Imágenes de páginas

our Pennsylvania friend; who, if they please, equalled the Leghorn in darability. This speci-, drought, there will be more corn than was at: will be gratified by the publication in this Jour-men very probably owed some portion of its brit. (ticipated, and indeed more than an average nal, of a description of their respective inven- tleness to the maturity of its growth. If there is crop-more than has been made in this counts tions, their prices and efficiency.

really nothing to be feared on this score, not only for many years ; and I hope that other sectior, Edit. Am. Farm. Bonnets and Hats, but Floor Mats or Cloths, we of the country may be as agreeably disap

suppose, may advantageously be made of it. pointed. Oak Hill, Sep. 2011, 1822.

Editor Am. Farmer.

Your Friend, J. S. SKINNER, Esq.


THE FARMER. chine, which was invented by Seth Ballow, of

Near Concord, Susser Co. Del.2 Maine, and lately brought here by two gentle

24th June, 1822. S BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1822. men of the state of Maine.

ISIR-I herewith send you a small sample of a “Copy of a certificate obtained upon the ma- very curious kind of wheat heretofore unknown.

1 To The Editorial remarks in No. 8, of this chine being viewed in operation. in this neighbourhood, and obtained in the fol-Ionume,

volume, relative to the condition of some mant "The undersigned have seen a wheat ma-llowing manner:-About seven vears past I sow-] script communications, nad no reference or allu- I chine in operation, now in the possession ofled an equal quantity of what we here call thesion to any writer in that number. Major Swett and Pumpilly, for which Seth/blue straw, a smooth wheat, and the red chaff| Ballow obtained a patent, and are of opinion bearded, with a view of ascertaining which kind

odl Ipo According in opinion with the Editors of the that it is a valuable improvement on any thing would prevail ; or if a distinct kind would ulti

American, in the two following items, we ado, of the kind we have ever met with. It is more mately grow from them. The produce of this

them to save us time in doing what we could not d simple in its construction, upon a cheaper plan, was sown for about three years ; afterwards, it

worden better. Both the subjects referred be and better adapted to the purpose of Farmers was perceived that some ten or a dozen heads of a

de oder the head. in general, inasmuch as it is within the means an entire distinct kind grew out of it; which JINI

S it is within the means an entire distinct kind grew out of it. ubi LIINTOnorail & PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS of those of small capital as well as large. From were since sown three years ouccessively, and| THE TREAD MILL, which for its beneficial efthe experiment made in our presence, we farther now the prosent trup of this seed exhibits a va- fects on crimnals and vagrants, has been adopte!! certify that, it separates the grain from the riety of distinct kinds, two of which I have se-lin most of the prisons and work-houses of Englanu. straw more effectually than even the ordinary lected by cutting out the heads carefully from has recently become an appendage to the Penitermode of threshing.

the rest. The one a bearded, selected for the tiary of New York. The report to the Corporation J. Bayley,

W. Beveridge,

length of head and beautiful colour of straw, and of that city, see page 260, is an additional testimoW. Ellgey,

Jacob Ish,

ripenning somewhat sooner. The other kind, ny in its favour; and we have no doubt that the Ariss Buckner,

R. H. Little,

which I send you, is entirely of a different sort, erection of a similar establishment in connection Charles Lewis, Geo. B. Whiting,

of which myself or neighbours have never be- with the Maryland Penitentiary, wowd be foure Robert Bayley,

W. J. Weldon,

fore seen a sample. Should you have had an op-productive of equally good results. Samuel Halley,

Edmund Tyler,

portunity of knowing any thing of such an AgriFrancis Strebling.

Jcultural Phenomenon, an account of the circum-/ American Atlas.-Want of opportunity has, un

u stances would be neculiarly acceptable to A thorough conviction that this machine will

til now, prevented us from examining the Ameri:

Your most obedient, be of great importance to the agricultural in

can Atlas, recently published in Philadelphia, bi

JOHN RUST. terest of our country, induces ne to trouble

Messrs. Carey and Lea. We find this work is or. you upon the subject. My impression is that, the

the plan of the celebrated atlas of Le Sage-and

We hope to get some additional particulars remachine is fully competent to thresh 100 bush-,

recombines in the clearest and most happy manner "lative to this wheat, from a friend in Queen Anne's els per day, with three hands and one horse,

the history, chronology and geography of North county, Md. who, we understand, has noted and may be enlarged so as to do 150 bushels per

and South America, and the West Indies. It also several interesting facts, and made some experi-exhibits an accurate account of the discovers. day, with great ease to two horses and four

ments respecting it.-Edit. Am. Farm. hands.

settlement and progress of their various king. I remain sir,

doms, states, provinces, &c. together with the

With sentiments of respect, &c.

wars, celebrated battles and remarkable events, WILLIAM BENTON. |

Easton, Oct. 24, 1822. Ito the year 1822. The more closely we inPresident Monroe's Farm,

21 DEAR SIR,In the 25th Number, Volume spect, this publication, the more deservedly do Loudoun County Va. IV. of the “AMERICAN FARMER,” you re- we think it entitled to the appellation of a great

published an article on the remarkable salu-national work. The undertaking of the publishTO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. brity of a small neighbourhood of this coun-jers was one of no ordinary magnitude, responsi

ty, as evinced by the great longevity of its in-bility and cost; and the able and satisfactory manSnowhill, August 20th, 1822. habitants, with the best intentions we cannot ner in which it has been accomplished, entiSIRI send you a sample of Grass that grows doubt-but your compositor has made a terrible tles them to the warmest thanks and patronage

rhood lerror, which, I have no doubt, you will have im- of the American public. When the very extenon a piece of wet ground, in this neighbourhood. error, which, I have no doubt, you will h It crows from four to six feet long and is nearly mediately corrected. We intended to describe a sive range of matter comprehended in this work of one size from one end to the other. I wish small tract of ten miles in diameter, more than is considered, it can scarcely fail to excite suryou would make inquiry through your paper, if half of which is covered with water, and of prise that, it has be through your paper if half of which is covered with water, and of prise that, it has been executed with such general

To the statesman, the There is any like it in the United States, as there course unoccupied by man-and we inentioned it, fidelity and correctness.

on learn in this extending five miles to a well known oak politician, the student and citizens of every callnor any where that I have travelled. I think tree, as its centre. This little five, your com-ling, it will prove a valuable acquisition, an agreeyou will see that it is capable of being worked/positor has, no doubt very innocently', converted able study, and afford a ready reference to any of into Hats or Bannets, which it has been in this into

been in this into fifty, spreading our little record list of an- the various matters contained in its pages.

y, spreading our httle record nst of anesthe various matters neighbourhood, and the durability is equal to any tients over a territory of one hundred miles square, Leghorn. This grass has no joint ; it falls on the a surface considerably larger than the whole ground and attaches itself in the manner of a Eastern Shore, or Eastern division of the State

PRICES CURRENT.-CORRECTED WEEKLY. vine, at every 3, 4, 5, or 6 feet. I think I could of Maryland. Respectfully, yours, &c. &c.

A. GRAHAM. White wheat, $1 30 to 1 35-Red do.. $1 18 to save a ton annually. I will send a sample to the

J. S. Skinner, Esq.

(1 25–Rye, 70 to 75 cts.-Corn, 62 to 65 cts. proprietor of any Bonnet Factory that may re

TOats, 35 to 37°cts.-Beans, $1 25 to 1 37quest it. Your attention will be acknowledged


Peas, black eyed, 65 to 70 cts.-Clover seed, S9 by your humble servant,

-Whiskey, 35 to 36 cts.-Apple brandy, 30 to

Cæcil Co., Maryland, 'FHOS. R. P. SPENCE.

Settember 26th, 1822. $ 132 cts.—Peach do., 70 to 75 cts.-Herrings, No.

11, $3 624-No. 2, $3 37 1-Shad, trimmed, $8. We have received the specimen and finding it JOAN S. SKINNER, Esq.

Maryland Tobacco cuntinues very dull-pri. very brittle, we should have feared that, it could Dear Sir-“The farmers in this county have

veces have not varied for several weeks past. not be usefully employed in manufactures ; if taken the fodder from their corn, and can now our very respectable friend had not stated the judge more particularly and exactly what they fact, that Bonnets and Hats made thereof, had will make and after all our fears about the) PUBLISHED BY JOHN S. SKINNER.

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Vo. 34.- VOL. 4.


This author affirms, that the tree is by its na- was built in the year of the Anarchy, when
ture everlasting.

Rome was desolate of all magistrates, which POMARIUM BRITANNICUM, | Strabo, in his 17th book, informs us, that Syr-was 369 years after the foundation of the city; -13 Historical and Botanical account of Fruits, tis as well as Menynx was said to be Lotopha- but how much more ancient this tree is than the known in Great Britain, by Henry Philips, gitis. The compass of the gulph, says this ge- chapel, God knows! for older it is without all -Second Edition.

ographer, where the lotus grows, is almost 1600 question, as from trees there growing, which (Continued from page 255, and concluded.) furlongs; the breadth of the mouth 600: by the the Latins call Lucus, the goddess Diana took

capes there are islands near to the main land. her name Lucina, which was about 450 years THE FRUIT OF THE LOTUS-TREE OF It is thought, continues he, that Menynx was back, and doubtless this tree is so old.” THE ANCIENTS.

the country of the Lotophagi, or those that “Another lote-tree there is,” says he, “ still Has been made so interesting to us, by the feed on the lotus-trees, of which country Ho- older, but the age of it is likewise uncertain: inimitable pens of Homer and Ovid, as well as mer makes mention; and there are certain mon- it is known by the name of Capillata (hairy) che mention made of it by Herodotus, Strabo, Juments seen, and Ulysses's altar, as well as and so called, because the hair of the vestal Pliny, and other authors of antiquity, that I am abundance of lote-trees, the fruit of which is virgins' heads is usually brought thither to be induced to give their accounts of this celebra-exceedingly sweet.

consecrated. There is a third lotus at Rome, in ted fruit; although it is now either entirely lost. Pliny has furnished us with an account of the the court-yard and cloister about the temple or so much degenerated, as not to be known by lotus-tree, in his 13th book, c. 17. According of Vulcan, which Romulus built for a perpetutheir descriptions.

to this author, the finest trees of this kind grew al monument and memorial of a victory, and Some authors suppose it to have been a fabu-Ion two large sand banks on the Mediterranean defrayed the charge out of the tenth of the pillous fruit, and only to be found in the poet's coast of Africa, not far from Leptis and Car-llage and spoil that he obtained froin his eneimagination. This idea is absurd. Ovià has thage. He mentions them as being the size of|mies; and this tree is at least as old as the city described it as particularly, or more so, than pear-trees, but states that Nepos Cornelius des- of Rome.” any other fruit mentioned in his Metamorpho-cribed them as shrubs. The leaves, says Pliny, Pliny writes on the medicinal qualities of the ses.

are thick, cut, and indented: otherwise they lotus, in his 24th book, chap. 2d, and says his The Lotus-tree was evidently a native of are like those of the ilex or holm-tree. There countrymen called it the Greek bean. He says Africa: and in all probability was improved. by lare many varieties of this fruit, but he describes the fruit is sweet, but that nothing is more bitter being cultivated on the sands of the coast, where, the generality of them as being the size of a bean, than the shavings of the wood. not being indigenous, it has been lost from the land of the colour of saffron, yet, says he, be- Mr. Mungo Park discovered what is sup> neglect of the inhabitants. during the revolu- fore it is quite ripe the fruit changes into a vari- posed to be the lotus of the ancients, and says tions which that part of the world has under-Jety of colours like grapes. It grows thick among it abounds in all parts of the interior of Africa. gone. If this fruit has not already been disco.the branches of the tree, in the manner of myr-|Agreeable to his account, it is rather a thorny vered under some other appellation, we may

tle-berries, and not, says he, like cherries. This shrub than a tree. The fruit is a small farinastill expect that our researches in the interior fruit in Africa, continues Pliny, is so sweet and|ceus berry, which being pounded and dried in of Africa will restore the lost treasure. It is pleasant, that it has given the name both to asthe sun, is made into excellent cakes, resembnow about 2700 years since Homer related the nation and country, as the people are called Lolling in flavour and colour the sweetest gingerenchanting effects this fruit had on the follow-stophagi ; and so welcome are all strangers there, bread. This traveller observes, that a sweet liers of Ulysses :

and so well contented with their entertainment, quor is obtained from the lotus, which, we may

that they forget their own native soil, for the love conclude, had the bewitching qualities described Nine days our fleet th' uncertain tempest bore, they have for this fruit, when once they have ta- by the ancients. Far in wide ocean, and from sight of shore ;

ken to it. By report, (adds this author,) those A species of the lotus, or nettle-tree, celtis, The tenth we touch'd, by various errors tost, who eat of it, are free from all diseases of the has long been cultivated in this country: as The land of Lotus and the flowery coast. stumach.

Gerard says, “ this is a rare and strange tree in We climb'd the beach, and springs of water Those totuses were accounted the best that both the Germanies: it was brought out of Itafound,

had no kernels within ; for there is a kind, says ly, where there is found store thereof, as MaThen spread our hasty banquet on the ground. Pliny, that has a kernel as hard as a bone. thiolus testifieth; I have,” says he, "a small Three men were sent, deputed from the crew, From this fruit was pressed a wine similar to tree in my garden: there is likewise a tree there(An herald one) the dubious coast to view,

mead, which he states, on the authority of Ne- of in the garden under London-wall, sometime And learn what habitants possess the place. Ipos, would not keep above ten days. The Loto- belonging to M. Gray, an apothecary of London, They went, and found a hospitable race; Iphagi pressed the berries of this fruit, with wheat and another great tree in the garden neere ColeNot prone to ill, nor strange to foreign guest.Jor frumenty, into a paste; and so put it up in man streete, being the garden of the queen's They eat, they drink, and nature gives the feast; great barrels or vessels for food. We have heard, apothecary, called Mr. Hugh Morgan, a curiThe trees around them all their fruit produce, says Pliny, that whole armies passing to and fro ous coseruer of rare simples. The lote-tree doth Lolog the name, divine, nectareous juice! through Africa had fed upon it, having no other also grow in Affricke, but it some what differ(Thence called Lotophagi,) which whoso tastes, lfood.

leth from the Italian lote in fruit." Gerard adds, Insatiate riots in the sweet repasts,

| The wood of the lotus-tree, according to the that the fruit ripens in September: the berries, Nor other home, nor other care intends, account of Pliny, was of a black colour, and was, he says, are round, and hang on stalks like cherBut quits his house, his country, and his friends: says he, much sought after for making musical ries, and not like the African lotus. “They The three we sent from off th' enchanting ground pipes. Shafts of daggers and knives, &c. were are,” says he, “ of a yellowish white colour at We dragg'd reluctant, and by force we bound ; made of the roots. This author says, “it is the first, and afterwards red, but when they be The rest in haste forsook the pleasing shore, growing in Italy, but with the change of soil it ripe they be somewhat blacke." Or, the charm tasted, had return'd no more. has changed it's nature ;” but in his 16th book, The lotus-flower, that is now become so fash

Hom. Odyss. chap. 30th, he says, “the lotus-tree is planted ionable in ornamenting furniture, from the cirFrom Ovid's elegant fable of Dryope, we learn about the finest houses in the court-yards, be-cumstance of it's ha

cause the boughs spread so large. Although the decoration of the superb Chinese chandeliers from whence this tree is supposed to have deri-ica

Ibody is short and small, it affords much shade ; made for his Majesty's Pavilion at Brighton. is ved its name.

lyet there is not a tree that gives shade for so not the blossom of the lotus-tree, but of the Not distant far a wat'ry lotus grow3;

Ishort a time, as the leaves fall at the approach Nymphæa Nelumbo, or Chinese water-lotus. 'The spring was new, and all the verdant boughs, of winter, when it admits the sun.” The bark This water-lily is called Nymphæa, from it's Adorn'd with blossoms, promis'd fruits that vie, is described as of a pleasing hue, and was used growing in the water, which the poets feign to In glowing colours with the Tyrian dye.

to colour skins and leather; the root to dye be the residence of the Nymphs. In China, wool.

where it was always held in such high value, Upon the tree I cast a frightful look,

" The fruit,” says he, "resembles the snouts that at length it has become regarded as sacred, The trembling tree with sudden horror shook.

or muzzles of wild beasts, and many of the it is called Lien-wha. Puzza, a Chinese diviniLotis the nymph (if rural tales be true,)

smaller berries seem to hang to those that are ty, is represented as seated on the flowers of As from Priapus lawless lust she flew, (larger."

the lotus. The gods of Japan, which are exhiForsook her form ; and fixing, there became

The same author, in writing on the age of bited of a gigantic figure, are also seated on A flow'ry plant, which still preserves her name. (trees, (book 16th, chap. 24th.) says, “ at Rome, the blossoms of this plant. The ponds in Chi

Theophrastus mentions the lotus fruit in his in the court-yard belonging to the chapel of the na are generally covered with this beautiful 4th book, where he says, that it is of the size soddess Diana Lucina, there is yet to be seen aquatic blossom, which is also grown in large of a bean, and changes it's colour as it ripens./a lote-tree Standing before the chapel, which vases in the houses of the Mandarins. The

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roots and seeds are served up on ice at their with the concomitant dread of exposition and method in this and the more eastern countries, breakfasts as a delicacy, mixed with kernels of criticism.

they are dropt in the middle of the step, parfruits.

The active zeal of our distinguished friend, ticularly when the rows are at right angles, and The Romans made repeated efforts to raise Gen, Calvin Jones, in both acquiring and dis- the corn is ploughed both ways. From the 25th this plant, without success, which the ancients seminating agricultural knowledge, produced of May to 15th of June, is, according to my obhave celebrated in their writings. Homer men- the hasty Letter on the Cultivation of Peas, to servations, the best time of planting them; and tions it with other flowers, as composing the ge- which you have had access, and of which you in some one of the following ways, with a prefernial bed of Jupiter and Juno; and the lotus-herb have flatteringly requested the use, or some-ence in their successive order. With a single is said to have formed the green food of Achil- thing similar to it, for publication in your Jour- horse plough, such as we call “Cutters,"or"Jacks, *** les's horses.

nal. Whilst I comply with your request, I can- having small mould-boards; a furrow is opened Antiquarians assure us, that they recognise not but sensibly feel my inadequacy to do com- in a cross direction to the way the field was this flower on the head of Harpocrates.

plete justice to the general worth of my sub- last ploughed, as nearly in the centre between Pliny describes the Egyptian lotus as a plantject; having myself realized but a few of the the rows as possible. This plough is immewhich grows in the marshes of that country, very many benefits which it is actually capable diately followed by a Dropper, who is provided and which came up in the flats when the waters of affording: I am therefore flattered with a with the bowl of a common tobacco-pipe, which, of the Nile returned to their natural channel. hope that what I may here say, will elicit from if too large, is made by packing something in “ They have heads," says he, “ like those of some abler. and more experienced Pea Planter the bottom of it, to contain from 12 to 16 Peas, the poppy, within which are seeds resembling than myself, something new or more valuable And here I must observe that this or a simi; millet, of which the inhabitants make bread.” respecting that vegetable.

lar provision is greatly necessary, both to He relates, that “it is reported that when the The section of North Carolina, in which I insure a fine regular crop, and to save seed, sun goes down, those heads close up with leaves, live, is rather in what is called the “Eastern di- which otherwise would be profusely or sparingly and sink under the water, where they remain vision,” though very near the centre of the disposed of, according to the whim or pleasure shut until the morning, when they appear above state, and is well adapted to the production of of the Dropper. In passing from one hill to the the surface and open, continuing this course peas, as is the rest of this state, lying east of next, the hand has sufficient time to fill his meauntil they are ripe, when the flowers (that are that range of hills which pervades the conti-sure from the vessel in which he carries the white) fall off of themselves. This lotus,” says nent, running, if I am not mistaken, from Rhode-seed, as well as to drop them, without altering he,“has a root as big as a quince, covered with a Island to Mississippi; nearly parallel with the a common ploughman's gait. The peas are deblack rind or bark, much like the husk of a ocean, and dividing the level or alluvial fromposited in the newly opened furrow as near the cenchesnut. The substance within is white, and the more primitive country. This division in tre between the corn hills on either hand as possidelicious to eat, particularly boiled in water or which I live, may be set down as limiting, in this ble; the dropper is followed by a similar plough. roasted in embers. The bread made from the State the general cultivation of peas, as a pro- covering the seed with great regularity, to the seeds of this lotus,” says Pliny, « is worked with fitable crop, although I believe that in the depth of from two to three inches, and leaving water or milk. There is not any bread in the want of trial, and in the difference of the sta-la surface for them to come up on,' at least even world (says report) more wholesome and lighter ple articles of the two sections; the one being a with the surrounding ground, which is no inconthan this, so long as it is hot; but once cold-it wheat and tobacco-the other, being a pork siderable advantage. The facility with which is hard of digestion, and becomes weighty. and corn country,-may be found the reason, of|an indifferent hand can thus keep up with a

This plant was introduced into this country by Peas not being more commonly grown in the plough is evident, and of course the row is fithe late Sir Joseph Banks, in 1787, and is of West ; rather than in a want of suitable soils for nished “at once." the Polýandria Monogynia Class.

their production. However this may be, it is. In planting them in this way, it is generally very certain, that our Western Brethren are to-calculated to give the corn two ploughings ai

tally ignorant of the incalculable value of the terwards, in a transverse direction, to finish it ; FIELD PEAS.

crop: and a disposition to remain so, is too pre- which working will be all sufficient for the peas;

valent, as will always be the case in the absence and in poor land they will yield a more profitable Varieties commonly cultivated in North Caro-|| lina amongst Corn, or alone ; are an excellent of a “better acquaintance” with it.

crop than the corn; it is not however uncom

Of the many varieties that we have amongst mon to give one of those ploughings, the first, and profitable crop, and are capable of doing us. several of which I will venture to assert in the same direction that the peas were plantmore for the Southern and Western states The Woot. T

pin the same than clover and plaster have for Pennsylva-fident that some, if not all, would

Shave never been seen in the West; I feel con-led, say two furrows on either side of the pea

flourish in row, and unless the field is very grassy they nia ; modes and time of planting and gather-I their exhausted old fields; and by proper man- will require no other work; for the share they

agement, be made the speediest means of restor- will have in that inevitably given to the corn

ing to something like original fecundity, those will be sufficient. Another way, is common-to TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. sterile wastes that are now so common in the drop the seed with similar precaution, in the Sir,

scenery of a western residence. But our west-first or second furrow from the corn row, at the Among those who feel an interest in the ad- ern farmers are not all who have been neglect- ploughing that it receives nearest the time vancement of Agriculture as a science, or de-ful in the management of the pea, and culpa- thought best to plant, leaving the next furrow to light in the diffusion of every incident that may ble in not always allowing them their merited cover them. My objections to this method, are, tend to make this pursuit, either pleasant, or worth. We, among whom they have been ever that the peas are not in the middle of the row. profitable, as an art; no one, I am convinced, more or less cultivated, are as yet ignorant of and they are consequently deprived of the benefits can out-reach me in zealousness of disposition many of their valuable qualities, and too often of the sun that they would there receive : and to see the profession immovably affixed by ge-deny them the little attention that they require, from their contiguity to one row of corn. this neral opinioni in that pre-eminent station, and through which alone we can justly expect is materially injured by their ascending the stalks. to which it is so deservedly entitled as the much profit. With these admonitory observa- It is also common to plant them in the last furnatural avocation of man. Yet my ardour has tions I will proceed to detail the manner in row in a row, at a seasonable ploughing, when been silent, whilst I have placidly viewed with which we are in the habit of cultivating them the Dropper has them to cover with his foot. admiration, the liberal contributions of the most with us; adding such remarks as I may which is performed with considerable expedition. distinguished men of this country, in aid of think material to give you as satisfactory an by persons a little accustomed to it. Planted in your labours to establish a free interchange of account of them, as proper limits will permit these various ways, peas come to great perfecpractical observations, often generally profitable, me.

tion amongst our corn, not however without doand so obviously necessary to improve our Hus- I have been myself in the habit of planting asling it some injury; but not always perceivable, bandry. But notwithstanding my thorough con- many as five different kinds of Peas for the last and never in the same ratio, that they are pro. viction of the utility and stimulating effects of seven or eight years, and am acquainted with fitable, both to our stock and the soil on which portraying to the world the results of experi-Inearly as many more: of these varieties there they grow; having myself experienced by a sucments in the plain garb of rural simplicity ; llare three that possess superior advantages ascession of these double crops, the productiveam nevertheless not free from the effects of that stock crops. Others are esteemed more delicate ness of the soil to increase fifty per cent in a few diffidence which too commonly loiters in the bo-l for the table, and are consequently more com-years: their fonlage, vine, large tap-roots and som of the humble farmer; always deterring Imonly grown for market. The former are what shade, each separately and collectively, possesshim from committing to paper, for publication, Iwe here call the Cow, the Tory, and the Blackling meliorating qualities in a degree superior ideas and experiments on subjects that helpea ; each of which, I am in the habit of plant- to any vegetable known to me. may be fully conversant in; a diffidence which aling amongst my corn, and also alone. When When the corn is gathered, and soon after moment's reflection ought in reality to dissipate, planted with the corn, as is the most usual the first frosts, the hogs we intend to kill that

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winter are "turned in” on the peas, and with a at the time mentioned as best to dispose of themsing in the foregoing remarks, given as succinct feed of corn once or twice a week, they will fat with the scythe or plough, without bearing an account of my experience in Pea-crops, as more kindly than under any other management much: cold nights being, I observe, absolutely the subject would allow, or a proper regard for common in this part of the country; and when necessary to drive them to that natural function; the interests of many of your readers would jusslaughtered, their fat is solid and white: and hence also the propriety of late planting tify; I have only to add, that although it may epicures say, that hogs thus fed make the most when the crop is to be suffered to ripen, for the be both tedious and useless to a large majority; delicious bacon.

nights then become cool by the time their growth it may nevertheless arouse some few prudent The comparative values of the three kinds slackens.

farmers who were not accustomed to witness the before mentioned, according to my experience, I have also planted peas alone: a 'custom that advantages of the field-pea cultivation, and inare that the Cow-PEA, of a light clay colour, is is very common, where particular attention is duce them to give this crop a fair trial: this anrather the most prolific, the pods being much paid to them for fatting pork. They are plant- ticipation will fully recompence me for the time the largest, though, not quite so thick set on ed in drills five and a half feet apart, and re- wbich I have bestowed on this communication the vine : they are also, I think, more inclined quire but one good ploughing and hand hoe- I can easily, and I will forward you, in the course to vine horizontally, not attaching themselves ing, to make the crop. After planting them in of the winter, by way of Newbern, the quantity so much to the corn as the others; consequently this way on the 29th and 30th of May, I have of seed peas mentioned in your letter. doing it less injury : and they are a little pre- put my hogs on them the 22d September, when

Your's most respectfully, ferred by labourers as a diet, who give either they were fine, and might be called half ripe.

JOHN MACLEOD, of Johnston, kind a preference to any other vegetable pro- The hogs devoured the green in preference to Near Smithfield, N. C.) duction accompanying their meat. But they the ripe pods, and after consuming both, the September, 1822. lack the durability of the other two kinds, and vines were eaten by them with considerable will never remain in the field without rotting, avidity. Although I acknowledge this to be al as the others will, until late in the winter. Slovenly practice, yet the land is greatly assist- THE CULTIVATION OF GRAPES RE; The TORY-PEA is of a red clay colour. The cd by it.-Independent of the benefit of the peas!

COMMENDED. etymological application of the name I have ne- tor hogs, when planted in corn-fields, they are Neru varieties couche

frequently gathered from them for many other ver been able to ascertain. They are also some

ved old ones naturalized-liberal offer of Cut

tings and Plant times called “red rippers." These and the BLACK-purposes by picking them into baskets, a tedi

helous Way I acknowledge, a bushel being consiPEA possess very near the same qualities, with the ous winy

dered a tolerable task for one hand to gather and the exception, that I think the black ones mature ala

TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. little the soonest. Either will rema ir, in the clean in a day; or they are pulled up by thel ground all the winter, and come up luxuriantly roots, vine and all, and heaped into piles in

SIR, the field where the peas are thrashed out with in the spring; indeed I have had theto s tand tn

I have been much pleased to find that the he the land sticks; after which the vines may be housed or cultivation of the Grape begins to attract atten

stacked, as winter forage for cattle: and in this way tion, particularly in the south. has remained that time in stubble.

Though the ata hand may get from three to six bushels a lantic states, as far north as Rhode Island, ofI am in the habit of sowing rye, and some day. But this method is not by any means, void fer no serious discouragement to the cultivation times wheat following a corn and pea crop, al- of serious objections ; it being upon that ruin- of the Grape, yet the difficulties in the North, ter the hogs have consumed the latter and Jous and ungrateful, though common practice in will certainly be greater at first, and final suchave the following summer after the grain is husbandry, of taking all without giving any:cess be there, less important. Peopled as are off a fine growth of peas, suitable either to in- totally depriving the land of the stubble, a poor the United States, chiefly by the descendants of the close, or graze; a sufficiency having escaped the pittance indeed, though one, for which usurious British nation, little attention has been paid to search of the hogs, to seed the ground tolerably interest is promised.

(this branch of agriculture ; but our necessities well: though not so regularly or thick, as they! It is however very common to convert them and our reputation call for the developement of might have been sown. I never sowed them in the into winter and spring food for horses or cattle, all our resources, and we may hope that the spring. as a fallow crop, until the present without picking the peas at all. This is a very ingenuity of our farmers will embrace every proVear, when I did, intending them as a prepara- expeditious mode, and it will, I allow, do well duct, to which our soil and climate are fitted tion for wheat and turnips, and of course have on land that receives annual assistance from the The grape, like all our fine fruits and vegetanot, as yet, realized their benefits, though thus farm yard, or is of that quality sometimes called bles, is said to have been brought into Europe far they exhibit every anticipated advantage,“ inexhaustible.But as one or the other of from Asia, and the Roman historians inforin and it is in this way that they may be estimated these two plans must be resorted to for saving us, that grapes did not grow north of the Cevenas an inexhaustible treasure, at least to Carolina. the peas, and as both are somewhat objectiona-nes, a ridge of mountains in the south of France; Strange as it may appear to the votaries of red/ble, I would recommend the last with this dif-lye: north of this limit, now are cultivated the clover and gypsum, yet it is my candid opinion, ference, let the vines be cut off quite near the finest Vinevards in the world. that by something like equal care and manage-roots with a grass knife, sickle, or even a sharp! Such has been the advantage of naturalizing ment. they are qualified to confer more lasting hand hoe, instead of pulling them up; this me- the grape, or of accidental crosses to which benefits, at least to the Southern States, than ei-lthod is equally as expeditious as the other, and grapes as well as other fruits are liable; and ther, or a combination of those, has ever done leaves to the ground the roots, which are a con- hence has arisen from our seedling trees, such vafor Pennsylvania, or any other of our northernsiderable benefit to it, and are useless in feed-Irieties in our apples, peaches, &c. as are unknown sisters. When sown broad-cast either to en-jing.-In feeding peas, freed from the pods, to in Europe.-The Constantia wine from the Cape slose, or to cut for hay, of which they make stall cattle at the rate of half a gallon twice a of Good Hope, is said to be the product of a vine more nutritious and heavier crops than any thing day, to each head, I have never known them to originally brought from Burgundy, but it was else, one and a half to three bushels of seed will do the cattle the least injury ; but with a plen- probably raised from the mixed seed of Burgunbe required to the acre; thin soils requiring the ty of long food accompanying this quantity, they dy grapes. greater quantity of seed. From the 1st to the have always fattened kindly. I have never fed 'We have much underrated our native vine; 10th of May is the best time to sow them, when my horses with them in this state, though I have they grow spontaneously in every part of the to be employed in these ways. They will thus frequently given them in the pods, at the rate United States, and in the South, particularly, proby the 15th or 20th of August, on land that of a heaping peck to each head at a feed, and duce a very pleasant fruit. Among the differwould produce two barrels of corn to the acre, be without ever noticing any injurious effects tojent species which are numerous, I shall mention knee high; just commencing to vine and bear, result from them.

a few which I am acquainted with, or have at which time they ought to be cut, or ploughed un- Of the other varieties, which I cultivate al-heard strongly recommended; the list might be der: being too thick to be very productive of seed. together for culinary purposes, or for market ; easily augmented by many of our botanists, and An earlier sowing which is recommended by I need only say, that they are of the white kind, they might therein render an important sersome, I find, will not answer with the kinds 1 with black and grey eyes. They may be plant-vice to our country. am speaking of; for as they are naturally of a ed several days earlier than the time mentioned ist. The Scuppernong of North Carolina, a very quick growth, requiring the very hottest for the others, and they will bear much sooner: small round grape of a reddish purple colour, sun to hasten them to perfection, if they are it is quite common to have them on the table and fine flavour. It affords a pleasant full bodied planted earlier than the time mentioned for sow-about the first of July. They are a delicious and wine, although hitherto manufactured with but ing broad-cast; they will lack in proper time wholesome diet. As I have, probably in a more little attention or skill. I am indebted to Mr. that portion of heat which they require; and suitable place, neglected it, I shall here mention Cambreling, M. C. for this species, which apwill consequently stunt, and soon begin to shed that when planting among corn as described, a pears to be hardy and vigorous. their leaves : and this they will begin to do a little bushel will plant from four to five acres.Haval 2d. A species, name unknown, supposed to be

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a hybrid from the fabove; also received from


and such as grow late, that can be budded in the North Carolina. This species has not yet pro-Black Morillon, 1 White Muscat,

extremes of the season. Some little errors of duced fruit in my garden.

Early Leipsick,

Violet Muscat,

punctuation, the reader will readily enough cor3rd. A South Carolina grape, brought here by Early Vander Laan, Frankinthall,

rect; I will only suggest the correction of one, in Mr. Gibbs, late of New York. It is an oval, Chasselas,


No. 1, page 7, first column, 13 lines from the top, purple grape, with great fragrance, is a great Frontenac.


move the period which closes the sentence at the bearer, and very hardy-It is less saccharine

word “ wood," and place it after the perpendicu

Viniferous grapes, than No. 1., but I have heard that it affords

lar cut 1. This cut, which is intended to unite The Tokay, very pleasant wine.

the two preceding horizontal cuts thus I, the 4th. Italian grape, or Orwicksburgh; disco Ofen, or buda, Producing Hungarian wines. reader might take for the pronoun I.* About vered by Dr. Hulin of Philadelphia, a very


half way of the same column, a word is inserted, fine, round, white grape, of a small size, and ve

and Schumlauer, J

which conveys a different meaning to the one I ry hardy.

6. Varieties affording German wines, intended : read until Mr. Andrew Knight recom5th and 6th. The Bland and Alexander grapes, Picolit,

mended, instead of “recommenced.” Christi.

After re

Italian wines. from Virginia. I have never seen the fruit of Lacryma Christi, S

ferring to my notes, I cannot discover that I have these, but they are highly spoken of, as well as And Muscat, yelding the celebrated French proved the disagreement between the Apple and the Burlington grape of New Jersey, and the wine of that name.

Quince, I must have asserted this inadvertently Washita orane lately introduced near Philadeld Of all these, and of the before mentioned upon the authority of others. But I think I have phia. These and other species approaching|kinds, I shall have some roots of the present sufficiently tried the Apple and Pear above ground. more or less to table or viniferous grapes, found year's growth and cuttings to spare this autumn without success; and any thing that will only in various sections of our territory, would and the ensuing spring; and I shall take a plea- succeed under ground, as Miller rightly observes. without doubt, improve by cultivation; or by sure in supplying any of my friends, who are dis- is no stock at all. With respect to the Pear mixing with foreign species, and with little trouble posed to give them a fair trial, either in the Stock improving the fruit of the Apple, I have be led to produce new and interesting varieties. Atlantic or Western States.

no experience, but it is contrary to the authority I found the last month, a bunch of grapes of a

GEORGE GIBBS. of Mr. Cox, who has written a very useful book peculiar and exquisite flavour, on a vine of the Sunswick, near New-York, 2

on fruit trees. This celebrated orchardist states, Sweetwater: examining the branch, I found it September, 1822.

that the pear will graft to the apple under ground, interwoven with a Muscat, and near a South

but they are evidently deteriorated, except a few Carolina grape, one of which had probably im

kinds, which will do tolerably well. pregnated it. Unfortunately I neglected to save


II omitted to mention the method I prefer for the seed, or I might have produced a new spe

the preservation of twigs for late grafting. I cies of a superior kind.

It is probable that I

graft them at the usual time to a different genus, the like accidents have produced most of the

Edgefield, S. C. Nov. 3, 1822. the sycamore is very convenient ; this will insure present varieties of grapes; and that the Scup- SIR,-) observed some remarks by an anony-life, and inure them to the air, without swelling pernong, Orwicksburg, &c. are Hybrids. It is 'mous writer in the American Farmer, Vol. 4, No. their buds. I insert them upwards of a foot in certain that they are not deciduous, like the vines 5, relative to my communication " On grafiing length, and perhaps they might be inserted much in our forests; which peculiarity may, howe- and fruit trees," published in the first number of longer. The principal advantage in preserving ver, be lost by cultivation.

this volume, to which I should have replied soon-to so late a season, is for regrafting such as have Foreign vines have seldom succeeded in theier, but for a desire to make my observations more failed in the first operations. I grafted apples Middle States, except in the shelter of our ci- for the benefit of the public, than personal grati- successfully the first of last June, which had been ties, but those vines have been generally brought fication My object in communicating some has-preserved in this way ; the apple and pear are from the mild climates of the south of Europe ty experiments to the public, was to invite at- the only fruits I have attempted to preserve on and Madeira ; and a long course of naturalization tention to a very important subject; and all I the sycamore, Platanus. I have preserved the would be necessary to render them productive. ask in return for the few useful facts, which 1peacb on the cherry, but I believe the hawthorn If care were taken to multiply them from seed, stated from my own experience, is that others better, as it will live on this, with less propensity or by cuttings, the fourth generation might be will subject them to a proper trial ; this is the to grow, than on the cherry. I wish here to rereached in 12 or 15 years, when a hardy spe- authority of nature, it admits of no appeal, and mark the folly of the philosopher's attending so cies would probably be procured for our own cli- is the bar at which all such authorities should much more to authors than nature or experimate. A few years ago I was induced to make be arraigned. If any thing that I have stated ment. Shecut, in his unfinished work, remarks a trial of foreign grapes in my own garden, be not a fact, I do not wish any person to believe that “ Almonds are budded on plum-stocks, in notwithstanding the ill success which my neigh-it, nor do I wish any one to be deprived of the August; the stocks should be first planted in the bours had met with ; for I had witnessed the benefit of facts by individuals, who being igno- nursery when of the size of a broom-straw, and excellence of this fruit under the care of the rant of them deny their existence. If a man the first or second summer after, they will be skilful Horticulturists of Boston,* in spite of the who makes known a discovery to the world, de ready to receive the bud, and this appears to be rigour of their climate; and I preferred obtain- serves the name of a public benefactor, he must the common language of gardeners; a method ing vines from the least favourable of those si- certainly merit corresponding censure, who la- which would answer sufficiently well were we to tuations, in which they had succeeded. I pro- bors to deprive the world thereof. As I teach for live an antediluvian age, I transplanted in March cured a number of cuttings, from Boston, of ap- nothing, I will not like Bernard de Palissy, proproved grapes, such as the Sweetwater, the mise to pay four fold for every error I may Chasselas, Black Hamburgh, Muscat and Alex- have taught; but I will give the public the as. * The simplest method of performing any andria. This is the third year that some of them surance, that I am always provided with living operation is always the best. I have, since writhave borne. The fruit I found equal to any of witnesses to prove my statements.

ing the above, improved the process of budding, the table grapes of Europe, of those species, When I assert that trees will graft together, I so as to be done with greater despatch, and to make and the vines are perfectly healthy. Encour- feel myself bound to prove it by an exhibition of the wounds heal nicely, without any subsequent aged by this success, I was induced to procure the fact, to any one who will make application ; trimming of the lapping bark, which sometimes a collection of vines from Germany, consider- but when I say that some will not, it is the duty grows over the inserted. My present method is to ing the climate somewhat congenial to our own ; of others to prove their contrary assertions, in make my horizontal cuts precisely as wide ahart. and by the aid of the Baron de Ledwer, Con- the same way. But candor compels me to ac- as the bark containing the bud to be entered is long sul general from Austria, I received the last knowledge, that although my notes had been pre- which I always ascertain by measurement ; then spring twenty eight species of the hardiest grapes pared some time before I sent my communication, I unite their two left hand ends with a perpenselected by the superintendent of the Imperial yet I neglected putting them into form, until the dicular cut, thus - I now raise the bark with garden at 'Schonbrun, near Vienna. Though season for grafting was so near at hand, that I my thumb nail or knife, till my bud is introduced. they arrived late in the season, and all sprouted, then threw them together too hastily to be suf- which I keep close" pressed with the left hand yet' they have recovered themselves, and are ficiently accurate. I beg leave, therefore, to while with the right, I cut, or break off the raised growing satisfactorily-amongst these are make some corrections now. Instead of saying bark at the edge of the inserted, which now

" the budding season lasts from May till Septemfite exactly in the place of the original bark, * The best account of pruning vines for the her ;" I should have said from March till Octo- which is entirely removed. Another advantage garden which I have seen published in this ber, though I would have the reader carefully to in this method is, the perpendicular cut being to gountry, is to be found in the 6th Vol. of the observe, that early budding is not so successful the side of the inserted bark, there is no danger of Massachusetts Agricultural Repository-page 66. as late, and it is only suck trees as put out early, wounding the wood under it.

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