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reaches the London market, although it is much the strict regulations of the Association, and the II. No horse to carry more than five pounds admired by many people either in tarts or with steady countenance of its individual members, over his stipulated weight, without the judges cream. The berries are gathered by the chil- will go far towards accomplishing some of the being informed of it. dren of the cottagers, and by them carried to important objects of the institution : It is there III. No horse shall be permitted to start for the nearest market towns, and often in quan- fore unanimously agreed, that the funds of this any of the purses, unless entered by a member tities that lead several asses.
Association be placed in the hands of its Officers of the Society; and such horses as are to run, Gerard says, they formerly grew in Finch- and managers, to be appropriated in such man. must be entered on the day preceding each race, ley Wood, near Highgate, and on Hampstead ner as they may deem best calculated to pro- or pay double entrance. Heath, The red kind, which makes the fine mote the objects and reputation of the institu IV.' Horses trainod together in one stabte, purple dye, is found abundantly in several parts tion, in conformity with the the following and owned by the same person, shall not be perof Westmoreland, and the white whortle-ber ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION: mitted to run at the same time for any purse ries principally in Lancashire; but most of our Art. 1. This Association shall be known by at these races. northern hills abound with some of the varie- the name of the “New-YORK AssociATION V. No combination or partnership will be ties. From their growing in high bleak situa. FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE BREED OF Hor- permitted. If, therefore any horse shall win tions, they are often called wind-berries.
a purse, and it shall appear to the satisfaction I have never seen this shrub cultivated, al Art. 11. The government of the Association of the judges, before the purse is paid, that such though it is more ornamental than many foreign shall be vested in a President, Vice-President, horse did run in partnership with any other shrubs that are raised with great difficulty. The Secretary, Treasurer, and eleven Managers, horse, the purse shall go to the fair winner, and berry, which is a size larger than that of the who shall constitute a Board, and transact its the combined horses shall be deemed distanced, juniper, is covered with a fine blue powder, si- business; five of their number shall form a quo- and never be allowed to start again for any of the milar to the bloom of our finest purple plums.
purses. There is also, another species of heath-berry, ART. III. An annual election for officers and VI. If but one horse is entered for any purse : growing on the mountainous parts of the north- managers shall take place on the first Monday such one, by galloping over the Course two,
ern counties, as well as in Scotland, on which of June, in each year, and shall be by ballot of three, or four times, according to the distance the heathcocks and grouse feed. the members present.
to be run, shall be entitled to the purse. There have been no less than fifteen varieties ART. IV. An annual contribution of Ten Dol
VII. Every horse must be ready to start prer of the
whortle-berry brought into this country lars, during the continuance of the Association, cisely at the time mentioned in the advertisefrom North America, between the years 1761 shall entitle any gentleman to become a mem- ment of the race, and shall be allowed thirty and 1769. (Hortus Kewensis.)
Art. v. The Officers and Board of Managers, two-mile, heat, for refreshment:
minutes between each four-mile, three-mile, and in regular meeting convened, may, by a vote IMPROVEMENT OF HORSES. of two thirds of the members present, expel stance is
VIII. When running four-mile heats, a dis
40 rods, any member for improper conduct.
20 rods, If possible, I will comply with your request tice to the Treasurer, or one of the Managers, on distance shall be in the same proportion.
And when running heats under two miles, a of giving an article for the farmer touching our or before the annual election, and by paying plans for the improvement of our breeds of hor- his dues.
IX. Every horse that shall fail running on the ses; in the mean time, I enclose a copy of the Art. vir. The Board shall, from time to time, outside of every pole, or whose rider shall cross, articles and rules of the New York association as the funds of the Association may permit, in- jostle or strike, or use any other foul play, dr for the improvement thereof. They are very troduce from abroad, such horses and mares bring less than his stipulated weight to the scale, imperfect, and will have revisal. The horse as are best calculated to improve the breed of or alight without permission from one of the American Eclipse, you will see, as he will go this animal, for the saddle, the harness, the judges, shall be deemed distanced, and the next
best horse declared winner. to Washington to contend with the Champion turf, the road, and the field. of the South. He is from Gen. Coles' stud, and ART. viii. The Board shall have power to X. Horses drawn before the race is decidech, is an uncommon strong horse, though not in my award premiums for the best specimens of the shall be deemed distanced. opinion beautiful, excepting in his hinder quar- horse kind, raised in, or imported from abroad XI. A horse must win two heats to be entitled ters, which are uncommonly fine. His essentials into the state of New-York, by a member of to the purse, unless he distance all the others in are strength, and that hitherto has brought him off the Association.
one heat, in which case the winner shall not be victorious. He can take a longer run at full ART. IX. All monies of the Association shall obliged to start again ; but, if three several horses speed, than any horse I have ever seen. be placed in the hands of the treasurer, by whom win each a heat, then those three, and they only,
the demands against the Association are to be are to run for a fourth heat, and such horses as Articles and Rules of the New York Association, paid, and who shall, at least once in each year, are excluded by this rule 'from running for a for the Improvement of the breed of Horses. report to the Board the amount of receipts and fourth heat, shall be deemed distanced.
expenditures, and the existing state of the PREAMBLE.
XII. In Sweepstakes, &c. of one heat, when funds.
two borses come in so near each other that it The New York Association for the improve ART. X. Trials of speed shall take place, un- cannot be decided which is first, they two only ment of the breed of horses, considering that der the snperintendence of the Association, must start again to determine which shall be the its objects will best be promoted by entering in- twice in each year, in the months of May and winner. to a correspondence not only with similar insti- October, under the subjoined Rules and Regututions in the United States, but in foreign coun-lations.
XIII. When running heats, if it cannot be detries, for the purpose of collecting the most ac ART. XI, A Record of the transactions of the
cided which is first, they may all start again, excurate information respecting that useful and Association, and a regular Racing Calendar and cept the dead heat be between two horses noble animal, the Horse; considering also Turf Register, shall be kept by the Secre- that if either had been winner the race would that the introduction, under the oversight and tary.
have been over, in which case they two only patronage of this Association, of Oriental and European horses and mares, of various breeds, the subjoined Rules, are not to be altered, ex- this rule from starting again, must be deemed
ART. X!1. These Articles of Association, and shall start again to decide which shall be entitled will have a tendency to secure to our country cept at an annual meeting, or a special meetimproved stocks in all the various departments ing of the members, convened by public notice,
distanced. in which the services of this animal are requir- and by a vote of a majority of the members
XIV. If a rider accidentally fall from his horse, ed; considering, further, as much depends on present.
and the horse is rode in by any person of suffithe mode of rearing the horse, and the accura
cient weight, he shall take place the same as if cy with which his pedigree is preserved, that
the accident had not happened, provided he honorary premiums or medals, granted by the
1. Every horse, &c. shall carry weight ac- goes back to the place where the rider fell. Association, to such of its members as shall dis- cording to age, as follows:
XV. The winning horse the first or second tinguish themselves by raising the finest speci An aged horse,
126 lb. day, shall be excluded from running on any mens of this animal, will excite to laudable and Six years old,
other day. generous emulation, and considering also that Five years old,
116 lb. XVI. All races shall be run with the left hand public races, periodically held, liberally sup Four years old,
108 lb. to the poles. ported, and prudently and firmly managed un Three years old,
98 lb. XVII. Riders must be dressed in complete der the sanction of the Act of the Legislature, Mares, Fillies, & Geldings, allowed 3 lb. -jockey style.
XVIII. If any difference in opinion shall arise
NEW YORK, Oct. 20. tinuation of the operation; but nothing to justis respecting the age of any horse, or respecting
even the belief of reformation has as yet show any race, such difference shall be decided by
itself, and the only reason which can be adduced the judges for the day on which such difference Presented by his Honour the Mayor on the Dis-in favor of a continuation of the system is, the shall take place.
cipline Mill at the Penitentiary.
want of proper employment for the prisoners. On the 18th day of Feb. last, the Mayor had
There are always a numerous class of prisonthe honor of presenting to the Board a report ers in the Penitentiary and Bridewell, consisting The following additional Rules are to be ob- recommending the erection of a Discipline Mill of female prostitutes and vagrants, for whom litserved by the Judges, in case of appeal to at the Penitentiary, and he has now the pleasure tle or no employment could be provided ; but i them by Bettors :
to inform them, that the necessary buildings and has been found by late experience that the opera
machinery were completed on the 7th day of tion of women on the tread wheel, in proportior. 1st. All bets are understood to relate to the Sept. last, and on the 230 of that month the Mill to their weight, is equally useful as that of the purse, if nothing is said to the contrary. was put in full operation. The idea of attaching men—there is, then, this additional advantage
2d. When two horses are bet against each other this species of labour to our penitentiary system, arising from the erection of the mill, that this for the purse, if each win a heat, and neither was first suggested to the present superintendant class of prisoners will now be made “to earn their are distanced, they are equal; if neither win a of our Alms House, by Mr. Isaac Collins, and bread by the sweat of their brow.” heat and neither are distanced, they are equal; Mr. Stephen Grellet, two gentlemen belonging In carrying into effect our penitentiary system but if one win a heat and the other do not, the to the Society of Friends in this city, who kindly much difficulty has always been experienced it. winner of the heat is best, unless he shall be dis- furnished us with a report from the Society for finding suitable employment for the prisonerstanced, in which case the other, if he save his the improvement of Prison Discipline” in Eng- but it is hoped that the introduction of the disdistance, shall be considered best, and when land, containing correct engravings of the build-cipline mill, will in a great measure supply this both are distanced, they shall in all cases beings and machinery for the Mill, with a descrip- deficiency; and, that the effects of the labour deemed equal.
tion of its operations and advantages, together performed will not only result to the advantage of
with much other useful information on the sub- the public, but the reformation and benefit of the 3d. When a bet is made upon a heat, the horse_ject.
convicts; and in order that the result of this spe that comes first to the ending post is best, pro
Possessed of these lights and the talents and cies of labor on those who have been in the pervided no circumstance shall cause him to be ingenuity of Mr. Benjamin Crooker, under whose formance of it may be ascertained, a register deemed distanced.
direction the mill-work was constructed, no time has been commenced of the time each person 4th. A bet made upon purse or heat, is void was lost in commencing the establishment, and in works on the mill, to be referred to in case of a re if the horse betted on does not start.
its progress much less difficulty has been experi- committal, should any of them prove so incorrienced than was anticipated.
ble as again to be guilty of any offence that will
bring them once more to the test. AN ACT to amend an act entitled “ An act to stories high. That part occupied by the wheels, riment be equal to the expectations of the Com
The building is of stone, 30 feet by 60, and two
Should the advantages arising from this expeprevent horse-racing, and for other purposes," on which the prisoners work, is separated from passed March the 19th, 1802. the Mill by a strong stone wall, so that no com; be erected at the Penitentiary, and one at least at
mon Council, it is hoped that additional mills will Passed March 30, 1921.
munication is had with those who feed and tend the Bridewell, in order that the time now em1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of the wheels. The building was originally in- be profitably disposed of. There is, however, one the Mill, by those who perform the labor on
ployed by the prisoners in plotting mischief may New-York, represented in Senate and Assembly, tended for three wheels and three run of stones, essential improvement in our penitentiary sysThat from and after the passing of this act, the but it is found by the experience already had, tem, in addition to the mill, that appears to be training, pacing, trotting, and running of hor- that the place is not sufficiently ventilated to absolutely necessary for the introduction of a proses, upon regulated courses, and upon private admit a greater number of prisoners than can per discipline in our prisons, and that is the proproperty, in the county of Queens, is hereby work on tire two wheels now in operation. Each declared to be exempted and freed, for and dur wheel is calculated to give employment to 32 pri- confinement, as retiring places for the prisoners
vision of a sufficient number of cells for solitary ring the period of five years from the passing of soners, 16 on each wheel at once; and a bell is after the labor of the day has been performed; this act, froin the provisions and penalties of so arranged as to strike every half minute, when by which means they will have an opportunity the act entitled “ An act to prevent horse-racing, one of the prisoners on the wheel comes off, and for reflection, free from the baneful influence reand for other purposes.”
another goes on, by which each man works eight sulting from the present method of confining II. And be it further enacted, That the said minutes, and rests the same space of time.
fifteen or twenty of them in a single room.races or coursing shall only be allowed during The average quantity of grain ground per day, This subject however, will, no doubt, receive the months of May and October in each and is from 40 to 50 bushels, which it is presumed may the attention it may appear to merit, after the every year during said period.
be increased to 60 or 70, should it be found on fur-Board shall have individually examined the opeIII. And be it further enacted, That it shall ther experience that the prisoners can be made ration of the mill, and the condition of the prihereby be made the duty of the sheriff of the to perform a severer task without injury to their
sons and their inmates. county, or of his deputy, where such trials of health. The consumption of the Alms House,
The appropriation authorised for erecting the Bridewell and Penitent ary, is about 56 bushels of Mill House and Machinery was $3000. The acspeed shall take place, to attend and be present at such course or courses, to keep the peace grain, ground into meal, per day; the grinding of tual cost of the establishment however, was upon the same, to remove from the same all which has cost the publico from 1600 to $2200 93050. 9 cents, exceeding the sum appropriated, gambling tables, shuffle-boards, or any other annually, averaging about 1900 dollars per year.- fifty dollars and nine cents
. table at which money can be won or lost; and It will not be doubted, therefore, that a sufficien
The prompt manner in which the Common that for his services in these respects, he shall cy of meal may be ground by additional exertion Council have made the appropriation for carrying receive a compensation not to exceed five dol- for the consumption of the whole establishment, into effect this necessary establishment, and the Bars for each day's attendance, which sum of and that in a manner free from expense to the attention paid to the construction of it by the Sumoney shall be paid by the owner or owners of such public.
perintendent and Commissioners of the Alms horses as shall be entered upon such course The cost of working the convicts out of the House, cannot but meet with the approbation of courses, for any of the purposes in the first sec- prison, including tools, barrows, carts, feed for their fellow citizens, particularly should the pubtion of this act mentioned: Provided always, the cattle employed, extra wear and tear of lic good result, that has been so reasonably anThat no such trotting, pacing, or running of hör-clothes, and pay to the keepers, has amounted ticipated. ses shall take place in the county aforesaid, un- to about $7,000 per annum. This sum, it is sup. The prevalence of the calamity with which our less notice of the same shall have been previ- posed by competent judges, would obtain through City has been afflicted for the last three inonths, ously given to the sheriff of the county; and the the medium of private contract, the performance has prevented the presentation of this report un person or persons who shall so trot, pace, orjof twice the labor executed by the prisoners. til this time, and an earlier invitation to the Com. run his or their horses, without giving such. If this be the fact, it is certainly one of much mon Council to inspect the operations of the Mill, notice as aforesaid, shall forfeit and pay one importance; for, if it cost the public one hun- and the condition of the Bellevue establishment hundred dollars to the overseers of the poor of dred dollars to perform a certain quantity of la- it is now respectfully recommended that the the town where such trotting, pacing, or run-bor, which can be obtained by private contract Board will designate a day for that purpose. ning of horses shall have taken place, to be re- for fifty, there ought to be some evidence of pub
In Common Council, Oct. 28, 1822, covered by action of debt against the party or lic utility, arising either from the punishment Reatly approved and directed to be published. parties so offending. or reformation of tlie prisoners, to induce a con
JACOB MORTON, CIk.
|(see plate) another prisoner immediately mounting as before to fill up the number required, without stopping the machine. The interval of rest may then be portioned to each man by regulating the number of those required to work the wheel with the whole number of the gang ;-thus if twenty out of twenty-four are obliged to be upon the wheel, it will give to each man intervals of rest amounting to twelve minutes in every hour of labour. Again, by varying the number of men upon the wheel, or the work inside the mill, so as to increase or diminish its velocity, the degree of hard labour or exercise to the prisoner may also be regulated. At Brixton, the diameter of the wheel being five feet ; and revolving twice in a minute, the space stepped over by each man is 2193 feet, or 731 yards per hour.
To provide regular and suitable employment for prisoners sentenced to hard labor, has been attended with considerable difficulty in many parts of the kingdom ; the invention of the Discipline Mill has removed the difficulty, and it is confidently hoped, that as its advantages and effects become better known, the introduction of the mill will be universal in Houses of Correction. As a species of prison labour it is remarkable for its simplicity. It requires no previous instruction ; no taskmaster is necessary to watch
over the work of the prisoners ; neither are materials or instruments put into their hands that are liable to waste or misapplication, or subject to wear and tear ; the internal machinery of the
mill, being inaccessible to the prisoners, is placed DESCRIPTION OF THE TREAD MILL,
under the management of skilful and proper perRecommended by the Society for the Improvement of Prison sons, one or two at most being required to attend
a process which keeps in steady and constant emDiscipline.
ployment from ten to two hundred or more priment of Prison Discipline has long been devoted ference are, however, of considerable length, so lations of the prison render it necessary, and
The attention of the Society for the Improve- 1 water-wheel ; the tread-boards upon its circum- soners at one and the same time, which can be to the adoption of some plan for the effectual em- as to allow sufficient standing room for a row of ployment of prisoners. - All attempts of this na- from ten to twenty persons upon the wheel.*
which imposes equality of labor on every indiviture have heretofore been attended with consid- Their weight, the first moving power of the marble, in the least degree to avoid his proportion.
dual employed, no one upon the wheel being aerable difficulty, but it is confidently anticipated chine, produces the greatest effect when applied that this invention will not only afford suitable em upon the circumference of the wheel at or near
The arrangement of the wheels in the yards ployment, but act as a species of preventive pun- the level of its axle; to secure, therefore, this radiating from the Governor's central residence, ishment. Although but very recently introduced mechanical advantage, a screen of boards is fixed places the prisoners thus employed under very into practice, the effects of its discipline have up in an inclined position above the wheel, in or
good inspection, an object known to be of the utin every instance proved highly useful in de- der to prevent the prisoners from climbing or Brixton House of Correction, with the exception
most importance in prison management. At the creasing the number of commitments; as many stepping up higher than the level required. A of the very few confined by the casualties of sickprisoners have been known to declare that they hand-rail is seen fixed upon this screen, by holdwould sooner undergo any species of fatigue, or ) ing which they retain their upright position upon
ness or debility, all the prisoners are steadily suffer any deprivation, than return to the house of the revolving wheel; the nearest side of which employed under the eye of the Governor during a correction, when once released.
is exposed to view in the plate, in order to repre-considerable part of the day. The annexed engraving exhibits a party of sent its cylindrical form much more distinctly
The classification, also, of the prisoners, acprisoners in the act of working one of the tread than could otherwise have been done. In the cording to offences, &c. may be adhered to in the wheels of the Discipline Mill, invented by Mr. original, however, both sides are closely boarded adoption of these discipline wheels ; the same Cubitt, of Ipswich, and recently erected at the up, so that the prisoners have no access to the in- wheel or the same connected shafts can be easi House of Correction for the county of Surrey, si-terior of the wheel, and all risk of injury whate-ly made to pass into distinct compartments, in tuated at Brixton. The view is taken from a cor- ver is prevented.
which the several classes may work in separate ner of one of the ten airing yards of the prison, By means of steps, the gang of prisoners ascend parties. In the prison from which the annexed all of which radiate from the Governor's house at one end, and when the requisite number range drawing is taken, a tread-wheel is erected in in the centre, so that from the window of his room themselves upon the wheel, it commences its re- each of the six yards, by which the inconvehe commands a complete view into all the yards. volution. The effort, then, to every individual, nience and risk of removing a set of prisoners A building behind the tread wheel shed is the is simply that of ascending an endless fight of from one part of the prison to another is obviated. mill house, containing the necessary machinery steps their combined weight acting upon every
As the mechanism of these Tread Mills is for grinding corn and dressing the flour, also successive stepping-board, precisely as a stream not of a complicated nature, the regular employrooms for storing it, &c. On the right side of of water upon the float boards of a water-wheel. ment they afford is not likely to be frequently, this building a pipe passes up to the roof, on During this operation, each prisoner gradually suspended for want of repairs to the machinery; which is a large cast iron reservoir, capable of advances from the end at which he mounted to and should the supply of corn, &c. at any time holding some thousand gallons of water, for the wards the opposite end of the wheel, from the last fall off, it is not necessary that the labour of the
use of the prison. This reservoir is filled by man, and having taken his turn, descends for rest prisoner should be suspended, nor can they be means of forcing pump machinery below, con
aware of the circumstance; the supply of hard nected with the principal axis which works the * The wheels erected at the House of Correction labour may therefore be considered as almost unmachinery of the mill this axis or shaft passes at Coldbath-fields, are each capable of containing failing. under the pavement of the several yards, and forty or more prisoners, and the joint force of the With regard to the expense of these machines, working by means of universal joints, at every prisoners is expended in giving motion to a regu- it may be observed, that although their original turn communicates with the tread wheel of each | lating fly, which, by expanding itself in propor- cost may, in some instances appear heavy, the class.
tion to the power, will keep any number of men, subsequent advantage from their adoption, in The wheel, which is represented in the centre from twenty to three hundred and twenty, at the point of economy, is by no means inconsiderable, of the engraving, is exactly similar to a common | same degree of hard labour.
and it is derived in a manner which must be most
satisiactory to those who have the important by the man who is possessed of a steady per- must be made, as none of the famed beef catt. charge and responsible control of these public servering judgment. "Indeed, it is this peculiari-are good for milk; indeed we ought not to ex establishments, viz. from the diminution in the ty in the character of the English yeomanry, pect it, it is too much like blowing hot and blow.. number of persons committed. Such have been and perhaps I may say nation, that renders their ing cold with the same breath. the results already experienced at those prisons endeavours in almost every undertaking, ulti For working, they perhaps surpass any othe where this species of corrective discipline is en- mately successful, and their farming stock of al- breed in England, unless the North Devonshir forced. The saving to the county (in conse- most every description unrivalled.
catile can be considered as equal to them-bu, quence of the reduction in the number of crimi In order that you may have an opportunity of every good property being taken into consideranals) in the public charges for their apprehen- comparing your English stock with my view of tion, I prefer the Herefordshire cattle to an sion, committal, conviction and maintenance, what I consider the best blood of Herefordshire, other breed in England; these, and the Northcannot but be considerable.
I will just give you a description of the cattle I Devons, always sell at a higher price, accordirs It is unnecessary to occupy much time in prov- was in the habit of breeding and feeding in Eng- to their weight in London, than any other cattlı, ing the advantage which the invention of the land ; which originally, I personally selected from unless the Fifeshire and Kyloe Scotch Cattle cari Stepping Mill presents as a species of preventive the stock of the most celebrated breeders in dispute the palm with them ; indeed these four punishment. Although but very recently introduc that county, at a cost of sixty and one hundred breeds nearly supply with beef all the first faed, and hitherto but sparingly brought into action, and fifty guincas for two Bulls, and from thirty to milies in the kingdom, and may be considered the effects of its discipline have in every instance forty guineas each, for heifers and cows. amongst cattle, what the Barb and the Arabian proved eminently useful in decreasing the num I consider the most choice blood of the Here are amongst horses. ber of commitments. As a corrective punish- fordshire Cattle to be of the color described There are to be found of course in Herefordment, the discipline of the Stepping Mill has above, including the white on the top of the shire, cattle of various qualities, according to the had a most salutary effect upon the prisoners, shoulder-Hide, thick, soft, and feels between the judgment of those persons who undertake to and is not likely to be easily forgotten ; while it fingers like rich fat, covered with fine soft thick- breed them, but generally speaking, they are is an occupation which by no means interferes set hair, which occasions the skin to feel like a good workers, good feeders, make excellent with, nor is calculated to lessen the value of, piece of fine thick rich velvet. Lips thin-nos- beef, and are first rate handlers; but the lat those branches of prison regulation which pro-trils, wide and full-eyes, bold and dark colored ter good property appears to be of little van vide for the moral and religious improvement of -eye sockets, prominent and wide apart_ears lue in the United States, although the English the criminal.
and face rather short--(which is the reverse of Grazier, in selecting cattle or sheep, depends By a contrivance of machinery which we can- the Durham and other short horned cattle)—the more on his fingers than his eyes. Should not here illustrate by a plate,
tongue roots rather full no loose dulap-bosom, these observations furnish you or any of the rea“When the machinery of the mill has attain- not very prominent but wide-belly or paunch, ders of the American Farmer, with information. ed its proper speed, certain balls rise by their very small and much drawn upwards-horns, yel- that may in any manner assist the cause of agricentrifugal force, so as to draw a box below the low white, turning upwards, rather long, very culture, I shall be well pleased : and, that you reach of a bell handle, which will then cease to smooth, bright, free from wrinkles, and fine, not may rise pre-eminent as a farmer and grazier, as ring a bell, placed in some convenient situation resting on, but growing out of the head-Neck you so justly have done as a Senator, is the wish for the purpose. But should the men at the thin and fine-chine, thin when lean, well joined of
ALBION wheels cease to keep up with the requisite speed to the loin; when fat, very broad, and particular Near washing.com City,} in the mill work, the balls will descend; and a ly full at the sides, the shoulders fitting it equalprojecting pin on the box, striking the handle, !y nice as in the blood horse, without any proplaced in the proper situation for that purpose, jection of the elbow-ribs, not hanging from, but
STEAM LAND CARRIAGES. will continue to ring the bell till they go on rising out of the back, very wide-and when the again properly ; and, by this means, a certain animal is fat, I have seen the flesh on them three The Monthly Magazine, September 1, contains check will be kept on the labourers, and the gov- inches higher than the back bone, which was the engraving and description of Griffith’s Patent ernor or task master apprised, even at a distance, ascertained by laying a stick in various places Land Carriage, for conveying goods and passenthat the full work is not performed.
across the back, and running a three inch rulegers on public roads without the aid of horses.along the centre of the back, from behind the The Carriage there represented and described will hips to the centre of the chine, without touching be worked by an engine of seven horse power,
the stick-short ribs, at the side of the loin, very and will transport a load of six tons at an average CATTLE-Description of the HEREFORD, &c. projecting and thick at the ends with fat-hips, rate of five miles an hour, which may be varied
projecting, remarkably large and fat, and when and increased indefinitely for other Carriages.
the hand is placed on them, feel like the back of The general introduction of these carriages for all TO THE HON. HENRY CLAY.
a man's head, and a very fat head too-rump, re- kinds of purposes, will constitute a triumph of meSIR-I have just seen in the American Farmer, markably long and full of fine Aesh ; indeed it is chanics never anticipated by our ancestors. your letter of the 19th August, addressed to J. here and in the loin and chine that the HereŚ. Skinner, Esq. respecting your English Cattle, fords principally excel, which occasions those American Enterprise.-General M’CLURE, of and as I, some years since, was a breeder and parts to sel! in London, to the Beef-steak houses Steuben, N. Y. has betted $50, that he would feeder of the kind of stock you allude to, I take at full double the price of those from many other t se wool from the fleece, and manufacture the liberty to offer a few remarks on your letter. kinds of cattle-Twist, or where the hind legs satinet sufficient for a suit of clothes and have
The description you give of your Cattle and unite, very low and full, the outside of the gh, them made up, in ten hours. The colou their offspring, is quite sufficient to satisfy any flat, and free from flesh, which occasionsthe round a blue mixture. The wool was colored in 35 person acquainted with this breed, that your's to be nearly free from coarse, and full of fine minutes ; carded, spun and wove in two hours are of the thorough Herefordshire blood, but un- meat-flank, full and driving forward when the and 25 minutes; fulled, knapped, dryed, sheared, less I saw them, or knew the names of their breed- animal is walking.
and dressed in 1 hour and 59 minutes ; carried ers, I would not undertake to say, they are of. The peculiarities of the Herefordshire cattle are, in 4 minutes 3-4 of a mile to Mr. Gillmore's tailor the best blood of that country, and indeed from the color, horns turning upwards, long and smooth shop, who with the assistance of 7 hands comthe price your's cost in England, I have my doubts-lightness of offal, length of rump, size and fat-pleted the coat, jacket and overalls in 3 hours on this head-as I never knew the most celebrat-ness of the hips; every part where gentlemen and 49 minutes ; there was 1-2 yard of the cloth ed breeders inclined to take so little money for usually eat, remarkably full of fine fat beef, while left, being in the whole 8 1-2 yards, and of such their choice stock ; but times are much altered those parts usually eaten by plebeians are very quality as was estimated to be worth one dollar since I left England, and perhaps this may ac- scanty, which occasions these cattle to be much per yard. So that he completed the enterprise count for the depreciation in price.
sought after by butchers, who supply gentlemen's in eight hours and 45 minutes. He has since of Nearly all the cattle of Herefordshire are of families with beef.
fered to bet $100, that he can manufacture a betthe color you mention ; namely, the feet, belly, With respect to size, these animals are so dis-ter suit in eight hours. end of the tail, and face, white, and the rest of posed to fatten, that by good management they the animal a dark mahogany red—but some of attain a weight equal to any cattle in England, Saratoga Show and Fair.-On Wednesday the breeders, I may say, have private marks, not excepting the Holderness and Durham, but se'nnighť the annual show and fair vas held in such as a small piece of white on the top of the when low ir: flesh, they appear small, from their Saratoga county, when the usual exhibition of catshoulders, others a red rim round the eyes.- bones being so remarkably light, and the paunch tle, domestic manufactures, &c. and a ploughing It is wonderful to observe how they can obtain so very small and drawing upward.
match took place, in which 19 competitors consuch peculiarities as they do in this respect, and As milkers, they are, perhaps, equal to any oftended for the prize. The specimen of woollen they show what may be effected in breeding stock, the distinguished feeders--but here a distinction and linen cloths, carpeting, Aannels, plaid, &c.
FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.
THE FARMER'S CREED. vere numerous; and a gipsy bonnet, made by Miss
LEICESTER SHEEP-VICUNA, a Peruvian Vancy Bradly, obtained a regular and an extra
Sheep-CAPE-SHEEP. Premium, and was purchased by J. K. Beekman, Let this be held the Farmer's creed,
We publish the following letter received by Esq. of this city, for 25 dollars, and is said to be
For stock, seek out the choicest breed ; us from a very respectable farmer, as the bet qual in quality to imported Leghorn No. 58, In peace and plenty let them feed ;
mode of accomplishing its chief object; ous which sells for 60 to 70 dollars.
Your land sow with the best of seed ;
readers will thus be apprized that he has seveLet it not dung nor dressing necd ;
ral fine Rams of the Leicester breed of sheep The Cattle Show at Rutland, Vt. is stated to Inclose, plough, reap with care and speed, for sale. have been quite splendid. There were at the show And you will soon be rich indeed.
We also give it a place to record one of many in125 yoke of working oxen, which were connected
stances which prove the willingness of our most so as to form one team.
eminent merchants, to advance the great interest of this Nation, by importing animals of approv
ed breeds from all countries; bringing them We have noticed in the papers a great variety
from the east and from the west, and giving of extraordinary productions of the season, such
them to our industrious and successful farmers. as pears, apples,' squashes, &c. which indicate REMARKS ON THE COMMUNICATION The happiest effects will flow from such enterthat the present year is prolific in great things.
SIGNED GIDEON DAVIS.
prize and liberality, concluded as in this inBut the following, we venture to say, will match
As I know that your valuable paper is devoted stance by the exercise of a sound discretion, in the any thing that has been noticed this season the truth of which is beyond question :-Mr. Thomas to subjects of general interest to the agricultural selection of practical Farmers to pursue the exDavis, of this town, raised in his garden a blood community, it is with reluctance, I have to re- periment. It speaks a language that should wentywhich measured thirty inches in length quest the favour of you to publish a few words be understood ; it offers an example that should POUNDS and fourteen and weighed SIXTEEN on the subject of Gideon Davis' commentaries; be imitated; and it displays feelings which ex
Ed has several as they contain mistatements, which are evi- cite our admiration and deserve applause. May more in his garden which he thinks may squets dently calculated to injure me. I trust you will the givers of such, gifts continue to enjoy the not exceed this.--Salem Paper.
for us sime, dispense with a good general rule, prosperity which justifies them, and add to
to do an act of justius, it appears that while their own, whilst they contribute to their counEasy method of breaking Glass in any required of alleged mistakes, in the highly respectable
Mr. Davis was zealous to counteract the effects try's welfare.-Edit Am. Far. direction.-Dip a piece of worsted thread in spi- committee on implements, ploughing, &c. so far as rits of turpentine, wrap it round the glass in the
Darby, Delaware Co. Penn. direction that you require it to be broken, and they concerned himself, he was regardless of what
September 29th, 1822.
, } then set fire to the thread, or apply a red hot of his own mistakes; as I wish to be as concise might be the injurious consequences, to others,
If there should be any application to you for wire round the glass, and if it does not immediately crack, :hrow cold wateron it while the wire
as possible, I shall pass over several of his mis- Dishley sheep, I should be obliged by your bearremains hot. By this means glass that is broken destroyed by the able reply of Com. Porter. He, that I have some of the
best formed young rams tatements, as the influence of most of them is ing my flock in mind. I think I may truly say may often be fashioned, and rendered useful for a however, has made himself responsible for one that I have ever seen; and I would like to dispose variety of purposes.
capital mistake, in his assertion, that my plough- of some of them. My friend, Mr. Louis Cla
share and coulter were laid with steel. I have pier, intended to have given me a pair of VicuFrom the New Monthly Magazine. it fully in my power to prove, that there was nas, which he ordered from Peru, but unfortuTHE MILK-MAID AND THE BANKER. not a particle of steel on either, and how he nately the female died on the passage. I have A Milk-Maid with a very pretty face,
“could make this mistake, is for him to say, or the male at my farm, and consider him a beauWho lived at Acton,
others to judge, and not for me-for I don't tiful animal. I hope that I shall be able to
know.” As to their being “ ground smooth,” get him a companion yet, by some means. llad a black Cow, the ugliest in the place, the plough had been tried in hard and gravelly
Mr. Clapier has also just presented me with A crooked-back'd one,
ground, (a situation in which Mr. Davis, I pre- a pair of Cape-sheep, which resemble the BarA beast as dangerous too, as she was frightful, Vicious and spiteful.
sume, is not fond of exhibiting his ploughs)- bary or Tunisian sheep, but I do not think
when they had been battered and gapped, it them so good ; they are not so large, and their And so confirmed a truant, that she bounded
was thought less expensive to grind them than wool is much coarser; they are sprightly pretty Over the hedges daily, and got pounded.
to send them to the blacksmith's. Now, Sir, if looking animals, and I expect they will im'Twas all in vain to tie her with a tether, you please, one word as to fashion, though I am prove. For then both cord and cow elop'd together. quite surprised, that he should so far deviate I hope to have the pleasure of being present Arm'd with an oaken bough (what folly! from the regimen of his society, as to become a at your next Cattle Show. It should have been of birch, or thorn, or holly,) stickler for fashion ! 'Tis true my plough is old
AARON CLEMENT. Patty one day was driving home the beast, fashioned ; and to its credit, be it spoken, it has J, S. SKINNER, Esq. Which had as usual slipp'd its anchor,
withstood the test of long tried experiment, in When on the road she met a certain banker, a neighbourhood too, where almost every new
THRESHING MACHINE. Who stopp'd to give his eyes a feast fashioned plough has been tried, and thrown a- Extract lo the Editor, dated Wilkesbarre, Pa. 9th By gazing on her features, crimson'd high side, as not answering the purpose of the practi
August, 1822. By a long cow-chase in July.
cal farmer; were the question asked, where MY DEAR SIR-In No. 19, page 152, of your “Are you from Acton, pretty lass?" he cried :
are the numerous ploughs introduced here from Journal, notice is taken of a Threshing Machine, Yes, with a curtsey, she replied,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and elsewhere ? the invented by a Mr. Pope, of Hallowell, in Maine, " Why then you know the laundress, Sally know, half a dozen other fashions of this same Ballow, of Livermore. As I am desirous of learn
wooden stocked, the all iron, and for aught I and another still more efficient by a Mr. Seth 'Wrench?" She is my cousin, sir, and next door neigh-otherwise, to be brought into general use ? I say request the favour of your giving me such in
Mr. Davis, attempted by newspaper puffs, and ing full particulars of both these machines, I That's lucky, I've a message for the wench,
if this question was asked, in a district of coun- formation as you may possess concerning them,
try which can boast of more good ploughing, per- so as to enable me to obtain the neccessary parti"Which needs despatch, and you may save my haps than any other of equal extent in the mid- culars by application through the proper chan
labour, Give her this kiss, my dear, and say I sent it,
dle states, the answer would be among the useless nels, which at present I do not know. " But mind, you owe me one--I've only lent it" lumber of the farmer! In conclusion, when the
Very truly your's, merits of my ploughs fail to recommend them,
CHAS. STREATER, "She shall know," cried the girl, as she bran- without the aid of detracting from the just me J. S. SKINNER, Esq. dish'd her bough,
rits of others, Gideon Davis, and all others, may “Of the loving intentions you bore me, save themselves the trouble of all unfair at We have it in our power to confirm the report. "But as to the kiss, as there's haste, you'll al- tempts to condemn them, as I shall willingly adopt ed efficiency of Mr. Ballow's Threshing Machine, low
a better fashion, or turn my hand to some other which we do by the following letter and certifi. “That you had better run forward, and give it honest employment for the support of my family. cate recently received from Virginia; but we have my Cow,
Your's, respectfully, "For she, at the rate she is scampering now,
a much esteemed correspondent at Hallowell, Me.
who will greatly oblige us by calling the atten“ Wil reach Acton some minutes before me.”
Ition of Mr. Pope and Mr. Ballow to the wishes of