Imágenes de páginas

stones or trees, and each team had a perfectly 3d premium to Stedman Williams

those exhibited in any former year. The ror' equal chance. The ploughs were duly entered

do d o ploughman 4 of Mangel Wurtzel,' sent by Dr. Chaplin, for the contest, and the ploughmen drew for Samuel Prince, driver

2-14 Cambridgeport, were very large, and in gre: lots as follows:

- perfection. The Doctor also presented to th No. 1.--Aaron Davis Williams, of Roxbury, one

$70 Society a very fine Watermelon, from his ou pair of oxen, Lewis Bliss ploughman, David All which is submitted,

garden, which weighed about twenty-thra Howe driver-Warren's Dedham plough, with


pounds. From the farm of Edward Sparbaws wheel and cutter-18 furrows finished in 34

BENJAMIN GODDARD, Esq. of Brighton, some“ Silverskin" Onions, un minutes.

SAMUEL G. DERBY. commonly large. From the garden of Mr. Will No. 2.- Jonas L. Sibley, of Sutton, one pair of

liam Ackres, of Brooklyne, some roots of the oxen, Samuel Sibley ploughman, Peter Dar- No. 7.--Agricultural Experiments. common Red Beat, of an early kind, and of 3 ling 2d driver-Common Sutton plough, with The committee on Agricultural Experiments, size seldom equalled. Mr. Josiah Coolidge, pre wheel-17 furrows_23 minutes.

to whom was also committed the inspection of Cambridge, and Mr. Samuel Murdock, of Milf No. 3.-Stedman Williams, of Roxbury, two sundry articles of Manufacture, for which ton, exhibited some very large Winter Squashpair of oxen, Stedman Williams, ploughman, premiums were offered,

es. One from the farm of the former weigher Samuel Prince driver-Warren's of Dedham


forty-seven pounds. From the farm of General plough, with wheel-18 furrows-26 minutes

Huli, in Newton, some Carrots, Ruta Baga, ang

That five several parcels of Cheese, of more English Turnips, all of them very large, "taker. 30 seconds.

ir than one year old ; and seventeen parcels of from a field of two acres, without any cultiva. No. 4.-Joseph Curtis, of Roxbury, two pair

new Cheese, were offered for the Society's pre- tion, but what was common to the whole field." oxen, Luke Rollins ploughman, Amos Wyman driver.Warren's Dedham ulough, with wheelsmiums; which, in the opinion of your commit- From the farm of Capt. N. Ingersoll of Broot

tee, are superior to any hitherto exhibited; all lyne, some Amak, being a new variety of the and cutte:-20 furrows-27 minutes 30 se

made in the town of New Braintree, in the Carrot. From the orchard of Mr. Henry Houghconds.

C..tton two noir county of Worcester, excepting one parcel of ton, of Bolton, in the County of Worcester.

five cheeses, made by Mr. John Ayres, of Oak- some Blue Pearmains, which were supposed to oxen, Royal T. Marble ploughman, Luther

ham in the same county ; of the former, that weigh not less than one pound each Whiting driver-Sutton plough, with wheel

Freni from the dairy of Capt. John Hunter, was con- the garden of James White, Esq. in Dorchester, 16-furrows-30 minnutes.

sidered to be the richest and best made cheese, in the County of Norfolk, two specimens of the No. 6.-Aaron D. Williams, of Roxbury, one and is entitled to the premium of ten dollars; Cotton Plant, which grew in the open air, with

pair oxen, Thomas Howe ploughman and dri- that from the dairy of Capt. Ebenezer Tidd, out particular care ; one of which was Sea Is. ver_Warren of Dedham plough, with wheel the next best, and is entitled to the premium of land, the other Upland. The pods on both were -19 furrows-46 minutes.

Ifive dollars. Of the new Cheese, that from the well filled with Cotton. No. 7.-Silas Dudley, of Sutton two pair oxen, dairy of Mr. William Earl, was considered to be From the farm of Captain Joseph Warren, in Silas Dudley ploughman, Joseph Dudley driver the best, and is entitled to the premium of ten Brighton, some ears of Corn, said to be of a very -Warren of Dedham plough, with wheel and dollars ; that from the dairy of Major Roswell productive kind, “ from three stalks ten ears were cutter-17 furrows-26 minutes.

Converse, the next best, and is entitled to the taken.” From the orchard of Col. James WilNo. 8.-Isaac Cook, of Brookline, one pair oxen, premium of five dollars. Caleb Miller ploughman and driver-Warren' Several parcels of fine flavored Butter were “ Eve's Apples.” From the farm of Dr. Eliakim

der, in Sterling, a very large fine Apple, called of Dedham plough, with wheel and cutter-also exhibited, uncommonly well made, the but- Morse, in Watertown, some fine ears of the eight 19 furrows-33 minutes.

termilk being more perfectly expressed than and twelve rowed Indian Corn. No. 9.-Moses Seaver, of Brighton, one pair ox-Jusual ; that from the dairy of Miss Mary Clark, By order of the Committee.

en, Moses Seaver ploughman, Benjamin Por- of Watertown, in the County of Middlesex, was . THOS. L. WINTHROP. Chairman. ter driver-Howard of Hingham's plough considered to be the best ; that from the dairy October 9th, 1822. with weel-20 furrows-24 minutes.

of Col. Stephen Hastings, of Sterling, in the The claims for premiums on Agricultural exNo. 10.-John Sherman, of Sutton, one pair ox-County of Worcester, the next best-the form- periments, will not be decided until the Trustees'

en, Asa Cummings ploughman, John Sherman er is entitled to the premium of ten dollars, and Meeting in December; affording time for the driver-Sutton plough with wheel-18 furrows the latter to the premium of five dollars.

competitors to offer the evidence required. The 22 minutes.

For the greatest quantity of Butter and Cheese, Committee will make an additional Report soon

made between the 15th day of May, and the after that period. Previous to the ploughing, it was distinctly

first day of October, from not less than four stated by the committee, that the furrow must be not less than 54 inches deep, and their cows, the quantity of the Butter and of the

BRIGHTON TOASTS. Cheese, and the number of cows, to be taken greatest wish as little to exceed 10 inches in

At the anniversary Dinner, there were a numinto consideration, Mr. William Earl, of New ber of good, some complimentary, and a few the width of furrow as was possible, and not tolm

Braintree, has exhibited sufficient testimony, in sparkling Toasts drunk. We have room for a hurry their cattle, as they conceived the best 2

8the opinion of your committee, to entitle him few of them. work could not be performed if over driven

Il to the premium of twenty dollars. and that goodness of work, together with that

Į The Coulter on the land--the Keel on the sea

Messrs. Brewer and Jordan, of Roxbury, are May the first run deep and both run clear: and of cattle, would be a great object in deciding

"s entitled to the premium of ten dollars, for the all who hold the handle or the helm, find honor premiums, as well as cheapness of labour.

Jbest specimen of Sole Leather ; for the next and reward. They have great pleasure in stating, that thel

best specimen, Messrs. Benjamin Mirick & Co. Our mother Earth-May those have the best work was well done, and most of it in a supe-1

also of Roxbury, are entitled to the premium of share in her affections, who take the plough rior style, and that those competitors who failed

five dollars. in obtaining premiums, was because the Com


Five barrels of Flour, from the wheat raised mittee had it in their power to award only the present season, on the farm of Gorham Par- best animals are those who are not overfleshy nor

The world-A great Cattle Show, where the three among ten claimants-indeed, they con

sons, Esq. in Brighton, and manufactured at the underfed. ceive praise is due to all the ploughmen, who « City Mills," lately erected on the “ Western discovered great skill in the management of Avenue,” very little inferior in quality to the is above price, and needs no premium- the Show

The noblest part of our exhibition, that which their implements, and the cattle were univer-1

erbest made Philadelphia flour, were exhibited of New England Yeomanry. sally excellent--and in consequence of the re-lby Mr. Benjamin T. Reed, Agent of the Proquest of the Committee that they should not be prietors of said Mills, and are entitled to the and Cattle Shows-May all their pens do them

By Professor Everett-Colleges, Universities, hurried, they could generally have proceeded!

"premium of twenty-five dollars. in another one eighth of an acre with ease.

equal credit.

A sample of Starch, in imitation of the Po- By Hon. Mr. Quincy_The Presidential PloughThe Committee have been unanimous in,

Iland Starch, manufactured by Mr. Robert Hewes, ing Match-May the working ox beat the fillies. their awards after a very critical examination,

of Boston ; and a sample of Mustard, manufactur- By George Blake, Esq.-The American Plough as follows:

ed by Mr. Abraham Bickford, also of Boston, and the American Prow-May theirs be the vioIst premium to Isaac Cook

$20 were exhibited—both appeared to be of a very tory on the Plain as on the Main. Caleb Miller, ploughman 10 good quality, perhaps equal to any imported;/

-TO do do. driver

5-35 no premiums the present year, for either of these 2d premium to Joseph Curtis articles, were offered by the Trustees

FROM THE NEW ENGLAND FARMER. Luke Rollins, ploughman

| The vegetables brought to the Society's Hall This is the season when farmers are gatherAmos, Wyman, driver

3-21 'very far exceeded in quantity, variety, and size, ing in their prodace and estimating the quanti



s. They may readily measure their grain by with a plain scale of equal parts, and pair of of Representatives for the next Congress are ie bushel, and weigh their flax by the pound; dividers, without any calculations by numbers. to be chosen (the present Congress being comlät to ascertain the number of their gallons of I carried it so far as to project extracting the posed according to the old ratio.) The whole der they will find attended with difficulty. cube root and gauging casks, and finding their mumber is 212, exclusive of the three territories; Some years ago I undertook to write a new ullage.

of whom eatise of arithmetic, better adapted to the ca-l To find the contents of a cask by semi geome

Maine has

7 North Carolina 13 acity of the learner and agricultural business try is a very handsome projection, but the fi

New Hampshire 6 South Carolina 9 han any heretofore published; in the compos-gure cannot be intelligibly described in a newspa

Massachusetts 13 Georgia

7 3 of which I did not take any thing for granted, per, without a large plate-yet, to such as are

Rhode Island 2 Alabama at demonstrated and proved every rule that well versed in Euclid I may render myself in

Connecticut 6 Mississippi laid down. (telligible, for to such if they are expert with a


5 Louisiana In gaugixg I found that all the rules that any scale and dividers the contents of a cask, without

New York

34 | Tennessee uthors had laid down were either very errone-Jany calculation, may be projected into a paral

New Jersey

6 Kentucky us, or required such a tedious calculation with lelogram, of equal contents superficial measure.

Pennsylvania 26 Ohio , vast number of figures as to be liable to error, That for a large cask, would be extensive, and


1 | Indiana und that their diagonal and gauging rods were at may be reduced, although 231. the cubic inches |


9 Illinois best but a random way of guessing at the con-lin á gallon, is an uncouth number, to divide-it! Virginia

22 | Missouri ents of casks of different proportions.

will divide by 3 and 77 only; then suppose the I tried various ways to raise a theorem more parallelogram is proiected for 3 inches deep. we imple, plain and correct, than any that I could have 77 to divide again, that will divide by 7|

From the London Farmer's Journal. ind published, and after nearly despairing of and 11 only, then project the reduced parallelo

16-JEXPERIMENTS ON SEED WHEAT WITH inding any better or more short than the rule gram to one of equal content 11 wide, then step

STEEPS, &c. aid down by the learned and ingenious James off the gallons by 7.

Surry, 28th June, 1822. Ferguson, I accidentally hit on the following:

Semi geometry is a science that all farmers
Semi reometry is a science that all farmers! In consequence o

In consequence of the strong recommendation Ist. Multiply the mean diameter by itself.

ought to learn, in order to be ready to lay out given to blue and green vitriol as a preventive of 2d. Multiply the product by the length.

any kind of farmers or mechanical business. smut and slug, I was induced to try it in prepar3d. Multiply that product by 34.

In my treatise of arithmetic I taught decimals sing the seed for two fields last autumn. By way 4th. Strike off four decimal points and you with whole numbers from the first numeration of giving it a fair trial, I sowed about one third of have the true contents in gallons and decimall table, in order to suit the currency of the Uni- each field with the preparation of each viparts of gallons.

ted States. I taught that there was but simply triol, and one third with only the common The excellence of this rule is, it avoids the the nine numbers in nature, that any thing fur-Ipreparation of lime. The seed was free from tedious process of any long division, and does ther than nine was but repetition, according to smut, and so is the crop.t So far with clean seed but require one fourth part of the number of place in the numeration table. That nine was I consider vitriol useless, but with seed infected ngures as the shortest rule laid down by James the Crown Number, and would prove any cal-with smut, the following experiment will show a Ferguson, and it is equally correct in casks of any Iculation within the four rules in whole numbers, Idifferent result. proportion.

and taught how to prove them, as also if there I had given to me a sample of old Scotch wheat The dimensions should be exactly taken with Iwas an error in multiplication to shew whether that appeared free from smut; this I divided into 3 scale that has the inches divided into tenths, it was made in multiplying or adding, and if in two parcels, to try if seed was easily impregnated und the work will stand as follows: Suppose the long division whether in multiplying or sub- with smut, and for this purpose I procured some rask, Bung diameter,

28 inches.

smut balls, and rubbed one half ofthe seed with the Head do,


When I came to treat of interest, I disliked dust. I then divided each parcel into seven others,

very much any rules that I could find published and prepared and sowed 100 grains of each, on the Length, 32


for calculating interest for days or broken time, 26th of October last, in the following manner.

as the work was too tedious and too much lost | The odd numbers refer to wheat taken from 24 mean dia.

in little fractional remainders to be correct. !{the sample; the even numbers to the wheat rub24

tried a variety of ways to form some better and[bed with smut balls.

more exact rule that would not require so 96


RESULT many figures until I discoversed nine proportion-l, 48 ate Logarithms (and there is no more in nature)

1. The dry seed.

1. One grain produced that will shew the interest of any broken sum.

six ears of smut. 576 of dollars and cents for any broken time or num

2. Same.

2. Upwards of 100 ears Multiply by length; 32

of smut. ber of days, or at any rate per cent—and bring

13. Wetted with spring out the whole in one sum to the ten thousandth

3. Free.

water and dried with
part of of a cent, with less figuring than any other
mode, and without any division, which I believe)

quick lime.
14. Same.

4. A few plants prothe greatest of my discoveries. 18432 I shewed them at several of the banks that I

duced smut. Multiply by could calculate interest quicker and more cor

15. Boiling water poured | 5. Free.
rect than any clerks they had—but they spurn-

on quick lime to make
ed at such instruction. I then tried to sell my!

it the thickness of
copy right to several printers—they would not

cream, wheat mere-
buy it because they said it was not like Dil
worth's and other treatises. I told them if it was
Parises. I told them if it was en out to dry.

6. Free. The true content is 62 gallons and .6688 deci-slike other treatises there would be no need forlo. Same.

| 7. Free. mal parts of another gallon. them to buy it—and that if people would be 7. Green vitriol, propor

tion 1 lb. a bushel, I could readily give a demonstration of this such slaves to custom as not to look at any thing new, they never woulå advance in improve-l.

seed steeped 3 hours. theorem on the principles of Euclid, but leave

8. Same.

8. A few plants proment. that as an exercise for the students of mathema

duced smut. At this advanced period of life I believe that ticks, perhaps if they do not immediately hit on "my labours for the benefit of the public. must 9. Say

st19. Same, but dried with 9. Free. this theorem, they may some other.

Iwondel die with me, except some few ideas that may)..

some few ideas that may 10. Same.

| quick lime. This concise rule makes the small allowance)

10. A few plants pro: for the be retailed in newspapers. that James Ferguson recommended for the be


duced smut. spheroidical figure of casks, and if it deviates, it

111. Blue vitriol, propor- | 11. Free. Stockport, Pa. Sept. 19, 1822. gives a little too much by the inside of the casks

tion 4 lb. a bushel, Lot being geometrically round.

seed steeped three If there is any readier way to find the con

hours. tents of a cask, I believe I have it in a treatise Representatives of the next Congress by the I have written on a new science, that I call Semil

new apportionment. Geometry, and which teaches how to project al - The following is the rate of apportionment.

It One field was much injured by the slug and most every thing necessary in country business, according to which, the Members of the House worm in the autumn, the other escaped.

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12. Same,
| 12. Free.

commonly called the Miller Burgundy, or blue 12 cts.—Coal, Virginia, per bushel 25 to 30 ceni 13. Same, but dried with | 13. Free.

English grape. I intend offering the cuttings for - English, 40 cts.--Herrings, Susquehannah, X quick lime.

sale, in the proper season, at the following prices : 1, $275 to 350-do. do. No. 2, $250-Shad, trii. 14. Same. . 14. Free. One dollar for a single dozen cuttings

med, $7 50 to $8-do. No. 2, trimmed, $6 50 Nearly every grain grew ; the wheat looks tool Five ditto for one hundred ditto

$7-Hogs lard, fresh, per lb. 10 cts.-Beef, frest. lerably even, and remarkably well, but I am ao Or five hundred for twenty dollars.

per lb. 6 to 10 cts.--Pork, per 1b.5 to 8 cts.-Vea'. fraid the birds will destroy the corn before harvest, Persons who wish to buy, can write to me, per lb. 6 to 10 cts.-Mutton, per lb. 5 to 8 that I shall not be able to give you an account post paid, and they will be attended to.

Butter 31 to 37 cts.-Eggs, per dozen, 16 cts.of the different samples.

Will not your respectable, Maryland Agricul- Potatoes, per bushel, 62 to 75 cts.-Hickory woor, It appears from the shove that boiling water tural Society offer premiums for the cultivation per cord, $5 to $5 50-Oak, do. $3 25 to 3 75and quick lime, as well as blue vitriol, are effec

me effec. of Vineyards and Orchards, and the fabrication Pine, do. $2 to 2 50. tual remedies against smut. But those steeped):

se steeped of Wine and Cider ?* I have found the book on TOBACCO-No sales the present week, in vitriol lost most plant in the autumn, and suf-/ Wine Making, f that you were so good as to lend fered more from enemies than either of the others.

me, exceedingly gratifying and most probably THE FARMER. I remain, your's, &c.

useful to me this summer.

A barrel of Tokay wine, made about two

weeks since, has just been examined—I did not
put a particle of spirit in it, yet this wine is very


strong, and I believe it will have body enough to
keep without spirit. Your's, respectfully,


JNO. ADLUM. | Two parcels of Ruta Baga, or Swedish Tur Dig a pit from 4 to 6 feet wide, and 4 feet)

nip Seed, have been recently shipped to the deep-8 or 10 feet long-set posts down at each * We think they ought, and thank our corres- United States, for sale at a price merely cocorner, and let them come about 3 feet above the pondent too, for the suggestion.

vering the cost, by Christopher Hughes, Jr., ground. Board up the sides, leaving the breadth + We shali re-publish this little English work. Esq., our Chargé des Affaires at Stockholm, of one plank on each side a foot from the on Wine Making, by Dr. McCulloch, in the Ame- We have received one of the parcels, 220 lbs., ground unboarded. In this space dig holes infrican Farmer, as soon as Mr. Adlum returns us and sold the same to our worthy neighbour Mr. the wall a few inches at convenient distances, lour cony, for we think it gives in a compendious Robert Sinclair of Baltimore, Manufacturer of and put your English Rabbits in after it is co- form the plainest and best instructions, that we have Agricultural Implements, and Seedsman, as vered and has a door with a lock and key.seen upon this important subject-instructions an elligible mode of accomplishing the laudaThey will soon complete what you have left un-Ithat will be useful in domestic or larger fabrica, ble objects of Mr. Hnghes, who had this seed finished in the wall, by burrowing several feet tions of sermented liquors--the healthfulness and raised and saved by eminent agriculturists of into it--a plank should be fixed with hinges to value of which depend so much upon the judicious Sweden, that the Farmers of his own country trice up and to be let down by a string on each or scientific management of the vinous process might have an opportunity to cultivate so ra. side over the holes, to enable you to catch them We have derived more satisfactory or definite luable a vegetable from genuine, native seed; when you please, either for the purpose of ideas, on the subject of fermentation, and the fu- and be led thereafter to supply themselves, altering the males, or of killing them for the ta- fabrication of different kinds of wine, from this through the ordinary channels of trade, with ble-never keep more than one male in the little work, than from all which we had previous seed direct from its native country, if the exwarren, for the sake of peace.

S. H. Ily read. The irinciples or agents which it ex- periments should here establish, as they have

inlains or unfolds, are applicable to every vinous done in England, the expediency of occasionalEditorial Correspondence.

fermentation and therefore a knowledge of this ly resorting to Sweden for fresh supplies of seed. writer's doctrines will be useful to Brewers, Cider The parcel which we have sold to Mr. Ro

Wakers. &c. Some of the best cider that que ever bert Sinclair was raised by Count Schwerin, at WINE, GRAPE CUTTINGS, CIDER, &c.

tasted, was made by rules derived from this trea- the instance of Mr. Hughes, and request of Mr. tise.-ED. AM. FARM.

Eric Swedenstierna, a repectable tradesman, Vineyard, near George Town, D. C.

to whom we are informed any one may hereSept. 17th, 1822. I FALL CHERRIES AND RUSSIAN RYE. after confidently address themselves in the exJ. S. SKINNER, Esq.

We have just received from Gen. Thomas M. pectation of receiving genuine seeds, the growth Dear Sir,-I have just finished making wine Forman, specimens of Fall cherries, and a sam- of that country. from my small Vineyard—I have four-tenths of ple, of flour made from rye, imported from The other parcel being 300 lbs., will arrive an acre planted near my house. The cuttings Russia by our townsman, Major Isaac M'Kim, at, and be offered on sale in Philadelphia ; it remained one year in the nursery, and the year formerly placed with us for distribution, a part was raised by Mr. Tamm, a very extensive before last they were planted out where they of which we gave to Gen. Forman, who divided proprietor under his own eye and care, at the now stand. The first year they took good root, it among his neighbours, with a prospect, as particular request of Mr. Hughes. The sale of the next they grew luxuriantly, and this is the appears, of eventual benefit.

this parcel will be duly notified, and both may be first year of their bearing. Sixty-three vines of

implicitly relied upon by our Farmers, as furnishthe Constantia have produced eighteen bushels

Savinton, Cæcil Co., E. Shore, ing the best means of ascertaining the real value of grapes, in the bunches, which made two quar

Maryland, Oct. 12th, 1822. S of this important Root crop. ter casks of wine of 28 gallons each. One hun DEAR SIR,

A small quantity of the same kind, and far dred and fifty-eight vines of Tokay, &c. produc- I send you a couple of Cherries as curiosities; better than any we had before seen, was reed 47$ bushels of grapes. So that the whole they ripened this fall on the tree I got of you. ceived by us from Mr. Hughes last Summer vintage was 653 bushels, and I find that a bushel I send you also a sample of four from the for gratuitous distribution, chiefly amongst his of bunches yields about three gallons of juice. My Russian rye, I got of you ; it's the first we have designated friends; we fear that the unprece. vines are planted in rows 12 feet apart, and are had of it-it's whiter than the four of our com- dented drought of the season may have disap 6 feet distant in the rows.

mon rye, I think, and makes a sweet bread-I pointed the expectations that were indulged I have from the whole, made seven barrels and have raised but little as yet, but shall sow from that present. But the very commeudable six quarter casks of wine. This is the first year more this fall than I have before done, and have solicitude of our absent friend and fellow citiof their bearing, and they cover, in all, about seed to spare next season if applied for early, zen, has placed ampie means of a diffuse trial of one acre of land. I have near four acres more,

Respectfully your's, &c., this crop, with seed equally good, within the most of which will bear next year, and I intend

JOHN T. VEAZEY. reach of every American Farmer, and we hope to plant five acres next spring, so as to have a- T. GEN. Thomas M. FORMAN.

they will very generally embrace the present bout ten acres.

- opportunity to form a just conclusion as to the The quality of the wine is to be determined PRICES CURRENT.-CORRECTED WEEKLY. quality and value of this agreeable and useful after it has gone through its vinous fermentation,

White wheat of the first quality $1 30 to 1 40 Root-of which Mr. Hughes tells us, “the true which will be some time yet.

-Red do. $1 18 to 1 22–Old corn, 65 to 68 Swedish name is KOLROOT, but in conseI shall next season have several thousand cut-Icts.- New do. 63 cents-Rye, 35 to 40 cents-quence of its enormous proportion, in comparitings of vines for sale, of various kinds, foreign Wharf Flour. $6 125 cash-Howard street do. son with common turnips, it is called by the and domestic. Those from which I made my 16 50_Cotton. W. India, according to quality, 15 peasants in the province, where it is most culwine this year, are the Bland Madiera, Tokay,

iera, Tokay, to 25 cents-New Orleans prime, per 16. 15 to 17 tivated, “RUTĀ BAGA,' which means Rain

95 cents-New Orleans primei Constantia, Schuylkill Muscadell, and Munier, Georgia upland do, 13 to 14-Cheese, N. E. 101 Root, or Ram turnip."



257 HORTICULTURE. Igingly furnished me with his observations on or claret wine is substituted for the cream.

the culture of this fruit, which furnishes a Strawberry jam is much admired; and for ice POMARIUM BRITANNICUM, strong instance of the advantages of botanical creams the flavour is generally preferred to that Historical and Botanical account of Fruits, knowledge. Mr. Keen states, that the want of of raspberries. known in Great Britain, by Henry Philifts, education deprived him of the benefit of writ- The pire strawberries make an agreeable des-Second Edition.

ten information; but it will be found that he has sert wine, equally rich as mountain; but possess(Continued from page 249.)

studied the book of nature to advantage. I ob-ling greater fragrance and acidity; the latter

served, says Mr. Keen, that some of my straw-quality is generally too predomipanure from STRAWBERRY PLANT.-FRAGARIA.

berry plants gave out abundance of male blos-English made-wines, whichie making of wines,

soms, but produced no fruit. I therefore, in the the want of aftrauity of the fruits. 2 Botany, a Genus of the Icosandria Polygy-year 1809, had all these plants taken from my than fre monastery of Bathalla, in Portugal, is nia Class.

beds, and had other beds made with the fury the tomb of Don John, son of King John the This most agreeable fruit does not appear to bearing, or female plants only; but Error I had First, of Portugal; which is ornamented by the ave been cultivated by the ancients; and it crop entirely fail, and suspestóms of the male representation of strawberries, this prince haeems only to have grown in the mountainous made, I procured some to a bottle of water, ving chosen them for his crest, to show his de arts of Greece and Italy, the climate being too plants, which having. pubeds, and in a few days votion to St. John the Baptist, who lived on Farm in the other parts of these countries. It Perlerved the fruit began to swell and thrive on fruits. s slightly mentioned by Yixsi' does not mention on all the plants contiguous to the bottle.

X fuit as a diet or medicine. In speaking of Having tried the same experiment in several TAMARIND.-TAMARINDUS. he arbutus-tree, book 15, chap. 24, he says, parts of my garden with the like effect, I was In Botany, of the Monadelphia Triandria Class. - the tree is termed the strawberry-tree; and convinced of the necessity of the male plants in and not of the Triandria Monogynia, as here is not any other tree that gives fruit which producing fruit, since which time, I have plant- classed by Linnæus. Natural Order, Lomene resembles the fruit of an herb growing by the ed about one male plant to ten female plants, tace. ground.” Again he says, speaking of the bram- which I find to be the most profitable proportion, This name is derived from tamar, the Arabic ble-berry," as the ground strawberry differs as my beds have since been so productive, that name for the date; and it is to the Arabians n carnosity from the fruit of the arbutus-tree,” it has been scarce possible to gather the fruit that we owe a knowledge of the use of this

The red-wood strawberry is a native of this without bruising others. Some strawberry plants fruit in medicine. The ancient Greeks knew country; and several modern writers state, have both male and female flowers on the same nothing of it, and the first authors who prethat the white strawberry, as well as the green plant. These are not so profitable; and I find scribe the tamarind are Serapion, Mesue, and strawberry, are indigenous to these kingdoms. lit more advantageous to raise my plants from Avicenna. The latter is often called the pine-apple straw-seed than by suckers. When the fruit is quite The tamarind-tree is a native of both Indies, berry, from its excellent flavour.

ripe, I sow them in a rich moist soil, and in and thrives also in Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Gerard seems to consider only the red straw- one year the Alpines produce fruit, but the and other parts of Asia, and it appears, by berry as a native of this climate. He says, other kinds require two years.” From the Johnson's edition of Gerard, to have been cultiu strawberries do grow upon hills and valleys, seed, Mr. Keen has procured a new variety of vated in England previous to 1633. Miller likewise in woods, and other such places that this fruit, to which he has given the name of states, that he has had it grow upwards of bee something shadowie. They prosper well in Imperial Strawberry; it is of a dark ruby co- three feet high in olle summer, and produce gardens: the red strawberry euery where ; and lour, and, in appearance, the most beautiful of flowers the same year it was sown ; but this the other two. white and green, more rare, and all the strawberries ; but I find the flavour of must have been accidental, for none of his older are not to be founde saue onely in gardens.” it is not superior to that of other kinds. Mr. plants blossomed, although he had them twelve Shakespeare says:

Keen recommends the month of March, as the feet high, and eighteen years old. There is a best season for making new beds.

fine healthy tree of this species now in the Royis the strawberry grows underneath the nettle ;! The strawberry is our earliest fruit, and, asal Botanic Gardens at Kew, which flowered a And wholesome berries thrive, and ripen best, the harbinger of the fructus horæi, its ap- te

te a few years back for the first time, pearance is as welcome, as its flavour is agree

P Neighbour'd by fruit of baser quality.”

The tree grows to a great size, with large able.

spreading branches, and a thick and beautiful The scarlet strawberry is a native of Virginia, I find that the old custom of putting clean Touage

foliage. The leaves are pinnate, composed of

scaves are panace; compo where it grows wild ; and was brought to this straw round strawberry plants, is still continu-single one of the end.the

au, sixteen or eighteen pairs of leaflets, without a country in 1629. It is the earliest sort, and is ed in some parts of Suffolk. The late Sir J. quite entire, smooth, sessile, of a bright green,

i tshme the best strawberry for forcing. .

Banks concludes, that their English name was 3 The hautboy-strawberry was procured also derived from the practice of putting straw un to lie over each other in the night; they have

hsn name was spreading during the day, but closing, so as from America'; from which we have raised der them when the fruit began to swell, as the an acid taste. The flowers come out from the the improved kind, called the globe-hautboy. plant has no relation to straw in any other way; sides of the branches, on a long, upright, com

The Chili strawberry takes it's name from and no other European language applies the idea mon peduncle, six or eight together, in loose that tart of America so called, from whence it of straw in any other shape to the name of the bunches, of a vellow colour, veined with a redwas bought by M. Frazier, engineer to the berry, or to the plant. Sir Joseph adds, al-Idish purple. French king. It was cultivated in the royal gar- though the custom of putting straw round the dens at Paris, from whence some of the plants plants is now very little attended to, it's utility only the pistil of the flowers, which become

What we style the fruit of the tamarind is were conveyed to Holland, and from the latter is very evident, as in dry parching weather/pods place they were brought to England, by Mr. it would be the means of keeping the plants two to five inches in length, with from two

that are thick and compressed, from Miller, in the first year of the reign of King moist, and, in wet showery weather, it would!

moist, and, in wet showery weather, it would to four or six seeds: these pods become of a George the Second, 1727.

both keep the fruit clean, and prevent its rot-Ireddish brown as they ripen. The Alpine strawberry is a native of Ger-tiner so

The fruit is, promany, and was planted in England m the year

perly speaking, composed of two pods: the

As a dietetic fruit. the strawberry affords butlouter pod is fleshy, and the inner one thin as 1768.

little nourishment; the moderate or even plen- the finest parchment ; between these two there The varieties of the strawberry have, like tiful use of it is salubrious, and recommended is a space of about a quarter of an inch all the those of other fruits, been so increased, that, tolto those of inflammatory or bilious habits. Boer-way, which is filled up with a soft pulpy subdescribe them distinctly, would be almost im- haave considers the continued use of this fruit, stance, of a tart but agreeable taste, which is possible, even with the assistance of coloured as one of the principal remedies in cases of what we use as the fruit ; this, and the stones drawings. The President of the Horticultural obstruction and viscidity, and in putrid disorders. which are enclosed in the inner pod, are fasSociety, Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., states, Hoffman furnishes instances of some obstinatestened together by a great many slender fibres that he has at this time not less than 400 vari- diseases being cured by strawberries, and other from the woody stalk which runs through the cties of this fruit in his garden. Among those mild sweet subacıd fruits. Strawberries should pod, and conveys the vinous juice, that afterwhich he has raised, is one from the white Chili be taken sparingly by those of a cold inactive wards hardens, into the viscous matter of the strawberry and the pollen of the black straw-disposition, where the vessels are lax, the cir-Ipulp. Lunan says, the tree is exceedingly comberry culation languid, or digestion weak.

mon in Jamaica, where it grows to vast bulk; Mr. Keen of Isleworth, in the county of Mid- This fruit is generally sent to dessert in its and he gives the following account of preparing dlesex, who is one of the greatest growers of natural state, although often with cream and the fruit. “ The pods are gathered when full strawberries for the London market, has obli- sugar; but it is more esteemed when Burgundy ripe, which is known by their fragility, or easy

breaking on a small pressure between the finger northern parts of Persia and China, where it, or two a little more syrup will be required to be and the thumb. The fruit is taken out of the grows wild; and the Grecian names for this fruit, added. pod, cleared from the shelly fragments, and pla-Persicon and Basilicon, Persian or Royal Nut, Gerard says, “the green and tender nuts, boylced in layers in a cask; and the boiling syrupbespeak it to have been brought from Persia, ed in sugar, and eaten as suckarde, are a most from the teache, or first copper in the boiling- either by the monarchs of Greece themselves, pleasant and delectable meate, comfort the house, just before it begins to granulate, is pour-or sent thither from the kings of Persia. Ac- stomache, and expell poison.” ed in till the cask is filled: the syrup pervades cording to Pliny's account, book 15, chap. 22, The effluvia of walnut-trees is hurtful to th. tru-e-nart quite to the bottom, and, when cool,“the Greeks afterwards called them caryon, on ac-head, on which account it is not safe to sit ungant method is ind for sale. The more ele-count of the heaviness of the head which their covered beneath them, nor is it desirable to eggs, till a clear transpartnwell clariñed with strong smell caused.”

plant them too near dwelling-houses. Plian which gives the fruit a much pleaisin.formed, “Walnuts were first brought into Italy by says, “the oak will not thrive near the waloutvour.

Vitellius, a little before the death of Tiberius tree;" and Mr. Keen, who is so justly celebra The East-India tamarinds are preserved ge-ny, "moeror; and the Romans,” continues Pli-ted for growing of strawberries, informs me, nerally without sugar, and are better adapted des, viz. Jupiter bem with the name of Juglan- that the walnut-tree is so injurious to strawberfor an ingredient in medical compositions. The at weddings by this peo They were much used ry beds, that they seldom bear fruit in the neighbest method of preserving them is said to be by This author has written

lbourhood of that tree. putting alternate layers of tamarinds and pow- dical virtues, book 23, chap. 18, witerir. me- These trees require but little pruning; and dered sugar in a stone jar: by this means the says, that “the more walnuts one eats, with more branches whenjured by cutting and lopping the tamarinds preserve their colour and taste more ease will he drive worms out of his stomach; The largest plantation of walnut-trees and agreeably.

and that, eaten before meals, they lessen the ef- land, at the present time, is in the county o! In the Indies, and in some parts of Africa, fects of any poisonous food; eaten after onions,” Surry. tamarinds are used as food, and are made into he states, “they keep them from rising, and Gerard says, “the walnut-tree groweth i.. a sort of confection with sugar, and eaten as a prevent the disagreeable smell.”

fields neere common highwaies, in a fat and delicacy, which in the violent heats of these The bark of the walnut tree was considered fruitful ground, and in orchards." it thereclimates is cooling, and, at the same time, keeps a sovereign remedy for the ringworm. The fore appears to me, that it must have been inthe bowels in a proper state of laxity. The leaves bruised and damped with vinegar, and so troduced earlier than the date mentioned in fruit is also frequently made an ingredient in applied, put away the pain of the ears,

the Hortus Kewensis (1562,) as this was only punch, and seldom fails to open the body. After Mithridates was vanquished, Cneius about thirty years before Gerard wrote his acvery agreeable cooling drink is made by sim- Pompeius found in his secret closet or cabinet, count, when these trees seem to have been ve. ply mixing water with a few spoonfuls of it among many precious jewels, the receipt of a ry common in the fields. when preserved. Dr. Cullen was of opinion, certain antidote against poison, written in the The walnut-tree was formerly cultivated in that it was best to preserve tamarinds in the hand-writing of Mithridates, in his private note- England for the sake of the wood, which was in pods. They contain a larger proportion of acid, book, as follows:

great esteem for cabinet goods, before mahoga. with saccharine matter, than is usually found in “Take two dry walnut kernels, as many figs, ny and other curious woods were imported the acid dulcet fruits, and are therefore not of rue twenty leaves ; stamp all these together from America into this kingdom, which was only employed as a laxative, but also for aba-linto one mass, with a grain or corn of salt.”|about the beginning of the eighteenth century, ting thirst and heat in various inflammatory Under which was written, “ whoever accustoms when the use of mahogany was discovered by Complaints, and for correcting putrid disorders, himself to eat of this confection in a morning, the following chance :-Dr. Gibbons, an emi. especially those of a bilious kind, in which the next his heart there shall no poison hurt him nent physician, was building a house in King cathartic, antiseptic, and refrigerant qualities of that day."

Street, Covent Garden, His brother, who was the fruit have been found equally useful. Walnuts are considered stomachic : their oil a West-India captain, brought over some planks When intended merely as a laxative, it may be is a good medicine for the stone and gravel. of this wood as ballast, which he thought might of advantage to join them with manna, or pur- The bark of the tree is a strong emetic, either be of service in his brother's building; but the gatives of a sweet kind, by which their use is green, or dried and powdered. The unripe fruit carpenters finding the wood too hard for their rendered safer and more effectual. Three is used in medicine for the destruction of worms, tools, it was laid aside as useless. Soon after, drachms of the pulp are usually sufficient to and is administered in the form of an extract. Mrs. Gibbonsw anting a candle-box, the Docopen the body; but to prove moderately cathar- I find, if the water in which the outside cover-stor called on his cabinet-maker (Wollaston, in tic, one or two ounces are required. The ing of walnuts has been steeped, be thrown on Long Acre) to make him one of some wood that leaves are sometimes used in sub-acid infusions ; the ground, the worms will immediately come lay in his garden. Wollaston also complained and Alpinus says, a decoction of them kills out of the earth: anglers often use this means to that it was too hard; but the Doctor insisted worms in children. ( Wright.) Dr. Zimmerman obtain bait for fishing.

on having it done ; and, when finished, it was prescribes tamarinds in putrid dysentery.

The ancients considered that walnuts chewed so much liked, that the Doctor ordered a bu* The sour taste of tamarinds proves that acid by a person fasting, would if applied, cure the reau to be made of the same wood, which was acparticles abound greatly in them, and a chemical bite of a mad dog.

cordingly done: and the fine colour, polish, &c. analysis gives further proof of this. There is in- The green nuts are cordial, alexipharmic, were so pleasing, that he invited all his friends deed no alkali to be obtained from this fruit, other- and said to be of great use in all contagious, ma-to see it. Among them was the Duchess of wise than by distilling it in a retort with quick-lignant distempers, and the plague itself. Buckingham. Her Grace begged some of the same lime. A simple analysis of it yields no other The nuts, preserved young, are an excellent wood of Dr. Gibbons, and employed Wollaston principle but acid and sulphur.

sweetmeat, and are good to be eaten in a to make her a bureau also. On this the fame of It is not uncommon to find an essential salt morning, in time of pestilential distempers, to mahogany and Mr. Wollaston was much raised; crystalized on the branches of the tamarind-tree, prevent infection. I have been favoured by and furniture made of this wood became genewhich greatly resembles cream of tartar in all the following receipt for preserving young wal-ral. respects, and is no other than the genuine salt nuts, by a family who assure me that they have The timber of the walnut-tree is much esof the plant, formed by the sun's drying up the known them succeed in obstinate costiveness teemed by coach-builders, and also for making accidental extravasated juices.

Iwhen all other remedies have failed: even a gun-stocks. The leaves of the sycamore, in hot seasons, small part of one of these sweetmeats will give are often found thus covered with crystals of relief.

WHORTLE-BERRY.-VACCINIUM: essential salt, which is sweet, and very much! Take green walnuts, in the proper state for

Often called HURTS, or HURTLE-BERRY, and of the nature of sugar. The lime-tree produces pickling, and boil them till tender; take them

BILBERRY. a like saccharine matter, which, being given to out, and stick a piece of lemon-peel to every a person to drink, will be found of the same nut ; and to every fifth one, a clove and a small In Botany, a Genus of the Octandria Monogypurgative virtue as manna. piece of mace. To every pound of nuts, add

nia Class. * Tamarinds are an ingredient in the well-lone pound of moist sugar with water enough There are several varieties of this fruit, known medicine called lenitive electuary. to make a good syrup; put in the nuts, and some of which are black, others red, and some

simmer them till the syrup is thick, and let white. The whortle shrub is a native of this WALNUT.-JUGLANS.

them stand ten days; then clarify half the above country, and grows on most of our wild heathy In Botany, a Genus of the Monæcia Polyan- quantity of sugar, and boil as before; and commons and uncultivated hills: it is found in dria Class.

when cold, cover them close for use. By keep- great abundance on Leith Hill, which is the The walnut-tree is evidently a native of the ing, the syrum will shrink, 90 that after a year most elevated part of Surry. The fruit seldom

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