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169 AMERICAN FARMER-BALTIMORE, 230 AUGUST, 1822. No. 22.-Vol. 4.

formerly imagined efficacious in preventing pes-the cause may be, for that the seed being mollifiHORTICULTURE. tilential diseases.

ed in milk, will be too weak to draw the grosser

juices of the earth, but only the finer:" he adds, ... POMARIUM BRITANNICUM,

CUCUMBER.-CUCUMIS.

“ cucumbers will be less watery if the pit where An Historical and Botanical accouni of Fruits, In Botany, a Genus of the Monæcia Syngenesia you set them be filled up half way with chaff or

Class.

small sticks, and then pour earth upon them ; for known in Great Britain, by Henry Philips.

The cucumber, which is one of the coldest cucumbers, as it seemeth, do exceedingly affect --Second Edition.

fruits, is evidently a native of a warm climate ; moisture, and over-drink themselves, which this (Continued from page 167.)

and by all the researches I have been able to chaff or chips forbiddeth.” This great author CRANBERRY.-VACCINIUM MACROCAR-make, I conclude it belongs to the soil of some also states, that "it hath been practised to cut off PUM.

Iparts of Asia and Africa. It was known to the the stalks of cucumbers, immediately after bearIn Botanu. a Genue of the Octandria Monocu Grecians, as their earliest writers on natural his-ling, close by the earth ; and then to cast a pretty

tory have mentioned it, and in particular recom- quantity of earth upon the plant that remaineth, nia Class.

mend that the seeds should be steeped for two and they will bear the next year fruit, long beThis fruit, which is so much esteemed in tarts, Idays in milk and honey before they are set, to fore the ordinary time. The cause may be, for or with crean, is a native of England, and is make the fruit sweeter and pleasanter. Pliny that the sap goeth down the sooner, and is not found growing in the peaty bogs of Sussex, Cum Imentions the great quantities that grew in some spent in the stalk or leaf, which remaineth after berland, Norfolk, Lancashire, and in other parts of Africa, and particularly in Barbary.--the fruit; where note, that the dying in the winmarshy lands. Gerard calls the fruit fen-berries : all vegetables are so forined as to perpetuate ter of the roots of plants that are annual, seem" they grow," says he, “ in fennie places, inlihom

laces, in themselves by seed in the climate where they leth to be partly caused by the over-expence of the Cheshire and Staffordshire, where I have foundland

na originate ; for if this was not the case, every sap into stalk and leaves ; which being preventthem in great plentie.” Valerius Cordus called

species of plant that is not cultivated, would sooned, they will superannuate, if they stand warm." them oxycoccon; the Dutch term thein fencease to exist ; and tlie cucumber has never been Miller informs us, that the cuttings of cucumbers, grapes,

found to grow in the natural state in any part of taken off about five or six inches long, from Dr. Withering states, that at Longton, in Cum- Europe

healthy plants in the summer crop, at the end of berland, there is a considerable traffic carried on Columella is the oldest author who gives any September or beginning of October, planted in in cranberries ; that on the market days, during direction for forwarding cucumbers by artificial pots of rich mould, plunged into the bark bed the gathering season, the sale of these berries means. “Those who wish for them early," says and shaded until they have struck, will produce amounts to from twenty to thirty pounds sterling he, “ should plant the seeds in well dunged earth fruit before Christmas. It is also recorded in per day: many people in that neighbourhood (put into osier baskets, that they may be carried Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, that Thomas make wine from cranberries; but never havirgout of the house, and placed in warm situations Fowler, gardener to Sir Nathaniel Gould, at tasted this liquor, I can give no account of it's when the weather permits; and as soon as the Stoke Newington, presented King George the quality. The English cranberries, which are season is advanced, the plants may be sunk in First with a brace of well-grown cucumbers, on preserved in bottles with no other care than the earth with the baskets, or wheels may be put New Year's Day, 1721. The seeds from which keeping them dry, are very superior to those lupon large vases, that they may be brought out they were raised were sown on the 25th of Seplarge cranberries imported from the northern with less labour ; notwithstanding they ought,"tember. parts of America, which are now so common in continues he “to be covered with specularia," His late revered Majesty had his table supplied the shops of London. These berries, being pack- which seem to have been transparent stones, that with cucumbers, at all seasons of the year, by ed in large casks, must undergo a fermentation du-the Romans were in the habit of cutting thin, so Mr. Aiton, under whose care the Royal Gardens ring the voyage, which consequently deprives as to admit light, and keep out the air, glass be- of this kingdom have produced, in the highest them of a part of their natural flavour. Cran-line unknown at that period

perfection, nearly all the known fruits of the berries are also imported from Russia and Ger- It is related by Pliny, “ that Tiberius the em-world. many ; and during this last year great quantities peror was so fond of cucumbers, and took such Cucumbers are much less used in their natural have been brought from New Holland, which are pleasure and delight in them, that there was not a state than formerly, among wealthy families, but smaller, and darker coloured, than those wrought day, throughout the year, passed over his head, they are in great request for stews and made from America, and very superior in flavour: but he had them served up at his table. The dishes, and when preserved they are esteemed Cranberries are found growing in many parts of beds and gardens wherein they grew, were made one of the most agreeable sweetmeats. As a Spain and Hungary. They are the produce of upon frames, so as to be removed every way with pickle, girkins have been long admired; but damp swampy lands only: but the idea that they wheels; and in winter, during the cold and fros-whoever purchases them, should be careful to will not bear transplanting, is erroneous, the ty days, they could be drawn back into certain get them free from any substance that may have late Sir Joseph Banks having planted some near a high covered buildings, exposed to the sun, and been used to colour them. pond in his grounds at Spring Grove, which have there housed under roof." "These appear to be Lunan, in his account of the sativus, or cultiproduced fruit beyond calculation. This infor-the earliest accounts of the forcing of plants vated cucumber, says, “although cucumbers are mation may be worth the attention of those who which we read of in ancient times. It is probable neither sweet nor acid, they are considerably have marshy or brook land, as a matter of pro- also, that artificial heat was used ; as we find, acescent, and so produce flatulency, cholera, difit ; and to those who have ornamental water in by the remains of their villas in this country, how arrahæa,” &c. Their coldness and flatulency may their gardens or parks, it would be found an em-Iperfectly the Romans were acquainted with the be likewise in part attributed to the firmness of bellishment to the banks; it being an elegant lit-Imethod of warming their rooms with flues. thcir texture. tle fruit on the ground, where it trails, and span- Pliny says, “ To make a delicate salad of cu- They have been discharged, with little change, sles the grass with its red and variegated ber-cumbers, boil them first, then peel them from the from the stomach, after having been detained ries.

rind, and serve them up with oil, vinegar, and there for forty-eight hours. By this means, Sweden produces abundance of cranberries, Ihoney."

(therefore, their acidity is greatly increased ; but they are only used for cleansing plate in that Mr. Aiton mentions the cucumber as being first hence oil and pepper, the condiments commonly country.

cultivated here in the year 1573, in the reign of employed, are very useful to check their fermenA new species of cranberry is now cultivated Queen Elizabeth. This appears to be an error, tation. Another condiment is sometimes used ; in this kingdom, which has been called Snowber-as cucumbers were very common in this country viz. it's skin, which is bitter, and may therefore ry, on account of the colour of the fruit : it was in the reign of Edward the Third ; but being unat supply the place of aromatics ; but it should onbrought from Nova Scotia in the year 1760 by tended to during the wars of York and Lancaster, ly be used when young. Mr. Jonathan Laycock, and is stated to be found they soon after became entirely unknown, until Brookes states, that the cucumber is unfit for in the swamps of Cyprus also. This berry has a the reign of Henry the Eighth, when they were nourishment, and is generally offensive to the perfumed taste, like eau de noyau, or bitter al- again introduced to this kingdom. (Gough's stomach, especially if not corrected with a good monds : it is reared by Mr. Joseph Knight, of British Topography, vol. I. p. 134.)

deal of pepper as well as vinegar. The seeds, he Little Chelsea, and several other nurserymen Gerard gives the earliest directions for making states, are reckoned among the four greater cold near the metropolis. Another variety was hot beds for cucumbers in this country, which seeds, therefore emulsions of them have been brought from Madeira in 1777, which requires was in 1597, when gardening was in it's infant prescribed in burning fevers, &c. the shelter of the green house ; and the Jamaica state. He directs, that they should be coveredlo

| Cowper has beautifully described the method cranberry, which was introduced the following with mats over hoops, as glasses were not then year, will not thrive in this country except in the known.

To raise the prickly and green coated gourd, stove.

Lord Bacon who wrote about the same period, So grateful to the palate ; and when rare, Cranberries are of an astringent quality, and says, “ cucumbers will prove more tender and So coveted ; else base and disesteem'd, esteemed good to restore the appetite: they were dainty if their seeds be steeped (little) in milk : Food for the vulgar merely,

The Rev. Griffith Hughes, in his Natural His-in describing all the fruits known in their time. riety. The currant is a fruit that will ripen tory of Barbadoes, mentions the wild cucumber- It seems not to have grown so far south as France; early, when planted in a warm situation, and may vine as indigenous to that part of the world. It for the old French name of groseilles d'outre mer be retarded so as to be gathered in good condiis called by Father Plumier, anguria fructu evidently bespeaks it not to have been a native of|tion in the month of Noveniber, when they are echinato eduli : he describes the fruit as a small that country, and even at the present time their planted in a northern aspect : thus, with care, a cucumber, whose surface is covered with many language has no appropriate name for it distinct skilful gardener will furnish a dessert of this soft pointed prickles : it is sometimes eaten ; but from the gooseberry. The Dutch also acknowl-fruit for six months, without the aid of artificial is esteemed to be of too cold a nature to be whole- edge it not to have been indigenous to Holland, heat. some.

where it was called besskins over zee. Whether Currants will keep for years in bottles, retainLunan, in his Hortus Jamaicensis mentions the the Dutch first procured this fruit from Britain, ing all their qualities for tarts, &c. if they are small wild cucumber as being a native of Jamaica, or from any other northern countries, we must gathered perfectly dry, and not too ripe. They where it grows very plentifully, and is often used acknowledge ourselves indebted to the gardeners only require to be kept from the air, and in a dry with other herbis in soups, and is a very agreeable of that country for so improving the size, if not situation. I have found it an advantage to pack ingredient: the rind is thickly beset with blunt the flavour of this fruit.

them in a chest, with the corks downwards; and prickles. Sloane mentions it as a pale green oval The English name of currant seems to have if the vacua be filled up with dry sand, it would fruit as big as a walnut, and says it is eaten very been taken from the similitude of the fruit to that insure their preservation. greedily by sheep and cattle.

of the small Zante grapes, which we call cur- . The red currant gives the finest favour for The ancients used the wild cucumber as a sove- rants, or Corinths, from Corinth, where this jelly. reign remedy in various complaints. “The best fruit formerly grew in great abundance, and The wine made from the white currants, if kind,” says Piiny, “ was found in Arabia, and which are so much used in this country for cakes, rich of the fruit, so as to require little sugar, is, the next about Cyrene and Arcadia." puddings, &c.

when kept to a proper age, of a similar flavour It was from the juice of these cucumbers that The Italians seem to have no other name for to the Grave and Rhenish wines ; and I have they procured the medicine called elaterium, the currants than uvette, little grapes. At Ge- known it preferred as a summer table wine.which, Theophrastus states, could be kept goodneva they are called raisins de Mars. The cur- Even in London this agreeable beverage may be two hundred years; and for fifty years it would rant does not appear in the list of fruits published made at less expence than moderate cider can be be so strong and full of virtue, that it would put by Thomas Tusser in 1557, which I have tran- bought for. Diluted in water, this wine is an out the light of a candle or lamp. Pliny says, "to scribed to shew what fruits were cultivated in the excellent drink in the hot season, particularly to try good elaterium, it is set near to a lighted can-latter part of Queen Mary's reign.

those of feverish habits. It makes an excellent dle, which it causes to sparkle upwards and Apples of all sorts, apricots, barberries; bool- shrub ; and the juice is a pleasant acid in punch, downwards.”

lesse, black and white; cherries, red and black; which, about thirty years back, was a favourité Elaterium was used not only as a purgative, chesnuts ; cornet plums ; damisens, white and beveragein the coffee-houses in Paris. but against the sting of scorpions, and for the black; filberts, red and white; gooseberries; The best English brandy I have tasted, was dropsy: with honey and oil, it was used for the grapes, white and red ; green or grass, plums ; distilled from weak currant wine, by a gentlequinsy and diseases of the windpipe : it was said hurtil berries; medlers, or meles; mulberries ; man at Windsor ; and I have no doubt but it to cure dimness and other imperfections of the peaches, white and red; peeres of all sorts; could be made superior to the common brandies, eyes, the ring worm, tetter, &c. as well as the peer plums, black and yellow ; quince-trees; (imported from France, were it encouraged, and swelling kernels behind the ears.

raspis; reisons; small nuts : strawberries, red certain restrictions taken from the distiller. The juice of wild cucumber leaves dropped and white; service trees; wardens, white and The black currants, which were formerly calwith vinegar into the ears, was thought a good red; walnuts ; wheat plums.

lled squinancy berries, on account of their great remedy for deatness. A decoction of the fruit be- Corrente tere not distinguished from gooseber use in quinsies, are natives of Sweden and the ing sprinkled in any place, will drive away mice ; Iries by any particular name at that period ; and shor

und northern parts of Russia, as well as the northern it was also said to cure the gout, &c; indeed, sole

counties of England, where they have been found even in Gerard's time, they were considered as a many virtues were attributed to it by the ancients,

in their natural state, growing in alder swamps, species of the gooseberry. He says, in his acthat if we were inclined to give credit to them, it would cause our wonder to find they had any London gardens another sort altogether without I count of the latter fruit: “ We have also in our and in wet hedges by the banks of rivers. In

*some parts of Siberia, the black currants are complaint uncured. Iprickes, whose fruit is verie small, lesser byl

said to grow to the size of hazel-nuts. The inThe Romans had also many superstitious opin

habitants of that country make a drink of the "much than the common kinde, but of a perfect ions respecting these wild cucumbers. Wives

leaves : in Russia a wine is made of the black Cred colour, wherein it differeth from the rest of leaves : who wished for children wore them tied roundi,

currants; and it is also made in some parts of This kinde." their bodies ; and they were brought into houses

(England. by the midwife, but carried out, in the greatest

| Lord Bacon, who wrote about fifty years after The jelly made from these currants is recom. haste, after child-birth.

Tusser, has noticed them : he says, “The ear-mended in most complaints of the throat : they Columella has recorded a variety of wonderful liest fruits are st

Vliest fruits are strawberries, cherries, gooseber-lare also esteemed cleansing, pellent, and diuretic: stories respecting the garden-cucumber ; and ries, corrans.

alries, corrans, and after them early apples, early an infusion of the roots is useful in fevers of the some Enolish authors of great celebrity bave pears, apricots, rasps, and arter them damiSons, leruntivo lind stated, that when a cucumber vine is growing, if and most kings of prums,

or if and most kinds of plums, peaches, &c. ; and the The inner bark of all the species of the cur

5 you set a pot of water, about five or six inches latest are appies,

latest are apples, wardens, grapes, nuts, quinces, rant tree, boiled in water, is a popular remedy distance from it, it will shoot so much in twentu. almonds, sioes, orierberries, hops, mediers, serv-lin jaundice: and some medical men have recom four hours as to touch it: but that it will shrink Ices, cornelians, &c."

mended it in dropsical complaints. from oil, and turn fairly away from it.

Currants are a fruit of great importance in this The currant-tree that was brought from the - The gourd

country': they are so easily propagated, that eve-sisle of Zante, by our Levant traders, and first

ry cottage gardener can rear them ; and they are planted in England in the year 1533, I conclude And thirsty cucumber, when they perceive

likewise so regular in bearing, that it is seldom was the vine that produces the small grapes Th' approaching olive, with resentment fly

Ithey are ir jured by the weather. At the dessert, which we call currants, and of which the EnHer fatty fibres, and with tendrils creep

Ithey are greatly esteemed, being found cooling!glish use more than all the rest of the world toDiverse, detesting contact.

land grateful to the stomach ; and they are as gether. This fruit grows in great abundance in Phillips.

Imuch admired for their transparent beauty, as several places in the Archipelago. We have a

for their medicinal quailities being moderately re- factory at Zante, from whence we import them CURCANT-TREE-RIBES.

frigerant, antiseptic, attenuant, and aperient.. so closely pressed by treading, that they are ofin Botany, a Genus of the Pentandria Monogy- They may be used with advantage to allay thirst ten obliged to be dug out with an iron instrument. a nia Class.

in most febrile complaints, to lessen an increased the natives thinking we use them as a dye. This agreeable and wholesome fruit is undoubt-secretion of bile, and to correct a putrid and Currant trees produce their fruit on small edly a native of our country : it was formerly scorbutic state of the fluids, especially in san-snags, that come out of the former year's wood: found growing in the wild state, in woods and guine temperaments ; but in constitutions of a sin pruning, care should be taken not to injure hedges in Yorkshire, Durham, and Westmor- contrary kind, they are apt to occasion flatulency that part ; but the shoots may be shortened or Land as well as on the banks of the Tay and and indigestion. Brookes says, they strengthen thinned as soon as the leaves are off. They reother parts of Scotland. As a further proof of the stomach, excite appetite, and are good quire least room, and have a neat appearance, in its being a northern fruit, we have no account of against vomiting.

private gardens, when planted as espaliers; and its having been at all known to the ancient! Besides the red and the white currant, the sal-Ithe fruit is thought to ripen better. Greeks or Romans, who have been very accurate mon colour, or champaigne, is cultivated for va

(To be continued.)

[graphic]

pal.

TAXIDERMY, or the art of collecting, prepar-pagated from grains, with the same qualities The travels of several naturalists have already

ing and mounting Objects of Natural History, which a long culture has obtained from them; rendered the collection in the Museum very confor the use of Museums and Travellers. this number will always be very small.

siderable, and certainly the richest in Europe ; SIR,

Baltimore, July 13, 1822. The seeds should be gathered when very but it still wants many things; there are many I send to you, agreeably to my promise, the ripe, and then put into paper bags, with a note, gaps, which, in a few years, will be doubled, little volume entitled Taxidermy, which I have indicating:

unless those who visit foreign countries will take just received from England, and which from If the vegetable be a tree or an herb.

some interest in filling them. the cursory examination I have given it, ap- In what country it was gathered.

This collection, which already occupies four pears to be a very useful vade mecum for those The nature of the soil where it grew. rooms in the Museum of the King, is composed who have a taste for objects of natural history, The elevation of this soil above the level of the of herbals, fruits, dried or preserved in spirits, and are disposed to collect them in their voy-sea.

gums, and resin, specimens of wood, and some ages and traveis. I should imagine it would be Its native name.

other productions of the vegetable kingdom, creditable to the government to print a cheap! If it be used as food, in medicine, or in the which may be useful in medicine, or the arts. edition of it, and furnish every ship of war, arts; and if its history, and the properties at- The trouble of enriching it is not so great as that and every exploring party of the military withstributed to it, offer any remarkable. peculiar-required for the augmentation of zoological colcopies, as it would assist those who might have ities.

llections. it in their power to enrich the museums of our We are particularly desirous of having notes The plants which are destined for herbals Cities with the rarest objects in nature, by teach-on the vegetable poisons with which the natives (ought, as often as possible, to be gathered in flowing them how to obtain and preserve specimens. infect their arrows, and the manner of gather- er, and in fruit. When the plant is small, we In sending this book to you, however, I had ing and preparing them.

take it entire, erep with the root ; when it is chiefly in view that part of it which teaches the To be certain of the maturity of seeds, we large, we cut branches fifteen inches long; we manner in which seeds, and other means of must gather them when they easily separate put the plants well extended between leaves of propagating vegetables, may be best preserved from the plant. In several instances, we may paper, under a board (using pressure to prevent and conveyed, supposing you might wish to in-take the branch which bears them, that those them from curling up) which we do not resert such information in your valuable Jour- which are not perfectly ripe may become so. move until they have become flat. It is gene

The bags containing the grains, well dried, rally sufficient for their perfect desiccation, that I remain, Sir,

ought to be put into a case covered with pitch, the specimens should be separated by several Your most obed't serv't, that they may be protected from, damp, insects, sheets of brown paper. In humid countries and ROBERT GILMOR. and mice.*

seasons, it is desirable to accelerate their dessicJOHN S. SKINNER, Esq.

The oily grains lose their germinating facul- cation by an artificial heat. For that purpose,

ty soonest. The seeds of tea, coffee, the glands we put a number of plants between two planks, VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

of most of the oaks, are of this kind. These separated from each other by two or three

seeds should be put into sandy earth; we strew sheets of paper, and place this packet in a stove The riches of the Museum relative to botany a depth of two inches of it at the bottom of a or oven, after the bread is taken out; this quick consist,

box, and we range the grains in this earth at method does not even alter the colours. When 1st. Of living vegetables cultivated in the distances equal to their size; we cover them they are dry, we change the paper. There are garden.

with about an inch of earth, in which we put a some plants which are very watery, such as 2dly. Of a collection of dried plants or herbals, fresh layer of seeds, and proceed in this way bulbous plants, orchidæ, &c. and which contiand all the products of the vegetable king- until within a foot of the top of the hox; we nue to vegetate in the herbals several months dom, which it is possible to preserve and make must take care that the box is quite full of sand, after they have been placed there. When these known.

that nothing may derange the seeds; the box plants are gathered in the state in which we The collection of a great number of foreign ought to be covered, but in such a manner that wish to preserve them, we plunge them for a plants ought not to be considered as an object of the air may penetrate. We make an opening at minute into boiling water, then put them beluxury or curiosity. It is useful to the progress the top, which we cover with a trellis of brass tween two leaves of brown paper; they will of science. Travellers have neither the time or wire, to admit the air, without the mice or other afterwards dry quickly, as the action of the boilfacility of describing and drawing remarkable animals being able to reach the earth. The ing water will have destroyed the life of the plants in the places where they gather them.grains germinate during their passage. When plant. .. It is only when they are cultivated in our gardens, the case arrives at its destination, we find the On each packet of plants of the same species, that they can study them in all the periods embryos of the seeds are developed, and we we put a note, indicating the name the plant of their vegetation, draw them when they are immediately put them into a proper soil : it is bears in its own country, the height of the counin flower, and try to multiply them, if their in this way that MM. Michaux, father and son, try above the level of the sea; in short, the same culture promises any advantages. We must not brought to Europe so many species of oaks from notes which we have required for living vegetaforget, that several foreign plants, which are North America.

|bles. These instructions are extremely impornow spread in other parts, were first cultivated in Although certain seeds with a hard shell, such tant for the geography of plants, to the progress the Jardin du Roi. Everyone knows that the as walnuts, plums, &c. do not come up until a of which, Humboldt has so much contributed. coffee, which now grows in the islands of Ame-long time after they have been sown, it It is also useful to notice the height of the plant, rica, proceeded from a plant raised in our green- would be proper, when the kernel is oily, to the colours of its flowers, and the odour they exhouses; and, still more lately, the bread-fruit follow the method we have pointed out, that hale, as these cannot always be learned from a tree has been sent from our green-houses to Cay- they may not turn rancid on the passage. This herbal. enne. We must add, that a multitude of slips precaution is also useful for the family of laurels Dried fruits should be sent in cases, with a and seeds of ornamental plants have been cul-llaurina,) and that of myrtles ( myrti,) especi- ticket which indicates the branch of the plant tivated in the Jardin du Roi, which are now be-ally when the vessel has to cross the equatorial to which they belong. We do the same by gums come an object of trade, as well as several use-seas.

land resins. Pulpy fruits should be sent in spirits. ful trees which now ornament our parks, and when we wish to send the seeds of a pulpy each in a separate bottle. some of which have been introduced into our fruit, we must separate the grains from it; when Herbals and fruits, when they are perfectly forests. In the Jardin du Roi we cultivate eve-the commencement of its putrefaction announces dry, should be packed in cases covered with ry plant necessary for study; and great atten-their maturity. We dry them, and place them pitch, to defend them from mice and insects; tion is also paid to those which are useful or in paper bags.

and it will be prudent to add a little cotton, impleasing. When they fructify, we gather the We now proceed to collections of dried vege- bued with oil of petroleum, or oil of turpengrains, and distribute them gratuitously to all tables, and other productions. It is by the help tine. those whom we believe capable of multiplying of the former, that we are able to know, com- It is also desirable to send specimens of useful and propagating them. We also give slips of pare, and describe plants, to distinguish their woods. These specimens ought to be about ten those trees which have not yet borne fruit. species, and contribute to the progress of botany. Jinches long, and, if possible, the width of the

It would be extremely advantageous to bring By their means alone, we can invariably fix the tree; we also wish for a longitudinal and trans living plants to the Museum ; above all, those nomenclature and classification of vegetables.versal cut of the tree: but it is most essential which are known to be useful in the countries

- to put a number on the wood, corresponding to where they grow : but the conveyance of living * M. de Candolle recommended me to pack all the branch of the tree in the herbal, for bota. plants exacting much care and giving much seeds, collected in a moist country or season, in nists are still ignorant to what trecs several of trouble in vessels, we do not desire to receive any charcoal, Honey is also said to be a good pre-the woods belong which are articles of conin this state, except those which cannot be pro-servative.

merce.

Amongst the objects sent to us, we shall, doubt. The rose laurel (nerium. Fam. apocyneæ,) paper between the two planks. We should less, find many which we already possess; still which affords a beautifui dye.

also have a tin box, and a large book of blotthey may be useful. There are plants in our gar- The apocyneæ which yield the gum elastic. ting-paper, with a loose back, shut with little dens which have degenerated, the seeds of which The tree which produces incense, and which straps, and capable of being carried into the form it is desirable to renew. There are some which, grows in the environs of Calcutta.

of a knapsack. This book and box will serve, with difficulty, fructify in our green houses, and

Carthagena.

during a journey, for a temporary herbarium. the seeds of which are not in sufficient quantities

| When we are stationary, we take the plants

The balsam of tolu, (toluifera balsamifera. from the book or box, and place them in sheets to give to all those who request them. Thus, the phormium tenax, or flax of New Zealand, the Fam. terebintaceæ.)

of dry blotting-paper; between each sheet confibres of which are much stronger than those of Terra Firma and the Mouths of Oronooko. taining a plant, we must be careful to place two hemp, might be plentifully cultivated in several! The vessels which go to Martinique and Cay- or more dry and empty sheets, and then press of our provinces, where it succeeds perfectly, enne, having, as we have already said, frequent the whole between the planks with the straps, although its seeds ripen with difficulty.

communications with Terra Firma and the and expose them in a dry, warm, and airy place. The plants preserved in herbais, which we al-| mouths of the Oronooko, might easily procure We ought every day to change the damp paper ready possess, may be employed in making ex-lus the plants we chiefly desire from these regi- for dry, until the desiccation is completed. We changes with other countries, and thus establish ons, by asking for them under the names by may shorten this operation a little, by only one nomenclature. which they are known in the country.

changing the intermediate sheets, and always Gums, resins, dye-woods, vegetable produc. From Cúmana, branches in flower, and ripe leaving the plant in that in which it was first tions employed in medicine, can be analysed, and fruits of the cuspa, which we call jesuits' bark placed ; but in this case the number of intermepositive information given on objects which are (cascarilla,) and which we must not confound with diate sheets must be more considerable. When now but imperfectly known. We must allow the cuspark of the missions of Caroni. The cus- we plunge saponaceous plants, lilaceve orchidee, that, notwithstanding all our care, there are al- para furnishes the quinquinna (jesuits' bark) of &c. into the hot water to destroy their vitality ways some objects amongst our collections which Spanish Guyana, called in Europe, cortex an- we must always except the flowers; and after are destroyed by time, and which it is useful to gusturæ.

this process, we must be very careful to change renew.

✓ The vessels visiting the ports of Guaira and their papers. Collections of vegetables, from whatsoever Porto Cabello might bring some branches in Very delicate aquatic or marine plants require country they come, always present something flower, and some fruits of the cow-tree (arbol peculiar care: we must float them in a basin of new; and there are some places so little known, de la vacca,) which resembles the chrysophyl- fresh water, and then pass a piece of very strong that we desire to receive every thing which can lum in the family of sapoteæ. This tree grows white paper under them, by which we raise them be procured from them.

near Barbula, between Porto Cabello and Nue-slowly and obliquely, that they may remain We will now give a brief list of a few objects'ya Falencia. ' It will be highly important to bring attached in their natural position. If the which would be particularly useful.

also several well-corked bottles of this vegetable plants are extremely delicate, we must use talc The North of Europe.

milk, which gives nourishment to the inhabi- or glass.
tants.

When the fruits are of a dry nature, it is often
The Lithuanian pine.
Santo Thomas de Angostura, and the Mouths of without sifting them; but when the fruit is fleshy,

more advantageous to leave them in their husks The Northern Coasts of Africa.

the Oronooko. The lawsonia (Fam. salicariæ,) the leaves of|

we must separate them.

The leaves, the flowers, the fruit, and the fariwhich dye a yellowish red.

When fruits are dry and coriaceous, they do na of the trunk of the moriche palm, celebrated not require any other preparation than being The oak with sweet acorns, (Fam. amenta- na of the tr

amongst the Guaraunos Indians. A branch with preserved in a dry place, not exposed to the cea.) The pyrethrum.

the flowers, as well as the fruits, of the cuspara sun: and those whose valves open with desicca

or quinquinna of Caroni (cortex The sideroxylum of Morocco. (Fam. sapotz.)

angusturæ.)|tion, must be tied round with a piece of strong Branches in flower and fruits of the tree which af-thread. Senegal

fords the almonds of the Rio Negro, and which If the trunk of a tree does not exceed a foot in The gum-tree of Senegal.

bears the name of almendron or juvia (berthole-diameter, we should cut a stump a foot long, reThe detar (detarium.)

tia excelsa.) The branches, the flowers, and taining the bark, with its thorns or spines, if it The galega (Fam. leguminosa,) and the indi- the fruits of the chickichik palm, of which has them. If the trunk exceeds a foot in diamegoes which serve for dyeing.

they make cordage in the missions of Oron- ter, we may choose a middle-sized branch for a The Cape of Good Hope. ooko.

specimen, if it does not differ from the trunk ; The lilaceæ remarkable for the beauty of

New Holland.

but if it does, we cut the trunk longitudinally, so their flowers.

| Cucalyptus and casuarina (Fam. myrti et coni

toni Ithat we may have one-half or one quarter of its The protex and gardeniz (Fam. proteaceæ et feræ.)

circumference, but always from the pith to the rubiaceæ.)

Besides the collections of living vegetables, bar
The Isle of France.
plants preserved in herbals, and products of the

When we meet with palms, ferns, or any other

V vegetable kingdom, the Museum possesses an as- monoco

monocotyledonous tree, we should procure a The true ebony wood. sortment of tools, machines, utensils, and substan

stump of a foot long, whatever the diameter may Madagascar.

Ube. If the palm be branchy, which is very selces, employed in gardening, in agriculture, and e.. The vahè which yields the gum elastic. in rural economy. This assortment, already ve

dom the case, we must cut the trunk six inches

below the ramification and six inches above. The Levant. ry rich in the implements of the different na

Travellers are particularly requested not to negf the ancients Chelehomistions of Europe, still requires the tools, &c. of, The true hellebore of the ancients (heleborus) other parts of the world. They would be re

lect any opportunity of collecting palms, tree orientalis, Fam. ranunculaceæ.)

ferns, dragon-trees (dracæna,) pandaneæ, or trees The astragalus (Fam. leguminoseæ.) which/ceived with pleasure and gratitude.

similar to these. yields the gum adragant.

| In cases where it is impossible to have a porThe balm of Judea.

BOTANY.

Ition of the trunk sufficient to convey an idea, of The seeds of the weeping willow (Fam. aman

General Observations.

its size, as the baobab, or the ceiba, we must taceæ,) and a small plant of the male tree.

The nearer we advance to the equator, the lar- take an exact note of the dimensions. The Persia.

çer we find the plants. The most commodious specimens of wood, when fresh cut, should be The assa fætida.

size for the paper of the herbarium is from fit-put to dry in places which are neither too dry. The willow called bismith.

teen to eighteen inches long and eight or ten nor too warm, to prevent them from splitting.

wide. We should be provided with severall Roots are only worth the trouble of collecting, India.

planks of the same size as our paper; these when they present any thing remarkable in their The salsaparilla of commerce.

planks should be formed of two thinner ones, structure, and then we take the same precautions The nelumbo (Fam. hydrocharideæ.)

their surfaces being glued together; so that the as for woods. The nepenthes.

grain of the wood of one may go length-ways, Fleshy fungi ought to be treated like fleshy The terminalia (Fam. elæagneæ.)

and the grain of the other breadth-ways, and fruits, that is to say, preserved in spirits. Those The canarium.

without this precaution they are apt to break. whose nature allow them to be dried without The mangostana (Fam. grettiferæ.)

We must have either a press, or a proportionate much alteration, and lichens, ought to be treated The kaki (diospyros kaki. Fam. guaiacanæ or number of straps with buckles at one end, which like dried fruits; that is, either put into an herebenaceæ.)

I will serve to press the packets of blotting-barium, or dried apart. Ferns, mo88e8, alge.

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yught to be dried and put into an herbarium. If The committee appointed on behalf of the For the best piece of Towelling, not less than ime be wanting, the mosses may all be mingled "Maryland Agricultural Society,” to make ar

10 yards, together, and arranged after their arrival. rangements for a Cattle Show and Fair, for the the best pair of knit woollen stockings, 1

In the present state of science, travellers ought Exhibitiou and sale of Live Stock, Agricultural the best pair of knit cotton stockings, - 1 to pay great attention to the collecting small Implements and Domestic Manufactures, have the best pair of knit thread stockings,- 1 tryptogamia which spring on living vegetables. resolved that the said Show and Fair, be held at

Each of a size for men or women. The greater part of the spots or excrescences the place and times above mentioned, as that the best sample of Butter, not less than which we see upon leaves, stems, or fruits, are the following premiums be offered and awarded

five pounds, a butter knife with a worthy of being gathered and preserved. In this to the owners of the best kinds, that is to say :

silver blade of the value of case, we ought to gather the leaf charged with

A statement of the manner of preparing the

HORSES. the parasite, and a branch in flower of thel.

cream and butter will be desirable. same tree, to know its species.

For the best Stallion,

$20 The above premiums will be awarded only for Travellers will render an important service to the second best, - -

15 animals bred within the State of Maryland, or science, by carefully collecting the monstrosities the third best,

10 within the District of Columbia. But male anior permanent accidents of vegetables; such as the For the best Mare,

15 mals of the several kinds above specified may be natural union of the organs of the same plant,

the second best,

10 entitled to premiums, though bred out of the which are generally separate; the organs which

the third best,

5 State and District, provided the owner of such areabortive or altered in their form, their number,

ASSES AND MULES.

male animal shall secure his continuance in the or appearance. These cases being out of the ge- For the best Jack,

State of Maryland, to be bred from, for one year neral rule, we cannot prescribe any precise me the best Mule,

w from the granting of the premium. thod for their preservation; we can only observe, the second best,

It is to be understood that whenever a premium that at the side of each monstrous or diseased]

for any specimen of Agricultural Implement,

CATTLE. specimen, another ought to be added of the

piece of Machinery, or article of Manufacture, same species, in its usual state, to serve as a com

For the best Bull over two years old, . $20 may be claimed merely from the want of compeparison.

the best Bull under two years old, - 15 tion, or where the thing presented for premium By the side of our drawings, it is desirable to

the second best bull under two years old 10 shall be considered as possessing no merit worthy place a sketch of the general appearance of the

the third best do.

- 5 of encouragement, the Judges shall have a right whole individual; and if it be a tree, to add a to da For the best milch Cow,

- 15 at their discretion to withhold such premium.scale of the size.

the second best,

10 But this regulation shall not extend to Live In our descriptions, if accustomed to the tech-le

the third best,

5 Stock, as the best offered will gain the premium nical details of botany, we should be careful to For the best Hiefer under two years old, - 10]without any exception. note those particulars which are not easily seen

the second best do.

- 5] In no case will a premium be given for Live in an herbarium, such as the exact insertion of

the best best yoke of Working Oxen, - 15 Stock, unless the owner shall have notified Mr. the parts of the flower and the fruit, especially

the second best do.

10 Samuel T. Kennard, of Easton, of his intention when the organs are very small; the precise

the best stall-fed Beef,

10 to offer for the same, and shall have entered the construction of the grain, &c.

the best grass-fed Beef,

10 particular animal with him ten days previous to In climbing plants, when any species are

SWINE.

the Exhibition, stating himself to be the owner found which resemble European, it is particular. For the best Boar,

of such animal, and the manner of feeding and ly necessary to notice which way they twist the second best,

rearing it, together with its pedigree, disposition

. around their snpport; the traveller, supposing the third best,

and other qualities as far as practicable. himself in the place of the support, his face For the best Sow,

%Persons having fine animals, though not intendturned towards the south pole, to ascertain if the second best,

ed to be offered for premiums, will gratify the they ascend from right to left, or from left to the third best,

Society by exhibiting them in their field. And right.

for the purpose of preparing proper arrangeSHEEP.

ments, and stalls, for the accommodation of all For the best Ram,

$8 stock offered for premiums or for show, it is the second best,

6 requested that all persons intending to offer For the best Ewe,

8 stock for show only, as well as those offering them the second best,

6 for premium, should give notice to Mr. Kennard, For the two best Wethers, over two years old, 5 of such intention at least ten days prior to the

the two second best do. . - - 3 Exhibition. For the two best Wethers, under two years, All Premiums awarded by the Committee of old, -

5 the sum of ten dollars and upwards shall be disthe two second best do do.

3/tributed in articles of Plate; and Premiums beIMPLEMENTS OF HUSBANDRY.

low the sum of ten dollars shall be distributed in

money or medals: and the Committee, to whom For the best Plough,

the charge of these regulations shall be entrusted, For the best Harrow for the cultivation of

shall determine the nature and devices of the Indian Corn,

plate and medals so to be distributed. For the best machine, or model of a machine

Sales of the Stock and articles exhibited, will for preparing unwretted Flax, for

take place on the second day either at public or

the wheel, - - - - - 20 An instrument for the convenience of travel

at private auction. lers, the upper edge of which, a, is sharpened For the best machine or model of a machine

By order of the Committee,

for threshing out wheat, and other for cutting specimens of the wood from the

N. HAMMOND, Chairman, small grain ; the cost of which shall I SAMTIE trunks or larger branches of trees; b, edged for

SAMUEL T. KENNARD, Secretary,

not exceed $100, - - severing the branches out of reach ; c, blunt for

251
251

Easton, August 13th, 1822. hooking them down, for the sake of the leaf, DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES.

| Editors of papers in this State and the Disfruit, or fower. This, with a small spade for For the best piece of Kersey, not less than 10 trict of Columbia, who are disposed to promote digging up plants, may be carried in the waist

yards,

$5/the interest of Agriculture, are respectfully recoat pocket, and the same handle will serve for

quested to insert this notice in their respective them both.

10 yards,

5 Journals the best piece of Cassinet not less than

10 yards. •

the best piece of carpeting not less than Selections from late numbers of the London FarFOR THE EXHIBITION AND SALE

20 yards,

mers' Journal, received at the Office of the Of all kinds of Live Stock, Agricultural Imple the best hearth Rug,

American Farmer. ments, and Domestic Manufactures.

the best Counterpane, To be held at EASTON on the Eastern Shore of the best piece of Sheeting, not less than Kinlet Agricultural Meeting and Sale took Maryland, on Thursday the 7th, and Friday the

12 yards,

3 place on Monday, the 1st of this month, of which 8th days of November next, to commence at ten the best piece of Table Linen, not less the following particulars have been transmitted c'clock, in the Morning of each day.

than 10 yards,

3'to us:None of the New Leicester Ewes *

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('attle Show and Fair, No. 3,

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