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: therefore cannot help feeling very sorry to see! A bullfinch in the neighbourhood having been land Virginia, praying the aid of the federal go

o many scores, and so many hundreds of English kept in a cage for several years, has lost the vernment towards the improvement of the naviarmers, still persist in using a great number of original colors of its plumage entirely. Some gation of the river Potomac, have according to animals in dragging ploughs of a bad construc-time ago it became dull and sickly, and beginning order, attentively considered the object of the

ion. I do not know that I have ever seen a to cast its feathers, the moulting and metamor- memorialists, and beg leave to submit to the plough better calculated for turning a furrow than phosing process continued till now its liveliness House of Representatives, in relation thereto, Mr. Small's ; I mean his modern chain resumed; but its color all over is a jet black.- the following REPORT:But though a good plough be a very good thing Montrose Chronicle.

| That, by the concurrent acts of the Legislaon a farm, a good ploughman is a great deal bet-1 SWIMMING MATCH_Thursday a swimming ture

swimming tures of Maryland and Virginia, a company ter. The setting of the irons, regulation of the

match took place in the Serpentine River, be- were incorporated in the year seventeen hundred #races, collars, and other harness, with skilful

tween Mr. É. O. Martin, the celebrated Notting- and eighty-four, on the recommendation of Ge. driving, are of the utmost consequence ; one man

ham swimmer, and Mr. T. P. Ramsden of high neral George Washington, for the improvement may plough with much less fatigue to himself and horses, than another, though with the same

swimming repute at Rochford. The match was of the navigation of the river Potomac, and its implement, for when a plough is properly set, the river. It was well contested for some time.!!

me time steenth and eighteenth sections of this act prescrithe draught should go in a certain angle from the M

Mr. Ramsden keeping the lead; but on turning bea,

turnino bed the conditions upon which the tolls granted plough-foot to the horse's shoulder; so that the horses do actually lift the plough and furrow,l.

Cround for the last time he grew tired, and was to the company should be exacted, and a limitarather than drag forward a dead weight. To

"passed in grand stile by his antagonist, who won tion to the duration of their charter. By a sud

the match amidst the shouts of thousands. Mr.Iplimentary act those conditions were modified. convince a ploughman of this, let him take a full R. sunk when within five yards of the winnning and the period limited for the completion of the bag of corn by the mouth, and he will drag it across the foor with tolerable ease; but tie al long rope to the mouth of the bag, and be at the

man; he soon recovered, and was able to walk has been from time to time, extended by subse

**quent laws of Maryland and Virginia. far end of the rope, it will break his heart tol

No legal inquiry has ever been regularly exdrag it but a few yards : this case is not exactly! PEDESTRIAN FEAT.-On Tuesday last Tho-!

Olecuted, so far as your committee are informed, in similar, but it is near enough. Hence the attach-/mas Peters, a broken down soldier, having no lorder to ascertain whe ing of wheels to ploughs is founded upon ignor-employ, undertook to run 16 miles if

ed unon ionor employ, undertook to run 16 miles in two hours, Iny have complied with the terms of their charter » ance, and calculated to promote ignorance and with no

with no other hope of reward than what the ob- After the expenditure of their subscribed stock. idleness in the ploughman. I grant, that a pair servers chose to

I servers chose to contribute. The distance was to the amount of $311,555 ; of the tolls of more of wheels would do a deal of good in helping the marked out on the Tewkesbury road, one quar- than twenty years' c bag of corn across the floor ; but carrying thelter of a mile out and one quarter of a mile in.

ng thelter of a mile out and one quarter of a mile in. (ther sum of $174,000, borrowed by the company plough across the field is not ploughing the field : He started precisely at four o'clock, and perform-lo

rted precisely at four o'clock, and perform of the state of Maryland, of the banks of the for it is very evident, that the more a wheel be-ed the first nine miles in 59 minutes; ti

Jed the first nine miles in 59 minutes ; the last District of Columbia, and of private individuals. comes useful to a plough, the worse the construc-seven he completed in 48 minutes ; thus runninglit is

ne completed in 48 minutes ; thus running it is universally acknowledged that the navigation of the plough must be : the irons of such the 16 miles in 13 minutes within the two

miles in 13 minutes within the two hours. tion of the river is most defective. plough must be forever endeavouring to get into the

The collection for the poor fellow was but small.- In all this period the stockholders have receiv. centre of the earth, and the wheels as constantly Cheltenham Chronicle.

ed but one inconsiderable dividend; and their endeavouring to bring them to the surface ; for On Friday a person walked from Chertsey to stock will not command in the market, where. my part, I should as soon think of having a pair the market house in Guilford (a distance of however, it is seldom found, a moiety of its of wheels to my scythe, as to my plough. Where twelve miles), in two hours, for a wager of £ 50. nominal value. soils are light, the difference is not so much per-|He appeared rather distressed on entering the It is, in fine, now ascertained, that. without ceived, because the draught, though greater than town, but had five minutes to spare on comple- further and very considerable aid from the states it need be, is still moderate ; but it is a great ting the distance.

immediately interested in the navigation of the pity that farmers on stiff soils, should imitate The second steeple-chase match between Cap- Potomac, or from the general government, Their example. A great broad-wheeled wagon tain Smith and Mr. Honywood took place on the great object sought to be attained by the with eight huge horses, may shew that the own-|Tuesday from Hawthorne-wood, Surry, to Kings- improvement of that navigation-a commercial er is a person of consequence, but will never, lake, for 200 guineas aside. The distance is 20 intercourse, through this channel, between the in my opinion, shew his sense, as a carrier of miles. It was done by Mr. Honywood in one western and Atlantic states, will be entirely degoods to the best advantage. To conclude, the hour aud twenty-nine minutes over a rough coun-feated. two-horse ploughs cost less in horses, provender, try. Captain Sinith took a circuit through Crane-l Will' the Congress of the United States interhands, harness, and repairs of all sorts ; but the wood, and swam across the Beddel river, his pose, and have they the power to prevent a retime and trouble of the ploughman to feed, clean, adversary keeping the high ground in the direction sult so deplorable? liarness, and unharness, the long teams, ought not of Leith Hill. Each had many leaps. The Cap- A hasty survey of the general map of the Uni. to be leit out; besides the double, triple, and qua- tain lost the match by about a quarter of a mile, Ited States, and a brief recurrence to the theocruple chance of accidents; for if even one horse his horse refusing to leap a hedge.

ry and policy of the federal government, with wants to make water, the whole team must wait

their practical illustration by the structure of on him : add to this, that a long train of horses

estAn awful instance of sudden death occurred a the Cumberland road, would seem almost to walking up every furrow, batters the subsoil likels. the bottom of an artificial fish-pond so that the few days since near Worthing. A gentleman of supercede the necessity of any comment from

the name of Home, having occasion to paint his you

o naint his your committee on the importance of the navicommunication between the bowels of the earth

house, incautiously remained in it, contrary to sation of the Potomac, or the power of Conand the atmosphere is completely blockaded,

: the advice of his friends, during the time the gress to provide for its improvement. and the soil on the surface is as it were, spread

"Imen were employed. On the fourth day he was! One of its southern branches, itself a consiupon a floor of ice, so cold and damp is the pud-la ditd mass. In short, I look upon good ploughing diness in the head

5mg diness in the head. A physician was immediate-in Virginia, and is capable of connecting, by a naas the first step towards good farming, and theliv sen

Illy sent for, but before he could arrive, the unfor- vigable canal, the geographical centre of that depth of a farmer's judgment may be measured

Itunate man was senseless. Every means which state, in territory the largest of the Union, with by the depth of his plough furrow.

medical skill could devise were tried for his re-Ithe market towns of the District of Columbia. Ian, Sir, your very humble servant,

Icovery, but without effect. He has left a wife Emptying into the Potomac above the chief obA GALLAWATER PLOUGHMAN. and two children to lament his untimely death. structions of its navigation, the Shenandoah,

like those navigable streams which descend from

the north west, through the limestone valleys of On Sunday se'nnight a lark, pursued by a hawk, NAVIGATION OF THE POTOMAC. Maryland and Pennsylvania, depends, for an

outlet to the ocean, on the improvement of the lighted for shelter on a woman who was sitting in a field near Torthorwald. The hawk was so HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.-May 3, 1922. navigation of the main river to a considerable rapacious as to make several atteinpts on its in-! Mr. MERCER delivered in the following Re-distance above tide water. These branches. tended prev before it could be driven off. The lark, port, which was read and ordered to lie on the when the stem shall have been improved, are apparently sensible of the protection it had re table:

capable of affording, with the Potomac, an inceived, remained with the woman, and is now The Committee of District of the Colum- ternal water communication, exceeding, in exlively and cheerful though, confined in a cage.-bia, to whom was referred sundry memorials tent, six hundred and fifty miles. Edinburgh utar.

Jfrom the inhabitants of Pennsylvania, Maryland, The value of this navigation to the ample and




Fruitful territory washed by the tide, or drained ferring to the value of the commodities which than the latter, with the superior hazard of the by the tributary streams of this noble river-alhave hitherto descended the Potomac. The ve- sea, augmented not a little by the peculiar cha territory comprehending four counties of Penn-Try origin of this report, in the present imperfect racter of the commodity itself. What would be sylvania, seven of Maryland, and eighteen of and hazardous navigation of the river, suggests the tolls upon the transportation of these neces Virginia -exceeding, in extent and population, an answer to this objection. It may be corro-sary and bulky commodities, beds of which, in some of the largest states of the Union, should borated by another; the tolls of a single turn-| exhaustible in quantity, and excellent in qualid not be disregarded. It sinks, however, into pike, in length but thirty four miles, leading to ty, are found in the vicinity of each other, nean comparative insignificance, when this river is the town of Alexandria, have exceeded in ones the surface of the earth, and on the very marl contemplated as a necessary link of the shortest(year twenty-five thousand dollars, or very near gin of the Potomac, if a navigable canal con chain of communication between the Atlantic a fourth of the annual interest of a sum suffici-nected Cumberland with Washington; and how and western states. The enlightened policylent to complete the navigation of the Potomac, rapidly would the demand for them increase which seated the federal government on the from its tide-water to the Cumberland road. with the progress of the population and wealtha banks of the Potomac, indicates its peculiar This great and costly work, itself, so ho- of the markets of the Chesapeake; The cond adaption to this purpose ; and nature has facili- nourable to the wisdom and beneficence of the sumption of salt, by which the east would pay! tated its accomplishment by a rupture of the ma- United States, awaits this improvement to yield in part, for these valuable minerals of the westel ny ranges of lofty mountains, including even the all that it has promised to the Union.

in the extensive grazing country of the Allega. great ridge of the Allegany, in the direction which! If the relative expense of transportation, by ny and its parallel ridges, would give increase such a purpose requires. It is no longer questionble land and by water, be properly estimated, the ed activity and profit to this intercourse. In the but that ihe head waters of the Ohio may be completion of a canal, from the tide to Cum-/channel of communication between the works of mingled with those of the Potomac, by a tunnel berland, would have the effect of approxima-Onondaga and the waters of the Ohio, this hea. or subterranean canal. not exceeding two milesting the seat of government to within a few vy commodity is now subjected to a most cir. in extent: and the produce of the soil and indus- miles of the Allegany; while the extension of cuitous water conveyance, by vessels of different try of the west, after ascending the Youghio-Ithis canal, at some future period, would occa-capacities and drafts, and that transportation many find a safe and commodious channel; thence,sion that formidable barrier to disappear, in the itself is interrupted by several portages. to the valley of Savage Creek, and through it, intercourse of the eastern and western states. ItIron every where abounds, and copper has alt the north branch, and the main river, to the is by such a canal that your committee propose ready been found in the mountains drained by the Chesapeake and the Atlantic.

Ito supply the place of the present defective na- Potomac. Their valleys yield luxuriant crops of The patriotism which exults in the approach-vigation of the Potomac. As this river affordshemp and flax, and the forests of oak and pine ing connexion of the Hudson with the northern the shortest water line of communication be- which climb their summits, are destined, it is to Jakes: in the efforts of the Carolinas and Vir-tween the tide of the sea and the eastern base of|be hoped, to supply future navies with the means ! minia, to unite. by short portages, the sources the Allegany, so is its current the most rapid, of raising the blockade of the Chesapeake. of the Santee and Pedee with those of the Ten-! when compared with that of the other great ri- It was by this channel of intercourse, imperfect nessee and of the Roanoke and James rivers with vers which have their sources in this chain of as it now is, that, during the late war, Louisiana the Great Kenawha. cannot but regard this mountains. Wherever the science of civil engin-supplied the Atlantic states with sugar; Tencentral river of the Union with peculiar inter-seering has been long and successfully applied to nessee with cotton ; and Kentucky with saltpe.

Jinland navigation, your committee are assured tre, that necessary material of defence. Were Notwithstanding all its claims to general fa- that the use of the natural beds of wide and ra-this communication as perfect as it can be renvor the Potomac is, however, exposed to the pid rivers has been superceded by a resort to dered, an enemy, who succeeded in closing serious disadvantage of being, throughout its navigable canals, extending along their margin, the mouth of the Mississippi, in order to paralyze whole course, the common boundary of states, and fed by their currents, until met by the tide. the industry of the west, would have, also, to win whose enterprise and resources are attracted to Without a recourse to this expedient, the as- from the fleets of the Union, the possession of other objects of internal improvement, some or cent of the Potomac by a loaded boat cannot be the Chesapeake. Through this channel, in case of all of which are rivals of this; and all its mar-lovercome, it is believed, at an expense less than war with a formidable naval power, the west kets once the property of those states, are by that which attends the transportation of equalwould not only supply the east with the valuable the session of the District of Columbia to the burdens over like distances, along the ordinary products of the Mississippi, but make its return general government, confided to the exclusive roads of the adjacent country. The conse- for the wines of Africa and the various manufacguardianship of Congress.

quence must be, that every downward cargo is tures of Europe and Asia, in the cloths of SteuWith an almost boundless authority over the chargeable with double freight, exclusive of in- benville and the cutlery and glass of Pittsburg, District of Columbia, the government of the surance against the repeated hazard to the boat Should such a war be as extensively conducted United States acquired new, urgent, and daily and the lives of those who guide it, of total des-on land as on the ocean, the cost of the conincreasing interests in the navigation of the Po-truction.

templated canal, would be saved by the United tomac.

From a navigation, so impeded and so danger-States in a single campaign. In the rapid improvement and consequent se-lous, all bulky commodities are, of necessity,l Your committee are aware that other channels curity of the seat of the Federal Government excluded, and yet, it is from the transportation of communication across the Allegany may be from'foreign danger, are involved, not only the of such articles, that the chief part of the re-l greatly improved, and rendered tributary to the Oreservation of the property and lives of its in- venue of any canal is derived. In the table of general welfare of the United States, both in sabitants. the accommodation and comfort of tolls, annexed to this report, it is apparent that peace and war; in the latter, by the additional seits numerous public functionaries, but, in no the entire estimate of the commodities which as-curity which they would afford to the commerce of small degree. the national character and honour.scend the Potomac, although they comprise a the interior, and by the vigour which they would The most deplorable calamity of the late war greater value in less bulk, bears but a very impart to all the operations of the Federal Gov. would. doubtless, have been averted, had the small proportion to the amount of those which ernment for the common defence. On the other capitos of the United States been encompassed descend the river; while these must be regard-hand, it will readily be conceded, notwithstanding by the dense population of a large city-by such ed as of very inconsiderable value, when com- the preference which may be given, by local in

population as would unquestionably succeed spared with the numerous and diversified pro-Iterests, to other objects of internal improvement; the contemplated improvement of the naviga- ductions of the extensive and fertile country that whatever facilities the commercial, social. tion of the Potomac. And if sordid views may which should find its market on the banks of and political connexion between the remote exbe allowed to mingle with considerations of such this river.

tremes, and the seat of the General Government inestimable consequence, it may be added that, Can it be owing to any other cause than the of so vast a republic as the United States, must with the growth of the numbers and opulence defective navigation of the Potomac, that the have the same propitious influence, as would reof a great commercial emporium, would, of ne-buildings of Washington are cemented with the sult, were it otherwise practicable, from contracte cessity arise a corresponding appreciation of the lime of Rhode Island, and warmed, in winter, ing the extent of its territory, without reducing value of all the disposeable public lands in the with the mineral coal of James river? The last|the number, impairing the wealth, or abridging city of Washington: consisting of more than is dug and raised, at much cost, transported the comfort and happiness of its people. To all five thousand vacant lots, and now computed at twelve miles over land to the port of shipment, the friends of liberty in America, who regard the near two millions of dollars, it is not unreasona- and thence conveyed by a circuitous navigation state government as essential parts of the reHe to suppose that their value would be quadru- of five hundred more to the District of Colum-Ipublican system, erected on a scale so broad, as pled by a prospect of their early occupation and bia. The former is calcined by fuel of a value, to create alarm for its duration, or who, with ne improvement.

enhanced by its scarcity, and its vicinity to a less truth, regard the union of those states as the Your committee are aware that this calcula-market, in which it is applied to various uses, bond alike of their freedom and independence. tion may be, indeed has been, impugned, by re- and it is afterwards transportedy even farther every measure, which has the effect of diminish


ng the extent of the one, while it multiplies and public lots reserved for sale, a sum, receivable in Iglory of the United States; that while it accomtrengthens the ties of the other, must be viewed semiannual instalments, sufficient to complete the plishes this object in the short compass of three with earnest solicitude. But another inquiry re-entire work in three years, from the date of the years, its cost will be distributed over the revenains-Has Congress the power to insure its first instalment.

(nue of eight and twenty ; that this cost will be uccess?

Referring to the annexed report of the chief greatly reduced by the credit which enables the So numerous and so various are the benefits ac-engineer of Virginia, and computing the total cost|American Government to negociate its loans at so ruing to every nation from inland navigation, so of the contemplated canal at two millions and a low a rate of interest as four per cent; that, by irgently have the United States been invoked by half of dollars, your committee recommend that the completion of the entire work in so short a he character and genius of their institutions, to an amount of stock, in the capital of the Compa-period, that loss of interest on unproductive stock, Ciffuse their advantages over a territory, which ny, not exceeding half a million, be reserved to which most canal companies have encountered, vetture has eminently fitted to receive them, that pay the debts of the Potomac Company, and to and which, in some similar enterprizes, has ex

former Congress sanctioned, by their voice, a reimburse the present stockholders, including the ceeded the principal of their stock, will be preystem of internal improvement co-extensive with states of Maryland and Virginia ; and that the vented; that if the dividends of the Potomac the wants of the nation.

above loan be limited to two millions of dollars, Company shall, after the completion of the caYour committee are not unmindful of the im- and applied to defray the expense of the ad-nal, yield six per cent. per annum to the stockpediment which arrested the progress of that ditional works required to complete the canal. holders, they will, from that moment, have nosystem, and could not expect success in their pre- Your committee have reason to believe that thing further to pay for their stock; and after sent effort, in behalf of one of its objects, if the two millions of United States stock, bearing an the lapse of twenty-eight years, or possibly a proposition which they are about to submit interest of four per cent, payable semi-annually, shorter period, they will be found to have paid to the House of Representatives were liable to and irredeemable for twenty-eight years, could but nine per cent, of its par value, for a propersimilar objections. The committee have studi-be sold, in Europe or America, at par. To pro- ty which, in all human probability, will have ously sought to guard against their application, vide for the payment of the interest, and the final more than doubled that value. One of the most and confidently hope that they will be found to reimbursement of the principal of this debt, it is prominent and best features, perhaps, of this plan, have succeeded.

I proposed, that the United States shall subscribe for accomplishing an object of general welfare, Two proposals have already been offered to one million of dollars to the stock of the Potomac is, that it combines in its execution private with the House, in the course of the present session of Company, on the conditions already suggested, public wealth, and thus effects such a co-operaCongress, by the Committee on Roads and Ca- the states of Maryland and Virginia six hundred tion of individual interest with public good, as nals, in relation to the Potomac. Neither of them thousand dollars, and individuals the remaining will ensure, in the original construction as well interferes with the plan for the improvement of four hundred thousand; that, on the stock thus as the subsequent repairs of the canal, vigilance, the navigation of that river, which this committee subscribed, there shall be charged an annuity for economy, and fidelity, in all the disbursements of have presumed to recommend. One of them, twenty-eight years, of six per cent. per annum, money, qualities so often required in vain, in embraced by a resolution for the appointment of payable semi-annually ; four per cent. of which the expenditures of public money, on public acz commissioners to survey the route and estimate shall be applicable to the payment of the interest count. the expense of a navigable canal, seems to your on the two million loan, and two per cent. to the Should the loan, on which this plan eventually committee to be, in a great degree, superseded creation of a sinking fund, to be invested, from depends, be negociated abroad, it will be, because by the annexed report of the Principal Engineer time to time, as received, in productive stock, in it leaves for more profitable application, in Ameof Virginia, to the Board of Public Works of that order to provide for the redemption of the prin- rica, the sum which it is designed to withdraw state ; and as an incorporated company already cipal of the loan, at the expiration of twenty- from other channels of wealth and enterprize.exists, with ample authority to make the contem- eight years.

If it charge a debt upon posterity, it must be plated improvement, there does not remain any Such is the scheme which the committee pre- again repeated, that it is to complete a work, as apparent necessity of waiting for the prosecution sume to recommend for extricating the Potomac durable as that Union to which the people of of this work, until a more extensive system of in- Company from their present embarrassments, and America must look, now and hereafter, for the ternal improvement be devised by Congress. accomplishing a work which, unassisted, they security of all their political and social happi

The committee simply recommend the com- cannot effect, although of inestimable impor- ness. Your committee submit the following re. bination of the proceeds of sales of the public/tance to the public.

solution; property in the City of Washington, which, ac-i Complicated as this scheme may, at first, ap- Resolved, That the committee of the District cording to the original plan of the City, was de-pear, it involves, in its prosecution, the exercise of Columbia be instructed to report a bill in consigned to be sold, with such sums of money as of no other power on the part of Congress, than, formity with the principles contained in the prethe Legislatures of Maryland and Virginia and 1st, the power of selling the public lots in the ceding report. the citizens of those and of the adjacent states city of Washington, which were acquired exmay voluntarily subscribe, for the purpose of ex-pressly for sale. 2dly, That of borrowing money tending a navigable canal from the foot of the on the public faith, and a specific pledge for its from

ts From the Manufacturers and Farmer's Journal. Little Falls of the Potomac, to the commence- repayment ; and lastly, the application of the ment of the Cumberland Road. They propose to public treasure to an object of general welfare :) We have seen a circular letter from Liverpool annex to this public and private subscription, the or the investment of it in the stock of an in-| (received by the Flora) dated August 12, 1822, condition, that the Potomac Company shall pre-corporated company, expected to yield an annual containing certain statements of the situation of viously assent, with the approbation of the Legis-income.

the Cotton Market, in Great Britain, from which latures of Maryland and Virginia, to such altera-| The committee will not swell this report, al- we gather the following general results tions of their present charter, as will admit the ready too far extended, by arguments to demon-|The supply of American Cotton for the L'nited States, those states, themselves, already strate, that all these powers are vested, by the year 1822, including that on hand on interested in the stock of the company, and the constitution, in the Congress of the United States, . the 1st of January is estimated atnew subscribers, to participate, on fair and equit- either expressly, or by natural implication.- bags

403,350 able principles, in their future revenue. These They involve neither the incorporation of a pri

nvolve neither the incorporation of a pri. The consumption and export at-bags 307,200 alterations would, among other obvious effects, vate company, nor the condemnation of the lands provide for the payment of the debts of the Com- of individuals, within the territory of any state, / Estimated stock on hand, January 1, pany, and for the reduction of the nominal, by for national purposes. They do not extend 1823-bags

96,150 somne liberal reference to the actual value of their the jurisdiction of the General Government present stock.

lover the persons or property of the citizen, nor/The supply (including old stock) of In order to obviate the necessity of selling the purpose to derive, from the assent of any one or East India cotton,

210,030 public lots in the City of Washington, before the more states, any power which has not been grant-|Consumption and export-bags

95,000 contemplated improvement of the navigation andled to the Federal Government by the people of. commerce of the District of Columbia shall have the United States.

Estimated surplus, January 1, 1823, 115,050 caused the anticipated appreciation of their va- Your committee forbear to answer all the oblue, as well as to complete the canal in the short-Ijections which this, like any other plan of inter-|The supply of the cotton, including that est possible time, without drawing immediately nal improvement, may be expected to encounter.) on hand, January 1, 1822 is estimafor large sunis upon the public Treasury, the They are contented to set against such objections_ted-bags

203,934 states of Maryland and Virginia, and the indivi- some of its peculiar advantages; that, connected The consumption and export estimated at 153,400 dual subscribers of new stock, your committee with the Cumberland road, it will complete a prupose, that the United States shall borrow, on great national object, calculated to perpetuate Estimated surplus, January 1, 1823 50,534 he public faith, and a specific pledge of all the the Union, and to promote the prosperity and

The estimated supply of West India, |fers which I sent to you in April arrived safe; Do The Devon Bull, advertised by the Editor

Demerara, &c. including stock on hand, and that they were approved by yourself and is sold.
January 1, 1822, is-bags

51,484 your friend, and that you obtained premiums of Estimated consumption and export,

42,600 plate for them. I hope sincerely that Col.
Lloyd will be fortunate with them, and that he FR

2) PRICES CURRENT.-CORRECTED WEEKLY. Surplus (estimated) January 1, 1823, 8,884 will recollect the advice Mr. Wright took the Best white wheat, $1 40 to 1 45, and much

liberty of giving him respecting their manage-wanted-Red wheat, $1 30 to 1 34-White corn.

ment, and then I have no doubt, they will an- 65 to 66 cts.-Yellow, 60 to 65 cts.-Rye 65 cts. Total estimated supply, including old

-Oats, 44 cts.-New corn, shelled, 55 cts-On stock,

swer his wishes. 873,798 SY

My bull dide-de-Camp, which obtained the the cob, $2 62} to $2 75 per bbl.-Barley, 75 cts Total estimated consumption and export -bags

602200/first premium in London, was only 22 months -Hay, $20 per ton-Rye straw, $10 do. Wharf

old when he was shewn, and he weighed upon flour, $6 50—Shad, No. 1. trimmed, $750 Total estimated surplus, January 1, 1823

coe Messrs. Pickfords' machine, which I have no to $8–No. 2, $5 50 to $7-No. 1, untrim

270,598 -bags

doubt is correct, the astonishing weight of 16 med, $7—No. 2, do. $6-Herrings, No. 1.

cwt. 2 qrs. 3 lbs.-his girth round his chine $3 25 to 337–No.2, $3 to 312-Beef, Northern The supply of all sorts for 1821, was

was 7 feet 7 inches-his length from shoulder mess per bbl. $10 to 10 25—Baltimore, prime do. bags


to rump 5 feet 6 inches, and his height to the $9 to $975—Hams, 12 to 15 cts.-middlings, 10 to The consumption and export, bags


top of his chine, 14 hands 1 inch ; from the above 11. cents.-Other articles sameas last report.

Guimensions no doubt he would if slaughtered TOBACCO-No sales, very dull. The surplus stock, January 1, 1822, 354,820

weigh 90 stones of beef, of 14 lbs. to the S Estimated surplus, January 1, 1823,

270,598 Wer
090 stone: this is a surprising weight for an animal Speed the Plough.

only 22 months old. Decrease of stock, within the year-bags 84,222

The subscriber (late President of the Berkshire We have lately had another Agriculturallen

Agricultural Society) convinced of the impormeeting at Doncaster, where I was again fortu-115

tance of disseminating improved Agricultural Editorial Correspondence. nate in gaining premiums and sweepstakes,

Implements, and that it can only be effected, in amounting to 43 guineas over my own stakes. CLIMATE AND SOIL ON THE BORDERS OF I obtained the yeariing bull premium and

lan efficient manner, through the medium of per LAKE ERIE.-Extract to the Editor.

die sons who are practically conversant with, and sweepstakes, with an own brother to Aid-de

able to judge of their true merits from experience, PHILADELPHIA, July 20, 1822. Camp, Brigade Major, which some of my Dear Sir, I have received your favor of the friends thought superior to his brother-although proposes to open a REPOSITORY for the sale.

lon commission of all kinds of Agricultural Im18th inst. informing that you had forwarded my he is as good, I do not think he is superior.

plements and Machinery.-likewise, for Prime letter to your friend, Mr. Wright, who had sailed =

Seeds, and approved Agricultural Books. for England.

THE FARMER. * It being the object of the subscriber to bring inYou have enquired whether the winters, where _

to use such articles only as possess real merit, the property I have offered for sale is situated,

it is proper to remark, that he will offer none for are not too long, requiring stock to be fed for tool BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 11, 1822.

sale but such as he may be already acquainted great a portion of the year? I answer, by no

with, or which he shall have previously tested by means. The whole extent of Erie county uponk MARYLAND CATTLE SHOW-No. 3.

experience. the Lake, say forty miles in length, and nine We are very much gratified to learn that ac. Letters, post paid, will be duly attended to, miles deep to the ridge which runs parallel with tive and well directed exertions are making for and all favors gratefully acknowledged. the lake, and divides the waters of the Allegha-Ithe Agricultural Exhibition, to be held at Easton, ny and Ohio Rivers from those of Lake Erie, af-lin Talbot county, of this state, on the 7th and

THOMAS MELVILLE, jr. fords a delightful climate, and gives certain and 8th of next month. The farmers of that Shore

| Pittsfield, (Berkshire Co.) Sept. 2, 1822. very abundant crops of small grain.


I speaklare co-operating, zealously, to give ec

speak are co-operating, zealously, to give eclat and 17 By giving the above an insertion, our Brefrom experience, having been stationed on the utility to the occasion, and no one acquainted thren of the Tyne will not on!y render a public bank of Lake Erie more than twenty years since. with the intelligence and energy of our fellow-service, but aid the laudable views of a person, and having visited it very frequently since. It is alritizens in that section of the state, can doubt than whom, no one in berkshire nas done more toremarkable fact that the crops of corn have been their success in laudable enterprises, such as this ;/wards the promotion of Agriculture and Manuuniformly abundant since the first settlement of the very spirit and object of which, tend to banish factures. the tract of country to which I have alluded above, discord, and to insure unity of feeling and action-> and that there has not been a single failure-not an association to improve the art of cultivating a single instance of the corn having been injured the earth--to give encreased efficacy to labourby frost. This is, no doubt, to be attributed to in a word, to augment, by a given quantum of toil

FOR SALE AT THE FOLLOWING PRICES, viz: the influence of the air from the Lake in a great and expense the means of human subsistence. A full blooded Alderney Dull, 4 years ora 190 measure. As to grass or grazing land, Erie coun-comfort and happiness-must command the ap

e and Two half blooded do 2 rears old 30 ty is not excelled by any part of the United probation and good wishes of every honorable

honorable One half blooded Devon and Alderney, i States. I doubt, indeed, if it is equalled. The mind. Reference to this paper of the 23d of,

year old

80 winters commence in December-generally about August, will shew the amount of Premiun this paper of the 23d of

30 the tenth of the month—from that period, till the objects for which they have, as we think, been. enerally about August, will shew the amount of Premiums, and Three half blooded Devon Bulls, 1 year old

have as we think'been Persons wishing to possess the Coke Devon about the twelfth of February, it usually snows most judiciously offered

O rebruary, it usually snows most judiciously offered. We are glad to learn./Stock, may have prize bull calves of 2 months once in three or four days, so that grain and grass that many gentlemen of this Shore, both ama

Camalold, at the following rates : will be completely protected from the severelteurs and practical farmers, propose to go over..

$100 each frosts. From the twentieth of February, the snow This is as it should be. Let us, however, bear,

however bear Three quarter do

40 begins to disappear, and thaws very gradually-lin mind, that this will be their first attempt, and has

15 Early in April, cattle that are not used find a we should graduate our expectations according-le?

- The excellence of these cattle for symmetry sufficiency of vegetation, even in the woods, tolly. The ball is then to receive its first impetus ;/01 S

Jof shape, kind feeding, gentleness of temper, keep them in good heart. I will venture to as-lit will, we trust. roll on from year to year. acquir quantity and quality sert, that if cattle were turned out so early in ling strength as it goes. Those, moreover, who

· who of taking fat, and for action and strength as any part of Pennsylvania, east of the mountains have never seen that Peninsula. will be gratified draught oxen, is unrivalled. Apply at the Farm

Y would perish.- with the sight of a country altogether different in of Mr. Richard Caton, Brookland Wood, to Rain seldom occurs during the winter months. its topographical features, from any thing we are

J. G. WALMSLEY, Manager. The atmosphere is dry and very favourable for accustomed to see in other parts of the State. cattle. Frost, late in the spring, rarely takes The roads are quite level, uninterrupted by gates, place-and I have seen cucumber vines growing and always in good condition-and every neigh-||

Bakewell Sheep. vigorously in the latter part of October.

Jbourhood being ramified by navigable streams. For sale, twenty-five half blooded Dishley

Iproduceis transported to market at comparatively ewes—they are young, and by a very fine ram, Extract of a letter from Charles Champion, liittle expense--and the farmer, with his gun pri

Khiem procured from Mr. Barney. Price, $5 per head Esg. to the Editor, dated Blythe, near Baw-land his net, may every day spread his table with

net may every day spread his table with -apply at the office of the American Farmer.

all try, England, 30th August, 1822.

{fish or fowl-We say nothing of Eastern Shore I am delighted to find the bull and two hei- hospitality—thats proverbial !



No. 30.-VuL. 4. AMERICAN FARMER.-BaltimoRE, 18th October, 1822.


tree gives a succession of flowers during the Orange-trees have been grown in the south

| whole summer, on which account it is cultiva-Jern parts of Devonshire for more than 100 POMARIUM BRITANNICUM, ted in all green-houses, and large orangeries years past. When trained to walls, they An Historical and Botanical account of Fruits, have been built for the express purpose of produce large, handsome fruit, but not of known in Great Britain, by Henry Philips, housing these trees: the most magnificent one equal value to the lemons grown in the same -Second Edition.

is that of Versailles, built by Louis the XIVth. situation. Most of these were raised in this (Continued from page 226.)

Oranges were known in this country in the country from seeds, and they are thought to be

time of Henry the VIIIth, but I find no ac-more hardy than trees imported; but the orangeORANGE.-CITRUS.-AURANTIUM.

count of the orange-tree being cultivated in Eng-trees which are brought every year from Italy, and

land prior to Queen Elizabeth's reign. The sold principally at the Italian warehouses in In Botany, a Genus of the Polyadelphia Icosanols

Icosan. Seville orange-tree appears to have been first London, are as large as those of our own growth dria Class. Natural Order, Bicornes. Iplanted the year before the East India Com-would be in twenty years. With proper care, The China, or sweet oranges, with which this (pany was incorporated, and two years previous these trees will have good heads, and produce country is now so amply supplied, and at such to the return of Sir Francis Drake, our first fruit in about three years. The Mandarin orange moderate prices, that all classes of society en-circumnavigotor. It is said to have been intro- was not cultivated in England until 1805. joy them as perfectly as if they had been indi-duced by Sir Francis Carew, and first planted! We have lately seen orange-trees imported genous to the climate, were not known to the lat his seat at Beddington in Surrey. Chancelo from the south of France, which have arrived ancient Europeans. They were first brought (lor Bacon, who wrote about twenty years afterlin small tubs: and so well packed, that the into Europe by Jean de Castro, a celebrated this time, mentions the housing of orange and fruit and blossoms remained on the trees when Portuguese warrior, who made them a present slemon-trees in this country to keep them in the they reached the neighbourhood of London. to the Condé Mellor, the king of Portugal's winter. He also states, that if the seeds of in the Philosophical Transactions, No 114. prime minister, who was only able to raise one oranges be sown in April, they produce an there is a very remarkable account of a tree plant from a great number that were brought agreeable salad.

standing in a grove near Florence, having an to Europe. This tree, which was planted in 1548, Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles the ist, oran

the ist, orange stock, which had been so grafted on, and from which all the European orange-trees had an orange-house and orange-garden at her that it became in it's branches, leaves, flowers, of this sort were produced, is said to be now mansion, Wimbleton Hall, in the parish ofland fruit, three-formed; some emulating the alive at Lisbon, in the garden of Count S. Lau-/Wimbleton, in the county of Surrey; and by an orange, some the lemon or citron, and some parrent.

estimate and survey which was made in theltaking of both forms in one. These mixed fruits The Romans had endeavoured to cultivate the month of November, 1649, for the sale of that never produce any perfect seeds: sometimes citrus before the Christian era, for the beauty property, by order of the Parliament, we find there are no seeds at all in them, and some. of the tree and it's medicinal qualities but, as it how highly orange-trees were estimated even in times only a few empty ones. has already been observed in the history of the those turbulent days. It is described as fol-| The Maltese graft their orange-trees on the lemon, they could not succeed in the time of lows:

pomegranate-stock, which causes the juice to Pliny, who says, (book xvi c. 32.) “The As-l“ In the north side of which sayd oringe gar-lbe of a red colour, and the flavour to be more syrian pome-citron-tree will not bear fruit out of den, there stands one large garden-house; thelesteemed. The Rev. Mr. Hughes, in his Na. Svria." The same author, in his 12th book, cofoutwalls of brick, fitted for the keepinge of oringe-Itural History of Barbadoes, mentions the golden3. informs us that the Romans were acquainted trees, neatly covered with blue slate, and ridg-lo with the Persian and Median pome-citron; buted and guttered with lead; the materials of the

ag Jorange as growing in that island. He describes he never mentions it as a fruit to be eaten: the which house, with the greate doores, and thellour within. from whence it derives the name

OfJthe fruit as a large fine orange, of a deep cokernels, he states, were in particular employ-liron thereof, with a certaine stone pavement ly-Golden Orange. He adds. « This fruit is nei. ed by the Parthians, to sweeten the breath. Insing before these doores, in nature of a little walke,lther of the Seville or China kind, though it parhis 13th book, chap. 15, we are informed that|four foote broad, and severity-nine foote long, takes of both. having the sweetness of the Chithe Romans had tables made of the citron wood, Iwee valew to bee worth £66. 138. 4d.

na mixed with the agreeable bitterness and flawhich they procured from Mauritania and Cyel “In which sayd garden-house there are now your of the Seville orange." renaica, in Africa.

standing, in squared boxes fitted for that purSome author's are of opinion that the orange pose, fortie-two oringe trees bearing fayre and

The juice of oranges is a pleasing acid, and was the golden apple of the Hesperides; and large oringes, which trees, with the boxes, and

algood in inflammatory and putrid disorders, both

acute and chronical. The juice contains an esas the ancient Europeans could not propagate the earth and materials therein feeding the

sential acid salt, mixed with much mucilage. it, was said to have been taken back by Miner- same, wee valew at ten poundes a tree, one va. The fable states, that Hercules, to obtain tree with another, in toto, amounting unto

The salt may be obtained in crystals, by diluinformation of this garden, seized Nereus, god £420. Os. Od.

unting the juice, clarifying it with whites of eggs, of the sea, in his sleep, who directed him to “In the sayd garden-house there now allsoe

and using evaporation. In this way a saline exAfrica. If he had to cross the deserts of that is one lemon-tree, bearing greate and very

tract may be made, capable of being preserved,

Yand possessed of the same medicinal qualities country to obtain this fruit, the allusion of it's large lemons, which, together with the box being guarded by a dragon, is both natural and that it grows in, and the earth and materialls

as the juice, which is said to be very powerful therein feeding the same, wee valew at £20.1.

30 in the scurvy. When Com, Anson sailed round just. About the eleventh or twelfth century sëve- 08. Od.

"the world, his men, who were afficted with ral varieties of the orange were cultivated in “In the sayd garden-house there now allsoe is

the scurvy, were surprisingly recovered froni Italy, from whence they were taken to Spain one pome citron-tree, which, together with the

that disorder by the oranges they found in the and Portugal; therefore the sweet orange, box that it growes in, and the earth and ma

he island of Tinian. soon after it was introduced, became plentifulsterialls feeding the same, we valew at £10.) Orangeade, an agreeable drink made of orangein these countries, where there were already os. Od.

ljuice, water, and sugar, may be given, says abundance of stocks to graft on. Gerard noti- “ There are also belonginge to the sayd Lemery, to people in the height of a fever. ces in his work, which was published in 1597, Joringe-garden six pomegranet-trees, bearing! The Seville orange is esteemed far preterathat orange and lemon-trees grew on the coast faire and large fruits, which, togeather with ble for medicinal purposes, and the blossoms of of Italy, and in the islands of the Adriatic; the square boxes they growe in, and the earth this species are the most odoriferous: the leaves and on the coast of Spain they were, says materialls therein feeding the same, we are also used in medicine. The yellow me of in great quantities, as well as in certain provin-valew at three poundes a tree, one with another, these oranges, separated from the white fungous ces of France, which lie upon the midland coast. in toto, £18. 08. Od."

'Imatter under it, is a grateful, warm, aromatic At the present time, these trees are cultivated There were also eighteen orange-trees that bitter, often used as a stomachic and corroboin Italy to so great an extent, that there are had not borne fruit. which. with their boxes. rant. It is warmer than the peel of lemons, of almost forests of them. Prince Antonius Bor- were valued at £5 a tree, one with another, a more dur

Prince Antonius Bor-1 were valued at £5' a tree one with another la more durable flavour, abounds more with a ghese, at his palace near Rome, has upwards of £90.

light, fragrant essential oil, which is lodged in: seventy sorts of orange and lemon-trees, among! A white marble fountain, with a statue of distinct cells on the surface of the pecl. The which are some very rare kinds: it is a fruit so Diana upon it, and “a faver led cestern be- rind of the China orange has a weak smell, much esteemed in Italy, where it thrives well, longing to it, and a chanelled pavement.” were land is seldom employed for medicinal purposes. that apples, pears, and cherries, have almost esteemed to be worth £7.

Seville oranges also produce the best marmabecome extinct in that country.

“Another fountain of white marble, with allade, and the richest wine: it is from the flowThe delightful perfume of an orange-grove statue of a mermaid, with the cestern, &c."Jers of the

&e "lers of this kind of orange, that orange-flower is such as to scent the air for milcs; and the were valued at £10.

water is distilled. These oranges are often pri

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