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served whole as a sweetmeat, and are justly peaches, white and red, there can be little doubtfan aperient to children, and are recommended as admired.

but that it was introduced as early as the reign of a great destroyer of worms. The seeds of the orange kind will be found, Henry the Eighth. I am decidedly of opinion It should be observed not to get the flowers on nice examination, different from the seed of that it was brought into England, from Italy, by from those peach-trees that have been grafted any other fruit. They have been anatomised by Wolf, the king's gardener, in the year 1524, as a: upon almond-stocks, as the flowers partake of the the curious, and, with the aid of a good micros- this time we find that he brought the apricot from property of the stock, which greatly alters their cope, are found to be almost as wonderful, in the latter country,

virtue. The plum is a purgative, the almond not their formation, as the human frame when dis Of this deliciously melting fruit we have now a at all so. sected.

great variety, from the small nutmeg peach which Gerard also says, “the leaves of the peach-tree Seignior Francisco Lana, in his Prodromus ripens in July, to the large October peach, which boiled in milk, will destroy the worms in young to some philosophical discoveries, tells us, that is more agreeable to the sight than the palate.-- children.” there is a way of producing oranges, without This fruit has been almost equally multiplied in The young leaves are used by cooks to flavour sowing or planting the trees, only by infusing its varieties with the apple, by sowing the stones, blanc-mange, custards, puddings, &c.; and a lithe flowers in oil of almonds; for that this oil and lately by the ingenious method of impreg- quor resembling noyau is made by steeping peach will, every year afterwards, at the proper sea- nating the blossoms. T. H. Knight, Esq. Presi-leaves in white brandy, and, when sweetened son, produce both flowers and ripe oranges. dent of the Horticultural Society, has procured a with sugar-candy, and fined with milk, it is dif

new peach by this operation : he impregnated the ficult to distinguish it from the flavoured cordial PEACH.-PERSICA, OR AMYGDALUS. pistillum of the blossom on an almond-tree, with of Martinique. In Botany, a Genus of the Icosandria Monogy

the pollen of the peach-flower ; and this almond, Michaelmas is the time recommended for the nia Class.

when planted, produced a peach-tree instead of winter pruning of the nectarine, as well as the All the ancient authors agree that the peach

one of its own kind, and has since ripened peach- peach-tree, when, with little attention, the bloses.

som-buds will be known from the wood-buds; tree is a native of Persia; and it appears that

The peach varies so much in quality, that the latter being less turgid, longer and narrower, the fruit was thought to be of a poisonous nature. It is evident there had formerly been tradition

• many sorts are not worth the growing; it is there-than the blossom-buds. In shortening the branchary tales of this fruit having been sent into

|fore to be hoped that we shall soon have them es, observe to leave a wood-bud at the end instead

exploded, and the better varieties cultivated in of the fruit-bud. Care should be taken to nip off Egypt to poison the inhabitants. Columella

situations most congenial to their tender nature. the ends of the strong shoots in the month of says, in his tenth book :

At Montreuil, a village near Paris, the whole po- May, which will cause them to throw out new And apples, which most barbarous Persia sent, Tpulation is exclusively employed in the cultivation boughs in every part of the tree, as it produces With native poison arm’d (as fame relates): Tof peaches, which has maintained the inhabitants its fruits from the young wood, either of the But now they've lost their pow'r to kill, and yield for several ages; and the consequence is, that same, orat the most of the former year's shoot. Ambrosian juice, and have forgot to hurt; they raise better peaches than any other part of Peach-trees are often injured by a desire to reAnd of their country still retain the name. France affords.

tain too full a crop on the branches, which not Pliny, in his 15th book, chap. 13, mentions,

I have often observed, that the finest flavoured only prevents the present fruit from coming to that they had been stated to have possessed ve. Po

peaches have been gathered from trees of the maturity, but, by exhausting the tree, prevents nomous qualities, and that this fruit was sent greatest age; and I have met with many instances its fruiting in future years. When the peach

of these trees bearing amply when they have attained the size of a small gooseberry, the trees into Egypt by the kings of Persia, by way of l;

Silbeen from forty to sixty years old. These trees should be carefully thinned, leaving the fruit not revenge, to plague the natives; but he treats

Igenerally yield a.crop, when younger ones fail. nearer than from four to six inches to each this story as a mere fable, adding, that the name

Father Hennepin, a religious missionary, who other. of Persica evidently bespeaks them a Persian

|first described the regions of Louisiana in his fruit. Cato has not mentioned them; and Pli

From the wood of the peach-tree the colour ny adds, that it was not long since peaches

voyages down the Mississippi, gives an account called rose-pink is procured.

of the numerous peach-trees which he observed in were known in Rome, and there was great difficulty in rearing them. He informs us they every direction in that part of America; and as the

PEAR.-PYRUS. were brought from Egypt to the isle of Rhodes,

latitude is the same as that part of Asia, of which where they could never be made to produce

(these trees are the natural production, tbere can In Botony, a Genis of the Icosandria Pentagu. fruit; and from thence to Italy. He says, more.

nia Class. be no doubt but they are indigenous to Louisiana over, that it was not a common fruit in Greece

as well as to Persia, although in many parts of The accounts we have of this fruit are of or in Natolia. This author states again, in book.

America the peach is regarded as a foreign fruit, great antiquity, as the pear-tree was consecrated 23, chap. 7, that he considered it the most i

it having been introduced from Europe before to Minerva previous to the olive. harmless fruit in the world ; that it had the Louisiana had been explored.

The earliest writers mention it as a fruit grow. most juice with the least smell of any, fruit, in some parts of North America, that it is not Greece; and it appears to have been brought into

| This fruit is now cultivated with such success ing abundantly in Syria and Egypt, as well as in and yet caused thirst to those who ate of it.

Juncommon to see orchards containing 1,000 stan Peaches were evidently cultivated in France

Italy from these places, about the time that Sylla Idard peach trees, which are so productive, that made himself master of the latter country ; alat an early period, as Columella continues his

the fruit is used to fatten swine : from a single though there is no doubt but the Romans had seaccount of this fruit, by stating

orchard have been procured, after the pulp is veral kinds of this fruit before that time. Virgil Those of small size to ripen make great haste; fermented and distilled, 100 barrels of peach speaks of pears which he had from Cato; and Such as great Gaul bestows observe due time, brandy.

Columella mentions a considerable variety of And season, not too early, nor too late.

Peaches are forced with considerable success.pears. Pliny writes of them in his 15th book,

or the These of necessity must bear a high price in the chap. 2, as being then exceedingly numerous in French and Asiatic peaches, they bear the name market, so long as glass continues an object of Italy: “some have,” says he. “ no other nome

name of the regions and nations from whence they heavy taxation. The ex

heavy taxation. The expense of fuel, it appears, than the country from whence they came, as the come."

I will not be so excessive, since the heating of flues Syrian, the Alexandrine, the Numidian, the Gree It is stated that the peach-tree was not culti-Iby steam promises to answer.

cian, the Picentine, the Numantine, &c. &c. :" vated in England before the year 1562: and byl. It is observed, that the best peaches of every but of all the pears, he mentions the Crustumine whom it was first introduced, or from what coun-kind are red next the sun, and of a yellowish as the most delicate a

kind are red next the sun, and of a yellowish as the most delicate and agreeable ; next to that try it was procured, we have no authentic ac-cast towards the wall: the pulp should also be the Falerniag pear wa count, although Gerard wrote his work soon af- of a yellowish tint, and juicy; the skin thin, and for the abundance of j ter which was published in 1597 wherein hesthe stone small. To have them in perfection, compares to wine. The Tiberian pears were so describes the white peach, the red peach, the they should not be gathered until they will fall named because they v

wthJthey should not be gathered until they will fall named because they were the sort Tiberius, the yellow peach, and the d'avant peach, and adds, into the hand by the slightest touch of the

Tinto the hand by the slightest touch of the finger. einperor preferred; others were named after the “ I have them all in my garden, with many other

| This is one of the fruits in particular which is persons who had introduced or cultivated them; sorts."

" recommended to be eaten in the morning, in pre- some from the season when they ripened, as the The peach-tree, he continues, "soone cometh (ference to the usual time of dessert. Brookes says, barley pear, &c.; and many from their odour as vp; it beareth fruit the third or fourth yeer afterl“ peaches agree well with persons of hot consti- the aromatic and laurel pears. “Some are' reit is planted, and it soone decaieth ; and is not tutions and costive habits, especially if they are proached,” says he, “with the name of proud of long continuance," From this account, and eaten in a morning fasting.”

pears, because they are earliest ripe, and will not finding it in the list of fruits, published in thel,. ? he flowers of the peacher

The flowers of the peach-tree are used in me-keep:" there were winter pears, and pears for baknr 1557, by Thomas Tusser, who mentions dicine : Whrer

mentions dicine : when made into a syrup, they are given as]ing, &c. “Both pears and apples," continue this

called

b he

[graphic]

author, “ have the properties of wine, on which The pear-tree is liable to be much injured, if cussions which, without due reflection, might account the physicians are careful how they give pruned by those who do not understand the na- be thought too abstract. The resumption of them to their patients; but when sodden in wine ture of it. The blossoms are commonly produc-specie payments in England has been followed and water, they are esteemed wholesome.” A-led from buds at the extremity of the last year's by prodigious distress, and extensive ruin to the gain he states, book xxiii. chap. 7, “ all pears shoots, and, as these are often cut off by the un-productive classes in moderate circumstances.whatsoever are but a heavy meat, even to those in skilful pruner, it prevents their producing fruit, The same coincidence has occurred in this coungood health, and the sick are debarred from eat- and causes the boughs to send out new branches, try. The commodities which are the product ing of them; and yet, if they are well boiled or which overf4l the tree with wood. The summer of agricultural labour, especially have fallen, baked, they are exceedingly pleasant, aud moder- is the best time to look over pear-trees, and to and thousands who were in debt, but in a thriately wholesome; when sodden or baked with remove all superfluous and foreright shoots, which ving condition, have been ruined, because, owhoney, they agree with the stomach.”

would too much shade the fruit. If this be care-ling to the scarcity and increased value of money, Some pears were used as a counterpoison a- fully done, they will require but little pruning in the produee of their industry will not go in gainst the venomous mushrooms ; the ashes of the autumn.

some cases half so far towards meeting their mothe pear-tree wood are also used for the samel Pears that are to be kept for the winter use,

ney engagements, as it would have done prior to medicinal purpose.

should hang as long on the trees as the state of thel

of the the resumption of specie payments. While men The wild pear-tree, as well as the crab-apple, / weather will allow. They should then be put in:

But in Jof overgrown estates, whose fortunes consisted appears to be a native of this country, where it isla heap, in an open and dry situation, for about ten"

ttenlin money, are growing yet richer with comoften found growing, particularly in Somerset-Idays; then wiped with a dry woollen cloth, and

nälpound acceleration. shire and Sussex.

In this condition of the agricultural communipacked close from the air and moisture. But tol. At what period the cultivated pear was first keep this fruit in it's greatest perfection, small

Wty, their commodities depressed in the market, brought into this country we have no account; earthen jars should be selected, about the size of

and the price of imported articles which they but we may surmise that the Romans did not ne- the pear, which should be packed separately in

in consume, enhanced by duties to encourage doglect the propagation of this fruit when they clean oat chaff, and tied down with skin, or

"mestic manufactures; we read in a morning pawere masters of Britain. The pear is mentioned brown paper cemented with pitch These ars per before us, that owing to the late unparallelby all our early writers. Gerard says, in his time, should then be packed in a chest, or dry closet,

ed drought the owners of a celebrated cotton to write of pears and apples would require a par- with the bottom upwards. Pears are found more

manufactory in Massachusetts have netted a ticular volume ; every country, says he,“ hath generally productive when grafted on quince P

profit of only 12 per cent. for the last six his peculiar fruit ; myselfe knowe some one cu-stocks, than upon those of their own kind or the

Jmonths, instead of 15 per cent for the half year

ma or me as heretofore !! rious, who hath in one peece of ground, at the white thorn. point of three score sundrie sorts of pears, and

What we have said may serve as texts for

The timber of the pear-tree is of a yellowisi our correspondents who have more leisure, and those exceeding good ; not doubting but, if his.

colour, and is used for making carpenters' tools, are inore profoundly read than we, in political minde had been to seek after multitudes, hem

measuring rulers, picture frames, and a variety of economy, and in what has been happily desigmight have gotten togither the like number of

purposes. Gerard says,'“the timber of the wild nated by one of our most able and esteemed corthose of worsse kindes. Master Richard Poin-loear is very firm and solid, and good to be cut respondents," the morals of Agriculture.On ter," he says, “has thein all growing in his linto moulds." The plates in his book were cut|these texts we shall be very happy to hear from ground at Twicknam, near London, who is a most

London, who is a most out of this wood, as were, says he,“ breastplates any of them, pro or con, provided their sermons cunning and curious grafter and planter of all for English gentlewomen.”

be as all sermons should, of moderate length manner of rare fruits; and also in the ground of an excellent grafter and painful planter, Master

and in a spirit of charity and good temper.

Edit. Am. Far. Henry Banbury, of Touthill Street, neere vnto AGRICULTURAL HISTORY AND POLIWestminster ; and likewise in the ground of a

TICKS. diligent and most affectionate louer of plants, Mas- It must not be supposed that, because we

IRISH DISTRESS. ter Warner, neere Hornsey Down, by London ; have inserted an article in this number on the

Birmingham, June 26, 1822. and in divers other grounds about London.” causes of the present deplorable condition of

Miller mentions eighty varieties of the pear in the people of Ireland—that therefore we mean I beg leave to trouble you with a letter on the his day, and, at the present time, they are so much to intermeddle in foreign politicks. The dis- subject of Irish Distress, which I have reincreased, that Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, as-tresses of that gallant and generous nation are ceived from a gentleman of large landed estate sured me that he possessed 213 kinds of pear-sufficient to awaken the sensibilities of every in Ireland, and which I request the favour of trees. We trust that, while the Horticultural feeling heart ; but it is not here, that we may you to insert in your Journal. It cannot fail to Societies are seeking for new varieties, those of be permitted to expatiate on such subjects, we be interesting to all your readers. At the same established fame will not be neglected. It is de- can here allow ourselves to view them only as a time, you will, perhaps, permit me to request sirable to have our orchards planted with a va- portion of the history of the times, connected the attention of your readers to a letter which riety, that we may have some for all seasons and with, and bearing upon the interests of agricul-I published in your Journal of the 15th May, for various purposes; but it is equally to be wish-ture.-In that country we behold the singular 1820, wherein í fatter myself that I proved ed, that the best of each sort should be selected, spectacle of an industrious nation literally per- that the disturbances which have since arisen in pot only of the dessert kinds, but those for baking ishing in the midst of an abundance of the ne-various parts of Ireland, must necessarily follow and preserving, as well as those for making per- cessaries of life—the fruit of their own labcurs, from the restoration of the ancient standard of ry, which is one of the justly admired British be- and the propitious influence of Heaven! The|value, and that the distress which now exists in verages.

causes of such political phenomena, belong to that country must be the inevitable consequence - And taste revived,

the science of agricultural politicks, and de- of the same destructive cause. When Parlia

serve to be investigated. Such a state of things ment thought proper to restore the ancient meaThe breath of orchard big with bending fruit Obedient to the breeze and beaten ray,

cannot exist under a wise administration of sure of value, and with that of course the an

the publick strength and resources—there must cient prices of value, they ought, as a matter of From the deep loaded bough a mellow shower Incessant melts away. The juicy pear

be “something rotten in the state of Denmark,"common honesty and common prudence, to have

and what has happened there may happen restored also the ancient obligations of value. The Lies, in a soft profusion, scattered round. A various sweetness swells the gentle race,

here, in process of time and under bad legisla-monied prices of property and labour are the on

tion, remote as may appear all existing analo-lly means out of which the monied obligations By nature's all-refining hand prepared,

Igies—would we avert evil effects, we must by of the country can be discharged. When, thereOf tempered sun, and water, earth, and air,

the aid of every light study their causes-hence fore, Parliament adopted measures to reduce In ever-changing composition mixed.

Thomson.

it becomes the now free agriculturists of Ame-those monied prices one half, they ought in

rica, above every other class in the world, to common honesty, to have reduced also the moPerry is considered the best liquor that can be make themselves familiar with the history of the nied obligations one half, at the same time. In drunk after a surfeit of mushrooms.

agricultural prosperity and decline of other na- this manner, equal justice would have been renAn agreeable wine is made froin the wild pears tions; a legislative policy which, in its incipi- dered to all parties; and whatever might have and crab-apples.

ent influences may scarcely be felt by us, may been the good or the evil of low nominal priIn general pears are windy, and improper for reduce our children to ruin and beggary, may ces, the same good or evil would have been weak stomachs: those are best that are quite convert them into hewers of wood and draw-lequally participated in by every class of the ripe, and have a sweet juice, and then they are ers of water for more acute and more favour-community. The monied debts, rents, tithes, seldom noxious ; unless eaten to excess.

ed classes—and hence it is that we are willing to and taxes, which are charged by law upon the ( Brooks.) appropriate a due portion of our journal to dis- monied prices of property and labour, being

Sir,

vaess

thus reduced one half by legal enactment, at the to perish without hope, under the arbitrary ex. In this manner, all British interest would have same time that those monied prices were also actions of the latter.

Ibeen brought to contribute, in just and equal proreduced one half by legal enactment, the conse-. Under this view of the subject, which would

would portions, to the grand object of obtaining a metal. quence would have been, that the monied bur-shew the necessity of compelling all parties to liic coinage: but, in the present mode of proceedthens would still have borne the same relation contribute equally to the national object of res-ling, the whole burthen is contrived to be thrown to the monied means as they bore during the toring low prices, it is probable that such nati-lupon the productive classes of the community, war, and the action of the whole social machi-onal object may not appear quite so desirable and the very ruin and destruction of these classes, nery would have been preserved on the same as it has hitherto appeared in the eyes of many lis made

appeared in the eyes of many is made the means of a most unjust and unnatural. footing, rendering every one his due, without persons, who have been endeavouring to accom

com-aggrandizement of their unproductive rivals. partiality or injustice, and not lacerating and Plish it by a measure which has confiscated the But if this mode of obtaining a metallic circuladestroying one half of the community for the capital of others at the same time that it has. innu

of others at the same time that it hastion was not deemed advisable, and if no other me. uniust aggrandisement of the other half. The doubled their own. It may possibly be thought, Itallic standard whatever but the antiquated standlandlord "would have received half the monied that when the present generation of men havelard of 1791, would have satisfied the rapacity or rent which he received during the war, the been born and bred up, or reared to manhood the prejudice of Jews and Lawyers, there was still clergyman would have received half the monied and advanced age, under the habits and associa-lan

abits and associa- another mode by which even that object might have tithe, the creditor half the monied debt, and tions which a high estimation of national values been obtained, without injury or injustice to any the King half the monied tax; but under this had occasioned, it was not wise or expedient to one. If a prospective action had been given to half, the same value would have been compri-adopt a measure which should necessarily break the metallic standard instead of a retrospective ac.sed as was comprised under the whole during up all those habits and associations, and whilst Ition : if it had been adopted from any given das, .. the war, and thus every class of society would it carried change into every mind, should car

ry mind, should car- and all obligations contracted after such day had have been preserved on the same relative level, fry also a sense of ideal injury into every heart.

injury into. every heart. been ordered to be discharged in such standard, without the least injury or injustice to any one. But if it was not wise or expedient to reduce leaving the obligations contracted in the paper But in reducing price one half, without reducing by law the component parts of price, at the standard to

?ponent parts of price, at the standard to be discharged in the paper standard, in equally the component parts of price, in redu- same time that by law we reduced price this manner we might have restored the metallic cing thus the monied means without reducing itself; and if it was still more unwise and un- standar

se and un standard of 1791, or even the standard of William correspondently the monied charges, Parliament just to reduce the monied means without redu-lthe Conqueror, which was about as applicable to has thrown the whole burthen of this great cing correspondently the monied charges, what the existing relations of society, without the change upon the active and useful classes of the other measures ought we to have adopted, orlleast difficulty. iniustice. or distress. towards any community, and has even contrived that it shall ought we now to have recourse to? I have re- class of

I have re-class of the community. For a short time, whilst double the fortunes of the unproductive classes, peatedly shewn in your Journals, Sir, that we the accou

als; Sity that we the accounts and obligations of the paper standuntil such period as the outcry or bankruptcy of ought either to have continued the paper cur-lard were being settled and wound up, we should, their unhappy victims shall compel them to make rency of the war under proper limitations and of course, have had two prices, but we should a just reduction in their enormous and iniqui-obligations or otherwise to have adopted a newlha

ve adopreg a new have experienced no difficulty in that, nor any tous demands.

metallic standard of value, depreciated in the more inconvenience than is experienced in Rus. It is true, that this reduction of the nominal same degree as the practical currency of the

Currency of the sia, Jamaica, and other countries, where two terms in which men had been accustomed to country had become depreciated during the war. hrices exist. The paper standard, and the meestimate their fortunes, and the monied values By reducing the weight of our ancient metallicollir

of our ancient metallic tallic standard, would quickly have found their of their property and labour, would have been coins one half, by alloying their quality, or by due relations to each other, and would have disdisagreeable to the feelings of many individuals. doubling their price, we should have obtained

charged each other's obligations accordingly. In They would have fancied themselves injured, la metallic circulation which would have given th

this manner, every man's rights and interests although they would not, in reality, have been us a real cheapness of all commodities, at the would have been properly guarded ; and if there so. Each individual would have possessed just same time that it would have preserved all the

that it would have preserved all the was no depreciation in the paper currency, no the same security, and the same command over nominal high prices of the war, and would have difference would have existed between the two the necessaries and luxuries of life, as he pos- secured the rights and interests of all classes, standard

all classes, standards, and the one might shortly have been sessed on the average of the ten years ending without outraging the prejudices of any.

merged in the other; or if any difference did exthe late war; and thus all the injury which It cannot be said, that in thus coining ten old ist, whether 4 per cent. or cent, per cent., such

n to any party would Mint shillings into a pound sterling, we should difference would have effected only the proper have been perfectly ideal. The King, and his have done any injury or injustice to annuitants/norties

1. The King, and his have gone any injury or injustice to annuitants parties. But in adopting the ancient metallic creditors, retainers, and dependants would have or creditors, because their annuities and credits

and credits standard, and giving it a retrospective action, in experienced the same nominal reduction were contracted in money which did not contain first inducing the nation. for twenty years. to cor. their incomes, as would have been experienced any intrinsic value whatever; and therefore, if the

Therefore, it|tract prodigious public and private obligations in by the land-owners and manufacturers, and their the quantity of silver or gold contained in the a fititious standard, and then compelling all such creditors, retainers, and dependants; but the instruments of money is to be any measure of obligations to be discharged in areal standard, we same reduction would have been common to all. the justice or injustice of discharging obligations have com

arging obligations have committed an act of gigantic injustice, in And if low prices, and the low estimation contracted in such money, the annuitants and comparison with which, as Lord Carnarvon justly of national values, are beneficial, all classes creditors would still have received a hundred

red observes, “ all the robberies of the French revo would have equally participated in that benefit; times more intrinsic value than they are in realityllution

ne than they are in reality, lution sink into nothing.” We have passed an or if such low prices are injurious, all classes entitled to. They would have received ten oldlo

aren old ex post facto law, which confiscates the whole would have sustained their just proportions of Mint shillings as the intrinsic value contained in),

contained in property of the farmers and land owners ; which such injury. The lessee would not have become every pound sterling of their credits or annuities,l somn

or annuities, compels the merchants and manufacturers to toil bankrupt to the lessor ; thé mortgager would for which they never advanced one single far- for years, and to reap ruin as the reward of their not have been sacrificed to the mortgagee;thing of intrinsic value.

cee thing of intrinsic value. All the value which they labour ; and which, by loosening and disorganizing

ut and the creditor would not have become the ar-shad ever advanced was representative value, and all the ties and sympathies which hold the fabric biter over the fate of the debtor. The lessor of this description of value every one would have of society together, prepares the sure and not would have received his proper proportion of received the exact amount that he was in reality) far distant destruction of the whole.

he mortgagee would entitled to, at the same time that he would also Reverting to the situation of unhappy Ireland, have received his just and rightful share of have received a very heavy security in intrin-Isir it may be asked, why England is in the estate ; and the creditor would have receiv-sic value which he was not entitled to.

distressed, if indeed it is true, as I have proved ed his just and rightful share of the effects of Here would have been a real wholesome and in your Journal, nearly the whole of the present the debtor. All these great rights and inter- beneficial cheapness of British manufactures se- Irish distress is attributable to the unjust measure ests would have been secured to the rightful par- cured at once, withou

ul norIcured at once, without difficulty, injustice, or which I deprecate. ties just as well under the low estimation of distress. The high nominal British prices would The capital of the English farmers at the peace. national values, as they were during the war und thus have been realized upon a just and practi-I was at least ten timesas much as that of the Irish der the high estimation of those values. But in cable stand

But in cable standard. They would have been brought farmers, who, as I have said before, are in gene. reducing one fiart of the national values with

e with.Idown at once in metallic value to the continental ral little cultivators, occupy only five or ten acres out reducing all other parts ; in reducing the level, at the same time that they would havel of land. The English farmers are, therefore. fictitious means of the productive classes, with-|been preserved in nominal value at the Bri-enabled to go on for many years, supporting conout at the same time reducing correspondently tish lev

identitish level, upon which all British obligations had tinually a heavy annual loss ; but the poor Irish the fictitious charges of the unproductive class. been founded, or

tive clasă.been founded, or to which they had long become farmers, and their wretched labourers are crushes, the Legislature has condemned the former accommodated.

ed more readily into the dust. Besides, one half of

[graphic]

ngland is brought into contact with foreign sources plicable mysteries which time only can discover receive, is totally swallowed up by imcumprosperity, through the medium of foreign com- or which, perhaps, is destined to mock investiga-brances and demands, which, as originally conerce, which now that British manufacturers are tion until “Time shall be no more.” I am, Sir, tracted and intended, did not amount to more duced one half in price, requires nearly a doubled your obedient servant,

than a fourth of my rental. What can I give to tantity to satisfy the present demand. The ef

THOMAS ATWOOD. distress? I was all my life attached most warmct of this contact with foreign circumstances is!

(COPY.)

ly to the Government of England, by inclination, sible also in the north of Ireland, where the ex. "Sir,

Ireland, June 20, 1822. habit, and interest ; but I am now nearly careless tence of the great linen manufactures tends to "I take the liberty of sending you, by this day's of what may happen. We are told it would be pport the population in a state of comparative post, the last Dublin paper I have received. I contrary to the principles of political economy to

infort. But your readers must not imagine, beseech you to read over the lamentable details revert to paper currency. What was done in lat because England holds up longer than Ire-lits columns afford of the awful condition of this 1797 to supply funds for war and slaughter, might nd, it will not ultimately fall into the same state.country. We are hurried on to an accumulation of well be done in 1822 to ensure the happiness and 'he population of England are supplied with em- horrors never yet witnessed under the sun. The save the lives of millions of our fellow subjects; loyment by the continual sacrifice of the capital subscriptions, magnificent as they were, have unless the maxims of this political philosophy E the merchants and manufacturers, which is an-Iproved quite inadequate: famine and pestilence are to be observed only for our destruction, ually and rapidly going on; and they are sun-are extending their ravages every hour. Yet and dispensed with only for bloodshed and devaslied with food by the continual destruction of the Ministers and the House of Commons, will per-tation. If this be the case, it is indeed a scourge apital of the farmers and land owners, which is sist in forcing on the tremendous experiment.--to be ruled by political economists; to have robtill more rapidly taking effect. Sooner or later, There is scarcely a pound note in circulation bing and spoliation called good faith, and utter ne of these great links must give way, and pro- here : guineas and sovercigns have long since dis-ruin a wholesome recurrence to sound policy S ably they will both give way at the same time. appeared ; a small quantity of silver and copper But, as Junius said in his day, 'It has pleased HeaThe population of England will then be thrown coin alone remain. Now, Sir, I ask, if all the provi-ven to give us a Parliament and a Ministry, whom pon their country, hungry and destitute, and sions in Europe were accumulated in Ireland, how no argument can persuade, no experience can hey will have no sister island to relieve them.-could the people obtain any of them, except by teach. I have written this in haste, to be in time The destruction of the present race of farmers force? What can they earn or obtain, to give in for this day's post, but it contains no exaggeration annot be effected without producing ultimately exchange for them ? Having first called on the of our misfortunes; that is almost impossible. I uch a deterioration of cultivation, as must inevi-generous and suffering people of England to re-Jam, Sir, your obliged and very obedint servant, ably terminate in famine. It will be counter-medy the mischief they have done, his Majesty's Icted for a while by the recruits from the monied Ministers now unjustly and most wickedly attempt

00 Lasses, who will step forward and take possession to lay the blame on the Irish landed proprietors.

"From the New England Farmer. E the farms, free from the incumbrances which If the latter are absentees, that is sufficient to acorced their unhappy predecessors into the work-count for the distress; if resident, they are called

CIDER. house or the grave. But it is not in nature that the tyrants and oppressors, in order to shift the bur-Mr. EDITOR. cultivation of the land should not be injured, during then from the contrivers of all this ruin. The Cider is our natural beverage. That it is capa The process of this gigantic “transfer of proper-Irish landed proprietors have suffered every pri-ble of surpassing the wines of other countries, is

y as the Jews modesilu call it. The cultivation/vation and every insult which it is possible for a fact frequently well attested at the tables of afof the land must be injured during the process of men to bear. I myself will challenge investiga-fluence. To facilitate its more extensive experihis tremendous change, and that injury must|tion and comparison with the most indulgent land-lence is the purpose of this communication terminate in famine, which no human measures lord in England, as to the letting of my ground Agriculture, of which the making Cider is a part. can avert, and scarce any can mitigate or relieve. and the treatment of my tenants, as far as my is the first of sciences. Its pre-eminence entitles

Strange it is, indeed, to reflect, Sir, that the power of indulgence went. I have reduced mylit to the distinction of the Divine science. But Legislature should have rushed into a gulf of this expenditure from luxury and comfort to bare ne-much is left to the reason as well as the labor of kind, without stopping for a moment to investi. cessaries ; I have been put to upwards of a hun-man to exalt it to perfection; and in this economy gate its unfathomable depth! Both the Commit-dred pounds law costs within a few months, by of Providence, who can be insensible to its beFees of Parliament, upon whose reports Mr. Peel's persons having demands on my estate, who shew nignity and condescension in making us joint laBill is founded, distinctly acknowledge that they no mercy, and share no blame ; I have been wor-borers in the accomplishment of our enjoyments? Whave not inquired into the policy” of this mortalsried almost to death, and every way humbled ; I am persuaded that you will not think this semeasure, but have confined their inquiries into and at the end of all this, which is the condition riousness as out of place, since, in connexion with the best period and means of carrying it into ef of most Irish resident landed proprietors, the peo- the immediate advantage, it must have been the fect. I told Lord Liverpool at the time, that “the ple are to be excited by his Majesty's Ministers basis of institutions for the encouragement of agricountry was led blindfold like an ox to the slaugh-to rise up against their unfortunate landlords. For cultural pursuits. In a pecuniary view, the subter." 'Why did they not remove the muffles from many generations my family have lived here, in-ject is within the demonstration of arithmetic-in her eyes? Why did they not inquire into the dependent and opulent country gentlemen; now, years of usual abundance, it may be computed. "holicy” of restoring the ancient standard of va- for the first time, dishonour and misery have been that a million of barrels of ciderare made in Maslue? Why did they not shew that the doubling brought on our house by the confiscation and rob-sachusetts, worth, in such years, a dollar each. of every public and private obligation in the bery of Mr. Peel's iniquitious Bill. And yet, I made in the common manner; any mode of mak kingdom, and the annihilation of rent, would be am to be pointed out to my tenants as the cause of ing which, without material multiplication of exthe least of the destructive consequences which that distress and ruin of which I am the first and pense, shall enhance this price, will add the admust attend it? And why did they studiously most suffering victim. I anxiously implore you, ditional value to the stock of profit; and it is not Pretend hat 4 per cent was all the reduction Sir, not to relax in your exertions to make thelextravagant to say. that even in vears of the that it would make in the prices of property and real cause of all this evident to the people of Eng-greatest plenty, like the present. it may be so labour, when they knew full well, that its perma- land. The same degree of distress would, un- improved in quality as to be advanced to ten times nent suspension had permanently doubled those doubtedly, have taken place there too, but for your its ordinary price. Nor is it the epicure alone who prices? The great painter of Nature, when hel Poor Laws: it remains to be seen how long even would willingly pay for the luxurious draughtrepresents a man attempting an object which Na- they can avert it. In this country, distress and the salubrity of a pure and palatable liquor would ture shrinks at, makes him call upon elemental consternation have seized on every mind; every force parsimony itself into the economy of its darkness, to shelter his designs from his own one looks to a dreadful conclusion at no great dis- purchase. Our autumnal complaints derive. in tyes, and from those of Heaven.

tance of time. Beyond all doubt, Government a great measure, their existence and aliment

will have to support the entire population of Ire- from the use of viscous and vapid juices. The - “Come thou thick night, land before truelve months elapse, if it persist in re-proverb, that it is better to pay the butcher than "And fall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, fusing to allow a sufficient supply of legal ten-(the doctor, is much exalted in its application to "That my keen knife see not the wound it makes, liders.

the present subject-it is better to comply with Nor Heaven peep through the blanket of the “ The Irish gentlemen are grossly reviled, be-the terms of nature, than to endure the penalties dark,

cause they do not come forward with subscrip-lof their transgression. The apple tree, like the " To cry, Hold ! hold ""

tions for their starving countrymen. In the name vine, is dependant on man ;-through his delinnsinuate that motives of reason, from what fund are they to give? A quency, the yieldings of both degenerate into vin

ed the Legislature, and few years ago, my property gave me credit, and engar, but on the performance of his duty, they induced them to more to their design with such the punctuality of my payments confirined and are exalted into wine.

Willingly give extended it. Now, if my life were at stake, 11 A finished speculation on the making of Cider,

Although I must be could not raise £200. The small portion of my should begin with the songs of the Mantuan bard. content to leave their conduct as one of the inex-'once well paid and moderate rents which I now on

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“ The kinds of stock, and what those kinds will deavor-an advance to the second, which con-" The hoary frosts, and northern blasts, take car bear.'

verts into vinegar, is restrained only by the due|The muddy beverage to serene, and drive

ascendancy and retention in the body of the li-|Precipitant, the baser ropy lees." And on the methods and progress of cultivation, quor of the spirituous quality excited and quickfrom the “wild disorder” of the nursery to ened by the first-the last is produced by an ir- In this case, racking before a removal into the cele

reclaimable foulness. The intermission between lar, (for it ought not to freeze) and again in March " The stately tree, which in autumn bends

the two first is short, and has been considered or April, may be necessary for the exclusion : With blushing treasures."

the critical moment for the successful interposi-the offending matter. The difference in the two tion of art, and racking, fumigation, salt-petremo

Detre modes of treatment already supposed is, that For,

and roach-alum, have been specifics relied upon;" the first, nature is left to her own unmolested Wouldst thou thy vats with generous wine should but more is depending on the internal condition of operation, through which her intentions of giving froth ?

the liquor, than on these prescriptions, or on any to man a delectable draught, will (if they hau Respect thy orchards ;-think not that the trees other consideration. Ciders of a good stamina, not been thwarted by his own remissness) be effe--| Shontaneous will produce a wholesome draught. Ipurified and protected from the internal and ex-tually accomplished :-in the other, she is has. The plant which shoots from sced a sullen tree, ternal occasions of its injury, by an attention tened on in her designs, and the precipitation or At leisure grows for late posterity,

which ought to be as common as washing down a the performance requires, that certain of its stag. The generous flavor lost.

hog before cutting it up, will never depreciate es should be seized to thrust out an enemy who 1

linto sourness : nor will any application reclaim only on rest to recommence commotion. But as these pleasing and interesting investiga-Ithat which sunk under the pressure of its inhel As to refining cider with matter, it may be give: tions are better adapted to seed-time than har-Trent impurities, or lost its virtues by the inatten-las a rule, that if while on the lees, or when drawal vest. I will pass on to the business of the season-tion of its keeper. In respect to racking, howe-font, the liquor is tranquil, pleasant, piercing, ari the making and preserving Cider. A clean, con-Iver, if it be ineffectual for the renovation of the yet free from asperity, it may be left to itself;0" venient and covered mill, is the first pre-requi- liquor, it is seldom attended with disadvantage, as is more fit for turbulent acrimonious and inssite for without such a mill, all other attentions and is sometimes the best expedient for its pu-pid bodies, a little tasteless mucilaginous matte: may be frustrated. The apples should be reduc-rification.

of any sort, as isinglass, calves feet jelly, the ed 'to a fine pulp. The colour of the liquor and The quality of the juice of an apple in its natu-| whites of eggs, or dissolved glue, may be infused its smoothness are both improved by laying a few ral state, is the prime inquiry to guide all our de-Ito accelerate the precipitation of the particles hours in the trough after grinding. Lay up the cisions on the flavor, the taste, the color, and the suspended in the liquor. pomace on the press in clean straw, without using durability of cider at maturity. Generally, thel The addition of spirit to the expressed ivice is à drop of water in any part of the process. Three quality of the juice may be inferred from the out- a practice condemned by Pomona's Bardor four times as much water is often used in mak- ward appearance of the apple, as it departs from

“ With their native strength, g less than a hogshead of cider, than would be the spiritless white into the golden yellow and Thy wine's officient » required to ruin a pipe of proof spirits. Every the gorgeous carnation. Hence, mean should be adopted to retain the spirituous

TA sensible observer, too, of our own; has ex. property of the liquor-it is its life. If a cider “Let every tree in every garden, own

pressed the same censure. But the subject hus is wanted,

The red-streak as supreme.

its qualifications. The treatment which is some“ Some strong, to cheer,

“ The pippin, burnish'd o'er with gold,” is but times necessary to give a saving soundness to The wint’ry revels of the laboring hind,

la grade below. But general rules have their ex- wine, decides against these opinions. Brand: And tasteful some, to cool the summer hours," ceptions, and on the present subject a surer cri-is re-mixed with wine to give it solidity: a

terion than outward show may be derived from grapes of the greatest saccharine richness, afthe cheese may be reground, with some assistance internal examination-any apple contains a rich fording a juice of nearly the consistency o: from the well.

fuid, suitable to make a sound, palatable and ex-Thoney, and easily convertible into spirit, a

hilirating cider, which, on breaking, emits an ac- used to exalt inferior clusters into wine of 11 “Water will imbibe

tive fragrant flavor is not over abundantly juicy, high quality.* in truth, it is on this point tha: The small remains of spirit, and acquire and has a glutinous consistency. That the crab intelligent observation must direct. Seasons (: A vinous flavour.”

will make the best cider, is one of those crudeluxuriant vegetation produce a more aqueous

conceits, that every thing is enveloped in myste-lapple than seasons of sterility. The effect of Press the cheese gently at first, and advance

Iry, and that we can in no other way escape the these different seasons on the quality of cider slowly to the utmost power of the screw. Art

foolery which nature is playing with us, than to cannot have escaped notice. In the dry sun. now commences its operations against the “float-16 ing lee”—and in no stage of the business can they perfection of the fruit, that after having been ga" forsake our senses. It is all'important to the full mers of 1805 and 6, a spirituous ascendency in

the fruit generally triumphed, in cider, over misbe more effectually interposed-in proportion to thered (which should be done when ripe, in dry mana

management in its making on the contrary, in the clarification of the stum the tendency to an weather with no external iniury and before seasons of great abundance, and when the fruit ensuing fermentation is moderated, and its dan

11- Jfrosts shall have corrupted it.) that it be spread is distended to a great size by the watery ele

cats gerous excess arrested.

on covered floors to mellow, and to impart to the ment, the spirit of

to the ment, the spirit of cider is reduced to so preIn turning up, as it is called, out of the tub, the air an useless portion of its aqueous parts. Rains

RainJcarious a standard, that the skilful and vigilant grossest of the pomaceous mass is usually detained and dews hurt ripe apples even while on the only may boast

the only may boast of its possession in power and by a strainer of straw, coarser than “the goat's (trees, but they injure them much more in heaps, purt!

hend purity. In these facts, which a moment's reshaggy beard.” Instead of such a strainer pre-lor spread in contact with any substance and with flection must confirm, we have the instruction pare a tunnel with moveable rims, in the form of each other. While in either of these situations, we ne

we need-if the “native strength" of the juice a seive-over the bottom rim, stretch a covering humidity, according to its degree and continuance, 175

ance' is sufficient, an aliance should be rejected of fine flannel-over the second, a covering of retards or stays the process of maturation, insti-pinsumicient, an auxinary may be received, and baize, and the uppermost overspread with drug-tutes that of decomposition, and impairs the spiget, with the nappy side of each pendant. These rituous quality upon which the preservation of * Other, and less notorious secrets in the trade strainers will arrest on their way to the vessel, all the cider wholly depends. It should be regarded of wine, give the same evidence. the gross and most of the subtle impurities which too, as almost equally indispensable to the good the proportion of ten gallons to a barrel, mil

Currants, in tend to the agitation and vitiation of the liquor. quality of the liquor, that the fruit should be se- bring on a fermentation in cider which terminShould the strainers choak they can be easily re-parated before grinding, from unripe and unsoundlates in a neat and pleasant wine. It is the pirto lieved.

apples, and from all filth. The juice of an unripe dominant spirit of the currants which effects the We now advance to the preservation of the Ci- apple is even more pernicious than that of a de- severe transformation. der, which is the principal difficulty; and after all fective one.

L A Senator in Congress, profoundly instructed the directions which can be given much must be The place in which the cider shall now be set in the arcana of commerce, asserted in a speech, supplied by discreet observation. The vinous, the to subside is interesting to its welfare. In a cellar that a composition passing any where for Maacetous, and the putrefactive, are the three fer- of uniform temperature through the year, it may deira wine, may be formed of ten gallons of that mentations to which the liquor is inclined-they be left undisturbed to settle and refine on its own article pure, with ten gallons of Malaga wine, are, indeed, but one progressive operation, with lees. The unstoppage of cellar windows in the thirty of Sherry, and the same quantity of ciintermediate pauses. The first is an effort to free spring, adınits an active agent to the acetous fer-der. An analysis of the component parts will sher, itself from a farther association with the fruit, mentation, against which, drawing off may be a that the brandy in the sherry wine is the preser. and to excite its own spirit, and is closed with a safeguard. If placed in an open exposure below vation of the cider in its assimilation to the calmness which marks an intermission of the en- the freezing point,

first named ingredient.

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