channels, before it can exert broth, which he took freely and appeared as if tient unable to pay the expense of the long attend-lite

the long attend its efficacy. For this obvious reason, it is pecusensible of the attention paid him, and as usual ance necessary. And I would also beg leave tollin

Oliarly adapted to those constitutions which, though wapped his tail and readily obeyed every order I suggest the propriety of having this report of Dr.Irobi

robust, and apparently healthy, are liable to nergave him.

Mi's promulgated throughout the country in gene-lvons

gene-vous, hysteric, hypochondrial, and paralytic afNext day his appearance was more unfavoura-/ral, through the medium of Newspapers or cheap fections, as well as ble, his eves appeared glazed and heavy, his tail pamphlets, with the addition of such remarks aslı actedłyou may think proper or necessary to make to it.

rks as lency and consequent indigestion.

Without expatiating, either on the history, or his back raised in a circular form, and his neck When I was a boy at school, in the North of the sensible effects of the Cold Bath, we shall raw from continual scratching. At this time I England, I learnt to worm dogs, which it was proceed : had him and the barrow in which he lay removed said did not prevent their going mad ; but in case I. Toa general enumeration of those cases, in to a warmer place, which I did without any diffi- they were infected, occasioned a relaxation or which it cannot be resorted to with advantage culty, as he knew and obeyed me as usual : vet|paralysis in the lower jaw, which disabled them and safety. Soon after, when I held out my stick towards him, from biting any thing, and under that idea, I af- II. To lay down the necessary rules and dihe laid hold and left the marks of his teeth in it.terwards wormed a number of dogs, but cannot, rections for the use of this heroic remedy. In the evening I gave him some more milk and wa- at this distant period, say what were the conse- With respect to the former, we must be conter and mutton broth, which he took freely and quences or effects of it ; but as the custom was cise, and shall chiefly point out by negative prowent to rest.

general, there must have been something in it, positions, those particular states of the body, in About midnight I was awakened by his incessant and perhaps might have proceeded from the idea which cold bathing must not be attempted : name. and apparently painful barking, which he continu- that the tongue was somehow afflicted. That thely, 1. In a full habit of body, or what is called erl without intermission until day light, when he saliva of a mad dog will not communicate the dis- general filethora, on account of the frequent seexhibited what appeared to me such undoubted ease unless carried into the circulation through a brile disposition attending such individuals ; 2. S1919 of violent madness, that I was under the wound in the skin, I am perfectly convinced, as a In hemorrhages or fluxes of blood, open wounds painful necessity of shooting him. My servant lady a friend of mine, had her face licked all overfor ulcers, and every kind of inflammation, wheThon told me that the day I desired him to be tied by a favourite greyhound, which had been tied|ther external or internal ; 3. In obstructions of up, he made a snap at his thigh, and gave it a up on account of being supposed to be infected, the intestines, or habitual costiveness ; 4. In afpirch, but having on thick pantaloons and drawers but got loose, and immediately after being again fections of the breast and lungs, such as difficult he did not break the skin, and no bad consequen-(tied up got loose a second time and ran off, and respiration, short and dry coughs, &c. 5. When es have issued from it.

before he was killed bit a number of dogs and the whole mass of the fluids appears to be vitiatWhen staying last August, with my friend, Mr. cattle, all of which went mad, yet the lady nev-ed, or tainted with a peculiar acrimony, which Grant, at Montreal, I happened to mention all er felt any bad consequences from it.

cannot be easily defined, but is obvious from a these circumstances to him, when he, pointing tol With real esteem,

sallow colour of the face, slow healing of the flesh a favorite dog, lying at his feet, told me, that I have the honor to be,

when cut or bruised, and from a scorbutic tendenabrut two years ago he was in so similar a situa

Sir, your most obedient,

cy of the whole body ; 6. In gouty and rheumat«,, that he left orders with his servant to shoot

Humble Servant,

tic paroxysms ; though Sir JOHN FLOYER asserts, him, and as he could not do it himself or be in the

W. A********.

that “ Podagries sometimes have kept their tits way when it was done, be went into the country | Dr. MITCHELL, M.-D.

off with it ;" 7. In cutaneous eruptions, which

tend to promote a critical discharge of humours hour, while the latter are generally able to sus-ju sual immersion ; and can be more readily proby the pores (yet the celebrated physician justtain its impression for double that time.

cured and adapted to circumstances; lastly, 4. mentioned, informs us, that great cures have 3. The head should first come in contact with The degree of pressure from the weight of wabeen effected in the lefirosy, by bathing in what the water, either by immersion, pouring water ter, is here likewise in a great measure prevenhe calls, “ Cold Sulphur Water") 8. During upon it or covering it for a minute with a wet ted; nor is the circulation of the fluids interrupted pregnancy; and 9. In a distorted or deformed cloth, and then diving head-foremost into the wa- so as to render the use of this bath in any degree state of the body, except in particular cases to bester.

dangerous; a circumstance of the highest impor ascertained by professional men. Sir John far- 4. As the immersion will be less felt when it is tance; because by the ordinary immersion, per ther recommends, but too indiscriminately, the effected suddenly ; and as it is of consequence sons are often exposed to injuries which they dipping of ricketty children one year old, every that the first impression should be uniform over least apprehended. morning in cold water; and he is of opinion that, the body, we must not enter the bath slowly or Cold bathing produces the best effects when in adults, it prevents the infection of fevers, by timorously, but with a degree of boldness. A used early in the morning; and when, after wimaking the body less sensible of the changes of contrary method would be dangerous; as it might ping the body dry, moderate exercise is afterair; that, in old women, it stops violent hemor- propel the blood from the lower to the upper wards taken. The evening is certainly not the rhages from the uterus; that it has contributed to parts of the body, and thus occasion a fit of ap- best time to use the cold bath in the city ; sevecure canine madness, poisonous bites of animals, poplexy. For these reasons, the shower bath is ral cases having occurred within the Editor's oband obstinate agues, by going in previously to the attended with considerable advantages, because servation, of violent fevers in persons who tried return of the fit, and after all the evacutions ofsit transmits the water quickly over the whole this experiment in the months of August and the body have been properly attended to; and, body; and, consequently, is more consistent with September. Bathing in salt water every morning lastly, that the Sea-water Bath has been of emi- the rules before-mentioned.

is said to preserve strangers from the dangerous nent service in dropsies, and defective hearing : 5. The morning is the most proper time for seasoning fevers of the West Indies; but in this in which last case he knew a deaf person who using the cold bath, unless it be in a river; in case temperance must also be joined, and is procould hear perfectly well, on the day he bathed which case, the afternoon, or from one to two bably more certain in its effects than any other in the sea.

hours before sun-set, will be more elligible; as remedy. The cold bath is highly useful to pre. Experience, however, has but too often evinc- the water has then acquired additional warmth serve children from the bowel complaints which ed, that this excellent remedy, whether by fresh from the rays of the sun, and the immersion will prevail in the summer throughout the United or salt water, cannot be implicitly relied upon in not interfere with digestion: on the whole, one States. those complaints ; nor will it be productive of hour after a light breakfast, or two hours before, any good effects, unless our conduct, in general, or four hours after dinner, are the best periods of THE FARMER. be accommodated to the following rules :

the day, for this purpose. 1. It is a vulgar error, that it is safer to enter 6. While the bather is in the water, he should BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, APRIL 5, 1822. the water when the body is cool, and that per- not remain inactive, but apply brisk general fric

17 The comforts, and the profits of rural life, sons heated by exercise, and beginning to per-stion, and move his arms and legs, to promote the spire, should wait till they are perfectly cooled. circulation of the fluids from the heart to the ex-are made up in a great measure, by attention to Thus, by plunging into it, in this state, an alarm- tremities. It would, therefore, be extremely im-8mall matters. Though every one might-how ing and dangerous chillness frequently seizes prudent to continue in the water till a second chill-Ifew do, enjoy in their families the sweets collectthem, and the injury sustained is generally as-ness, attacks the body ; a circumstance which ea.

Wed by the industrious Bee. How little is known cribed to their going into it too warm ; while it would not only defeat the whole purpose inten- by the mi

by the mass of society, of the natural history or doubtless arises from the contrary practice. Dr. ded, but might at the same time be productive of e

ceconomy of this interesting insect. We shall J. CURRIE, of Liverpool, in his valuable“ Trea-the most injurious effects.

publish several papers on the management of it, and tise on the Effects of Water in Fevers," says, with Immediately after the person leaves the bath, have begun

h have begun with a small English treatise of mod. equal truth and precision, that “ in the earliest it will be necessary for him, with the assistance ern date: Iti

Jern date. It is calculated in England that almost stages of exercise, before profuse perspiration of another person for despatch, to wipe and dry every cotta

every Cottager might keep from four to six hives, has dissipated the heat, and fatigue debilitated his body with a coarse and clean cloth. He an

W land that each one ought to yield him 25 shillings, the living power, nothing is more safe, according should not afterwards sit inactive, or enter a car-exclusive of the swarm, so that every one migh: to my experience, than the cold bath. This is so riage, unless warmly clothed and wearing flannel pay, there

pay the rent of his cottage from the produce of true, that I have for some years, constantly di-next the skin: if season and circumstances per-This hives alone ; certainly nothing yields a greatrected infirm persons to use such a degree of mit, it will be more proper and highly beneficial. Jer pront, compared with the disbursement thap exercise, before immersion, as may produce some to take gentle exercise till the equilibrium of the the keeping of bees. increased action of the vascular system, with some circulation be restored, and the vessels as well as

Our files contain other works and communicaincrease of heat, and thus secure a force of re-ac- the muscles, have acquired a due degree of re

tions on the same subject, which will be noticed or tion under the shock, which otherwise might not action.

Jinserted as opportunities offer. always take place. But, though it be perfectly! The best place for cold bathing is in the invigo ! Ire We have just received from London, a safe to go into the cold bath in the earlier stages/rating water of the sea, or a clear river : and copy of a small work, The American Gardener, of exercise, nothing is more dangerous than this where neither of these can be conveniently re

from the pen of the celebrated William Cobbett. practice, after exercise has produced perspira- sorted to, we recommend the Shower Bath; an ou

Our readers will find it very curious and useful, tion, or terminated in langour and fatigue ; be-apparatus which may be procured from the tin-an

m land as soon as we can get the engravings execu cause in such circumstances the heat is not only man. Its effects are doubtless more powerful red,

ilted, we shall commence the publication of the sinking rapidly, but the system parts more easily than those of the common bath : and though the work entire in this paper. with the portion that remains." In short, it is a latter covers the surface of the body more uni

Do We return our sincere thanks to those of

ihop rule liable to no exception, that moderate exer- formly, yet this circumstance by no means de

our patrons who have already so promptly and cise ought always to precede cold bathing, to tracts from the excellence of the former: because honorably compu

Thonorably complied with the terms of subscrippromote the re-action of all the vessels and mius- those intermediate parts, which the water hastion

tion. cles, on entering the water ; for neither previous not touched, receive an electric and sympatheticIn The long continued and severe illness of rest, nor exercise to a violent degree, are proper impression, in a degree similar to those brought (Mr. Redding, who attends to the details of this on this occasion.

into actual contact. As every drop of water from paper,

m paper, will account for the non-appearance of the 2. The duration of every cold bathing applied the shower bath operates as a partial cold bath, na

index to the third volume, as well as for other to the whole body, ought to be short, and must be its vivifying shock to robust individuals, is more on

Jomissions and irregularities. He is again at his determined by the bodily constitution, and the extensive and beneficial, than from any other

desk, to the great relief of the Editor, and the sensations of the individual ; for healthy persons method of bathing.

Index may be expected within the next two may continue in it much longer than valetudina- Hence this bath is possessed of the following weeks. rians ; and both will be influenced by the temper- important advantages ; 1. The sudden contact of ature of the air, so that in summer they can enjoy the water may be repeated, prolonged, and modi. PRICES OF COUNTRY PRODUCE. it for an hour, when, in spring or autumn, one or fied, at pleasure; 2. The head and breast are Corn, 72 to 74 cts.--Whiskey, 31-Wool, 30 to 50 two minutes may be sufficient. Under similar tolerably secure, as it descends towards the low-_Wheat, red, 132 to 135-do. white, 135 to 140 circumstances, cold water acts on aged and lean er extremities : thus, the circulation is not impe- Maryland Tobacco-fine yellow, none_good persons with more violence than on the young ded, breathing is less affected, and a determina-Ivellow $16 to 18-Fine red, 8 to 12-good do. 6 to and corpulent: hence the former, even in the tion of blood to the head and breast is effectually 18–Common, 5 to 7-Eastern Shore, 3 to 5-Sehottest days of summer. can seldom with safety obviated; 3. As the water descends in single cond do. 1 to 4 all other articles remain as at remain in the bath longer than a quarter of an drops, it is more stimulatingand pleasant, than the last weck's quotations.

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No. 3.- Vy!.. 4.

ERICAN FARMER-BALTIJIORE, 12th APRIL, 1822.
AURIIULIUKE.

friction or singeing, I prefer the latter, as exces-ning in all directions before the entrance of the

sive rubbing is apt to injure the texture of the hive, shewing the anger of their dispositions by The Cottager's Manual,

nive, and whilst it takes away one straw, general- attacking without ceremony some of their own

ly raises another. The hives, being thus pro-community, but instantly finding out their inisFOR THE MAX.GEMENT OF EEES THROUGHOUT

Iperly prepared, should be put into a dry place, take, they desist from the altack, but their choleEVERY MONTH OF TUL YEAR. iobe ready for immediate use.

ric disposition appears, by this disappointment, 1 The lives this month should be visited every to be rather increased than diminished. Thirdly, 7 the resident, vice presidents, the treasurerilerewing, and watch for the little speckled butter-fif a number of Bees be seen lying dead on the and members of the British Apiarian Society, dies which fly out at twilight, and which enter the ground before the hive, and if the wings of the ho, by their laudable endeavors, have encoura-Liivne".

encoura-hives for the purpose of depositing their eggs.-dead Eees be in a perpendicular position, no Sed the culture of the Bee, among8ė the coitu- These

coma These moths may be reckoned amongst the prin- doubt can then exist of the hive having under {"18, this manual is dedicuted, with feelings of

mngs Ocipal enemies of the Bees, for they carry on their gone an attack, or that it is in danger of it ; the i:c most profound respect, by their secretary.

works so secretly and insidiously, that a hive is most prudent method to be adopted in this case, [CONTINUED.]

often ruined before the proprietor is aware of it. is to remove the attacked hive to a remote part APRIL.

I am, however, compelled to say, that I know of of the garden, and by way of deceiving the atThe active department of the apia"y increases no niethod by which the ravages of these insects tackers, put an empty hive in the place of it: this month, in warm and favourable situations the can be arrested in the common hive. They gene- this should be done late in the evening, and on the Lopulation of the hive will have increased con-Trally lay their eggs in their crevices at the top, or following morning the enemy will appear ready siderably, and towards the latter end of thelin

the in some of the empty cells, and particularly those for the attack, and finding no opposition, will, month, some drones may perhaps have made

made appropriated for the brcod; the shape of the coward-like proceed most resolutely to enter the their appearance. This ought to be the subject

common hive prevents all examination at the top, empty hive, and finding not the expected booty, ut congratulation to every bee-master,* and 11.

and the actual destruction of the hive is comple- will, in a short time relinquish the attack and would wish to impress this maxim upon his mind,

his mind, ted before the proprietor is aware of it, or has wisely betake themselves to inore honest means Curly drones, early Swarms; for immediatelyle

utely even the slightest suspicion of it. There is there- of obtaining a livelihood. ihat a drone is perceived, the most positive con

fore only one chance which the proprietor of Bees Towards the end of this month, artificial Cusions may be drawn, that the time is not far

tar in the common hive can expect of arresting the swarms may be made, but not until the actual ex Gustant, when the proprietor will be gratified with evil, which is to catch the butterflies on their en-sistence of drones has been ascertained. NotwithThe sight of a swarm.

tering the hive, and an hour in the evening, when standing this practice has been strongly recomThe provident apiarian will this month pro- the labor of the day is done, may be well and pro-mended by some apiarians, I cannot but consider it. vide himself with the number of hives requisite fitably employed, in watching for these arch ene- in general, as a forcing of nature, and diverting her for the reception of his swarms. This is a point mies of the Bees, and by annihilating their exis-operations out of her usual track. In warm cliof prudence on the part of every apiarian, for it tence strike at the root of the evil at once.* mates some benefit may be derived from it, but is certain that many swarms are lost from a want The queen wasp will often make her appear-after a series of experiments in this country, all of attention, in being seasonably provided with ance this month, and every exertion should be of which have tended rather to the destruction hives-never put a swarm into an old hive, indeed used to kill her: let it be considered, that with and impoverishment of the parent hive, I have some cottagers pay so little attention to this ad- the destruction of every queen wasp, several thou-wholly desisted from making artificial swarms, vice, or consider it of so little consequence, that sand enemies of the Bees are destroyed in embryo, nor would I recommend the adoption of the sysit appears perfectly immaterial to them in what and I must acknowledge that I always feel a pecu- tem to any persons but those, who are actuated Surt of a hive they put the swarms, so that it be a liar satisfaction in entrapping one of the regal foun-by a desire of novelty, and of curiosity in the Hive; it seems to be of no moment whatever, ders of a colony of the most inveterate fces which management of their Bees. whether, the hive stored in some outhouse or cel- my favorite insects have to contend against. The It is possible that towards the close of this kar, has been the receptacle, during the winter, keeper of a number of hives would find it his in-month,* some swarms may be thrown, but as it is op all sorts of vermin obnoxious to the Bees, or terest to give a premium for a certain number of a very rare occurrence, the particulars of that Whether the eggs of the moth have been deposit- queen wasps, in the same manner that farmers most interesting event in the management of Bees, mi in it, to be hatched with the return of spring, give a premium for sparrows; for l-am certain, shall be reserved until the following month. and in a short time to prove the destruction of comparatively speaking, that the sparrow does the combs. I would advise the cottager to follow not commit greater depredation upon the proper- This may be considered, in some respects, as the example of the antiquated lady, who not hav-ty of the farmer, than the wasp upon that of the the busiest month of the year, in the apiary in a hive ready for her swarm, sagaciously took apiarian. The best method of killing the queen The skill of the proprietor has brought his hives té utensil from under her bed, rather than to wasp is to carry a small bit of cane in your pock- safely through the dangers of the winter and the select an old rotten and musty hive, for a fine and et, and when her majesty has alighted upon a spring, and he is now on the eve of reaping his early swarm. The expense of a new hive, com- bush to give her an ungracious fillup, and lay her reward. The drones have now for some time Jured with the advantage derived from it, is not prostate upon the ground.t

made their appearance, which is the first indiworth the mention, and I am certain that no per- An attack upon the weaker hives may often oc- cation of a thriving hive, and I will now proceed son who is alive to his own interest, will ever cur in this month, and should it escape the vigi- to state the other signs, by which the novice may romnuit a blunder so egregious in the manage- lance of the apiarian, the destruction of his hives ascertain the certainty of the approaching swarm. tient of his Bees, as to put his swarms into old may be the consequence. It may be necessary to In the first place, the increased heat in the intelives.

state the signs by which a hive, on the eve of be- rior of the hive, arising from a numerous popuHaving provided the requisite number of hives, ing attacked, may be known. In the first place, lation, may be ascertained by observing a few the first step to be taken is to clear the interior a number of Bees will be seen flying about the Bees standing at the entrance, with their wings from all projecting straws, and carefully to inspect hive, and dogging about the entrance; some will in that continual and quick motion, that they can the texture of the hive, that no holes may be left venture on the stool, as if to try the temper of scarcely be perceived. Every action of these tough which the light can penetrate. Should the inhabitants within; by degrees they will ven- surprising insects appear to be actually founded any holes be perceptible, they must be stopped ture near to the entrance, until perceived by the on a sense of reasoning, for the heat of the hive with putty or mortar ; this will save the Bees a Bees, an attack takes place, and the cowards im- no sooner begins to be disagreeable to them; than

at deal of trouble, as it is their first occupa-mediately betake themselves to fight; in the a number of Bees immediately station themselves tion on taking possession of a hive, to stop up second place, a number of Bees will be seen run- at the entrance, and by an increased circulation every crevice by which the light can be admitted. The projecting straws may be removed, either byl * Gentlemen who are prevented by harticular of air, occasioned by the motion of their wings.

temper the excessive heat of their domicile. It - occupations from watching their hives in the twi-" Bonner, the celebrated Scottish apiarian, light, might employ a little girl or boy to watch * In the daily papers of the first week of sho. if he had been guided by the light of edu-l for the butterflies, and a small premium given March 1819, it was most gravely stated, that a corion, would have made a most conspicuous fig-lupon the number caught, would act as an excite-Iswarm of Bees had settled rhon a man's head, in are in the elucidation of the natural history of ment to their vigilance.

Newport, in the Isle of Wight, on the 26th of ".. Bre, always considered that day a holiday in t I once killed in a gentleman's garden in Scot-February, and that they were hived without the ".pich the first drone made its appearance; heim-land twenty-nine queen wasps, in one morning ;lindividual sustaining any injury-they should mediately collected his family, and often in the reckoning each wasp to found a colony, on an further have stated that the man had a quig on. Larnitude of his enthusiasm, the apiarian would average, of two thousand, I had consequently and that the Bees were safely hived in the said ng the language of Burns, toddle right fu" to destroyed nearly sixty thousand insects, which de- wig, and were now at work in it-the one and brd from the effects of his generous metheglin.. serve the title of the bucaneers of the insect race. deserve as much belief as the other.

is also certain, that this motion of the wings is a ral clear and bright. The Bees seldom or never marrowbones and cleavers* ;-it has no more efdemonstration of joy-for confine a Bee for a few swarm in high winds, nor when the sky is over- fect to make the Bees settle, than the music of hours, and then restore him to the hive, and he cast--they will, however, often swarm on a sud- a fiddle or a flute to make a deaf man dance, on will stand for a minute or two waving his wings at den gleam of sunshine, and consequently when it the contrary I am well convinced, that whatever the entrance. The second criterion of an in-Jis the least expected by the proprietor. After effect it may have, it is highly injurious, as it creased population, preceding the swarming, is the usual signs of swarming have been exhibited, may prevent the Bees from settling where they the small drops of perspiration which are visi- I would therefore advise every keeper of Bees to intended. The first flight of a swarm is very selble at the entrance, called by the country people, be constantly upon the alert--I have seen so ma- dom to any great distance from the hive,-and I the sweating of the hive. This perspiration is ny persons lose their swarms, from a supposed have reason to believe that the first congrega:ion attended by a particular odour, resembling that conviction upon their minds, that their Bees would of the Bees is merely to assemble the whole of of heated wax, and an increased blackness of the not swarm on that particular day, on account of the community in one body, and then to take stool at the entrance. These may be called the some adverse signs regarding the weather, or, their fight to their selected abode, in some holprognostics of an increasing and superabundant what is still worse, on account of some ridicu- low tree or hole in a house or barn. Being, howpopulation ; but that which immediately pre-lous superstition or prejudice, like that which is ever, arrested by the foresight of their owner, in cedes the swarming, and which may indeed be prevalent in the north, that Bees never swarm on providing a suitable dwelling for them, added to called the warning sigh to the proprietor, is the a Saturday, for the very powerful and cogent the instinctive fear of danger which appears to be clustering of the Bees outside of the hiver reason, that the following day is Sunday ; that I so strongly impressed upon the Queen Bee, on hanging sometimes in large bodies under the stool, am never disposed to relax in my endeavors to her exposure to the open air, the Bees take to and crowding in such numbers round the en- impress it upon the minds of every apiarian, that their hive and immediately commence their latrance, that the working Bees can scarcely gain when Bees have once taken to clustering, not tolbors. admission. In the middle of the day the Bees lose sight of them from the hour of nine to two, It is impossible to lay down any particular diwill also be seen running out of the hive, as if or even later, until the swarm is actually on the rections for the hiving of a swarm, as no two situsomething in the inside were driving them out-wing. The cause is actually unknown to us, ations are similar in which it settles. The most and the drones will appear the most busy and ac- which prompts the immediate departure of the easy situation is that in which the hive can be held tive amongst them. This extraordinary activity swarm, and until that cause can be ascertained, under the swarm, and the Bees shaken into it; will be apparent, and will increase daily, until the moment when the effect will be perceptible when the swarm settles on a post, or an upright the swarm flies off, and when the Bees have must remain indefinite. The departure of a branch of a tree which cannot be cut off, some once taken to clustering and hanging out of the swarm certainly depends upon the Queen, but difficulty then presents itself to the timid and inhive during the whole of the night-let the pro- whether she be driven from the hive, or quits it experienced Bee-keeper. In all cases a goose's prietor be then strictly upon his guard-for the voluntarily, is inveloped in great doubt. The wing will be found of essential service, as the following day perhaps, will give him the wished monarchy of the Bees is so absolute, that I am Bees can be brushed off the post or branch into for addition to his stock.

inclined to attribute it to the former, for unless the hive, and so long as the person takes care It has been the subject of dispute with many she betake herself to flight, her death would be that none of the little knots of Bees drop upon eminent Bee-masters, whether the Bees, a few the consequence. In this view of the case, the the ground, which may perhaps contain the days previous to the swarming, do not send out a moment of her expulsion cannot be determined Queen Bee, he may proceed boldly with his work, scout to choose the place of their new habitation, by any immediate exterior sign, although the and brush them all into the hive. and I am much inclined to adopt the opinion that preparations for it are outwardly displayed. It will frequently happen that the swarm will they do. I have known instances in some apia- Thus it may please the reigning monarch of the settle in several clusters, in which case the diffiries, that the proprietor could always foretel the hive, to expel the infant Queen from her territo- culty of hiving them is encreased. It becomes, swarming of his hives, by observing small clusters ry at a time, when, according to human calcula- however, in this stage, a matter of doubt, of Bees in particular places, and especially on tion and reasoning, or consistently with the rules whether every one of the clusters has not a Queen the chimnies where fires are not much kept.* -- of politeness, her abode ought to be tolerated; Bee, and consequently, whether every cluster This may account for the difficulty which some- I have known her expelled during a shower of should not be considered as a swarm within itself. times occurs, in retaining a swarm in a hive, and rain, on which occasion it was a most heart-ren- Should this division of the swarm take place, the which is attributed by the majority of persons, to ding scene, to behold her majesty in all her na- ladept in apiarian science may search for the some dislike which the Bees have taken to the tive dignity and beauty, and over whose golden Queen Bees, and separate the swarm equally, hive. but which in my opinion has its cause in the form no breath of heaven had yet rudely dared giving to every Queen her proportion of subjects choice of a residence, selected by a certain num-Ito pass, on a sudden exposed to the pelting of the and thereby forming as many distinct hives, ber of Bees, previous to swarming.

pitiless storm; but her majesty managed it well, which if the swarm be early may prosper well; The most usual time of swarming is from nine, for she settled on the gooseberry bush most proxi- but to the novice, this undertaking is attended A. M. to two, P. M. and the weather in gene- mate to the parent hive, and she was soon sur-with so much difficulty, and the acquaintance lrounded by her subjects, that not a drop of rain with the particular make of the Queen Bee must

be so accurate, (which I am sorry to say, but few * In an apiary belonging to a gentleman in could reach her Scotland-- I was for several years witness to this cir

& witness to this cir- |

This circumstance has been merely mentioned
This circumstance has been merely mentioned * This custom of making a noise in order to

The Cueto cumstance, and we were always obliged to cover to prove to the inexperienced keeper of Bees, make

ranthe chimney with a cloth, to prevent the Bees that his vigilance ought to be unremitting, when-Trestors on the e from entering it. A small cluster of Becs was al- ever the signs of swarming have exhibited them-It was made

igns of swarming have exhibited them- It was made use of as a warning to their neighways to be found in the chimney two or three days selves.

bors, that a swurm had just departed from a hive, before the swarming of a particular hive, and A particular degree of laziness is often percep- in order that if it settled in a garden not belongone year they actually made good their lodgment tible amongst the Bees, for some little time pre-ling to the proprietor of the hive, he might be able in the chimney, from which I took them with a viously to swarming--very few Bees are observed to claim the swarm, he having given notice, by the great deal of trouble, but no art nor skill could to enter the hive, with that apparent bustle which usual noise, that his hives had swarmed. I take induce them to remain in the hive--for having se- distinguishes them when at full labor, and when this opportunity of informing tảe cottagers, that lected the chimney, they were determined to have they alight upon the board, instead of instantly lif u swarm settles in a neighbor's garden, the law 22 other residence. This may be one of the effects entering the hive, as if loaded with farina or allows him to enter that garden for the purpose of of a female government, which, whether human honey, they run about the entrance, apparently niving the swarm-he being at the same time liaor ejiarian, is generally of an absolute nature. lin search

in search of some object, and then betake them- ble for any damage which he may commit in the I had once a swarm which shewed such strong selves to their wings again. This is one of the garden, in securing the swarm. A person reemptoms of this wandering disposition, that it symptoms of an immediate swarm, but it re- taining a swarm of Bees, after notice being given View from the hive four timesand four times Iquires some little practice to ascertain these par-to him, and proof adduced that the swarm belongs hived it afresh.-Having remarked that every ticular movements of the Bees; for by a novice to a particular individual, is liable to an action. time it flew out, its flight increased in distance, I they would be passed over as indicating nothing I wish this point to be distinctly understood by fell upon the expedient of confining the runa- of any consequence, whereas a due knowledge of the cottagers, as many presume that a swarm beways during the day time, by letting down both them' vould lace the

on them would place the proprietor so much upon comes their property, if it lodges in their garden. the perforated sliders, and giving them some food, his guard, that his swarms could never escape. Is a cow or a pig another's property if either break and when it was almost dark, I gave the prisoners! The swarm being once on the wing, keep your through a fence to regale upon a few turnips? about five minutes liberty ; I continued this plan eye well upon it until it begins to settle; `follow and upon the same principle, a swarm of Beca for four days, and on the fifth, their truant dispo-Inot the ridiculous custom of making a Babel noise, does not become the property of the individual int sitian was completely quelled,

with shovels and pokers, and warming pans, and whose garden it may have chanced to lodge;

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