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No. 47.-VOL. 4.
369 THE AMERICAN GARDENER. Irow across one of the Plats it will be plenty, per- small bed, shade them a little. If you sow in the
haps. Such row will cortain about a hundred and natural ground in the spring, be sure to transplant CHAPTER IV.
sixty. One third may be used, perhaps, before into the shady borders.---And be sure always to
the winter sets in; another third is taken up and make the ground rich for these fine Lettuces. Vegetables and Herbs.
put by for the winter, in precisely the same way 231. MANGEL-WURZEL.-This may be 225. HORSE-RADISH.-Like every other that Celery is; the other third, covered in the called Cattle-beet. Some persons plant it in garplant, this bears seed ; but it is best propagated same way that Celery is, will be ready for spring dens. It is a coarse Beet, and is cultivated and by cutting bits of roots into lengths of two inches use.See Celery .---Three leeks planted out for preserved as the Beet is. and putting them, spring or fall, into the ground seed, will ripen their seed in August, and will232. MARJORAM.-One sort is annual and about a foot deep, with a setting stick. They give you seed enough for the next year, and some one perennial. The former is called summer and will find their way up the first year, and the se-to give to five or six neighbours.
the latter winter. The first sown as early as poscond they will be fine large roots, if the ground 230. LETTUCE.-This great article of the sible in the spring; and, the latter propagated by be trenched deeply and made pretty good. Half garden is milky, refreshing, and pleasanter to a offsets ; that is, by parting the roots. The plants 2 square perch of ground, planted at a foot apart majority of tastes than any other plant, the Aspa- may stand pretty close. As the winter sort canevery way, will, if kept clear of weeds, pro-ragus hardly excepted. So necessary is it as the not be got at in winter, some of both ought to be duce enough for a family that eats roast-beef every principal ingredient of a good salad, that it is preserved by drying. Cut it jus: before it comes day of their lives. You must take care that the both in France and England called “salad" by out into bloom, hang it up in little bunches to dry, Hörse-radish roots do not spread, and that bits of great numbers of people. It is good in stews: good first, for a day, in the sun; then in the shade; them be not Aung about the ground; for, when bolied with green-peas; and, even as a dish boiled and, when quite dry, put it in paper bags, tied up once in, no tillage will get them out. They must as cabbage is, it is an excellent vegetable. Yet, and the bags hung up in a dry place. be, like the Dock and Dandelion roots, absolute- I never saw a really fine Lettuce in America. The 233. MARIGOLD,-An ANNUAL plant. Sow ly burnt by fire, or by a sun that will reduce obstacles are, the complete impossibility of pre-the seed, spring or fall ; when the bloom is at them to a state of a dry stick ; or must be taken serving plants of the fine sorts iu the natural full, gather the flowers ; pull the leaves of the up and carried away ftom the spot. Though a ground during the winter ; and the great heat, flower out of their sockets; lay them on paper to very valuable and wholesoine article of diet, it which will not suffer those sorts to loave, if they ury, in the shade. When dry put them into pais a most perniciou8 werd.
be sowed in the natural ground in the spring:- per bags. They are excellent in broths and soups 226. HYSSOP is a sort of shrub, the flower-The hard sorts are the green cabbage-lettuce (or and stews. Two square yards planted with Maspikes of which are used, fresh or dried, for hardy green), and the brown cabbage. These are rigolds will be sufficient. It is the single Marimedicinal purposes. It is propagated from seed, lat plants. Their outside leaves spread forth gold that ought to be cultivated for culinary puror from offsets. A very little of it is enough for upon the ground, and they curl into a sort of poses. The double one is an ornamental flower, any garden.
loaf in the centre. The plants of these may be and a very mean one indeed. 227. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE.-This preserved through the winter in the natural ground 234. MELON.-There are, all the world plant bears at the root, like a potato, which to in the manner directed for Endive plants (which knows, two distinct tribes: the Musk, and the the great degradation of many of the human see under Endive) and may be sowed at the Water. Of the former the sorts are endless, and, race, is every where well known. But, this Ar-same time for that purpose. But these are very indeed, of the latter also. Some of both tribes tichoke, which is also dug up and cooked like a po-poor things. They have, though bleached atlare globular and others oblong; and, in both tato, has, at any rate, the merit of giving no the heart, a slimy fee: in the mouth ; and are tribes there are different colours, as well with retrouble either in the propagation or the cultiva- not crisp and refreshirg. There are, I believe, gard to flesh as to rind.-In this fine country, tion. A handful of the bits of its fruit, or even twenty sorts, two of which only it will be enough where they all come to perfection in the natural of its roots, Aung about a piece of ground of any to mention, green-coss and white-coss, the former ground, no distinction is made as to earliness, or sort, will keep bearing forever, in spite of grass of which is of a darker green than the latter, is lateness in sorts; and, in other respects, some and of weeds; the difficulty being, not to get it rather hardier and not quite so good. These like one sort best, and some another. Amongst to grow, but to get the ground free from it, when when true to their kind and in a proper situation, the Musk inelons the Citron is, according to my once it has taken to growing. It is a very poor, rise up, and fold in their leaves to a solid loaf, taste, the finest by far; and the finest Water insipid vegetable; but, if you wish to have it, now like a sugar loaf cabbage, and, in rich land, with melons that I have ever tasted were raised from and then, the best way is to keep it out of the gar- good management they will become nearly as seed that came out of melons grown in Georgia den; and to dig up the corner of some field, and large. When you cut one of these from the stem, -As to the manner of propagating, cultivating, throw some seed or some roots into it.
and pull off its outside leaves, you have a large and sowing the seed of melons, see Cucumber, 098. LAVENDER. A beautiful little well-\lump of white, enough for a salad for ten people, and only observe, that all that is there said apknown shrub of uses equally well known. Hun- unless they be French, and, then you must have plies to melons as well as to cucumbers. To have dreds of acres are cultivated in England for the a lettuce to every person. Every body knows melons a month earlier than the natural ground flowers to be used in distillation. It may be pro- how to sow lettuce-seed along a drill, in the sowings will produce them is an object of much marated from seed: but is easiest propagated from spring, to let the plants stand as thick as grass, Igreater importance than to have cucumbers so slips, taken off in the spring, and planted in good and to cut it along with a knife, and gather it much earlier; and, to accomplish that object, moist ground in the shade. When planted out it up by handfuls. But, this is not lettuce. It is you have only to use the same means, in every reshould be in rows three feet apart and two feet|herbage, and really fit only for pigs and cows. spect, that I have described for the getting early apart in the rows. If the flowers be to be preser- It is a raw, green, Dandelion, and is not quite Cucibers The oil should be rich for melons ved, the fower-stalks should be cut off before so good.- The plants of these fine sorts may, in but it ought not to be freshly dunged; for that is the blossoms begin to fade at all.
deed be kept through the winter in the same apt to rot the plants, especially in a wet year. 999. LEEK. There are two sorts: the narrow-Imanner, and with the same care, as Cauliflower|They like a light and rather sandy soil, and, any leaved, and the flag-leek, the latter of which is plants (which see in Paragraph 209); but, if this where near the sea, wood ashes, or sopers' aslies, by much the best-Some people like leeks better be not done, you must raise them in the spring in is probably, the best manure, and especially in than onions; and they are better in soup -Sowprecisely the same way as the very earliest cab-dry-bottomed land; for ashes attract and retain in the fall, or, as early in the spring as you can.-bage-plants, for which see Paragraphs from 771the moisture of the atmosphere. It is a great About four yards square is enough. Put the rowo to 94.-Put the plants out into the natural ground, mistake to suppose, that ashes are of a burning eight inches asuuder, and thin the plants to three about a fortnight before the general Cornplanting quality. They always produce the most and best inches apart in the row,--Hoe deeply and fre-time. Do not put them in a place full to the sun. Ciect' in dry bottomed land.-Melons should be quently between the plants till the middle of July, but in the east border, or in the west border.Icultivatrd well. You should have but one plan, and then take the plants up, cut their roots off to Make the ground rich, right strong, break it well, in a hill; and sliould till the ground between the an inch long, and cut off ine leares also a good and, in transplanting, keep as much earth as you plants, while they are growing, until it be coverway down. Make trenchies, like those for Célery can about the roots, and give a little water; andled by the vines. If the plants stand too close, the (which see), only not more than half as deep, and transplant in the evening:- These plants will loave vines will be weak, and fruit sınall, thick-rinded, half as wide apart. Manure the trenches with about the time of the carly cabbages, and some and poor as to favour. rotten dung, or other rich manure. Put in the of them will not go off to seed for six weeks af. 235. MINT.-There re two sorts: one is of plants as you do the Celery plants, and at about|ter they are loaved. So that, about two squarela darker green than we other : the former is Ere inches asunder. As the Leeks grow, earth feet of a hot-bed will give you a great quantity of|called peper-mint, and is generally used for disthem up by degrees like celery ; and at last, you real lettuces.-Let one plant (a very fine one) Itilling to make mint water; the latter which is will have leeks 18 inches long undig ni, and stand for seed; and it will give you plenty of seed calied rear-mint, is used for the table, in many as thick as your wrist. One of the is worth a for 2 year or two.-Whenever you transplant was so The French snip a little into their sulas; dozen of pour little hard things. If you have a Lettuces, give them a little water, and, if it be as we boil a bunch amongst green peas, to which it
gives a pleasant flavour; chopped up small, and to dry, in order to be put away for winter use.- the rest of the pot-herbs. It is possible to pres rve put, along with sugar, into vinegar, we use it as|Some persons, instead of sowing the onions all it green because I have done it ; but, it loses its sauce for roasted lanb; and a very pleasant sauce along the drill, drop four or five seeds at every smell and flavour. Therefore to have Parsley in it is. Mint may be propagated from seed; but a six or seven inches distance; and leave the onions winter you must keep it alive. If you have a few bits of its roots will spread into a bed in a to grow thus, in clumps ; and this is not a bad/Green-house (or you may do it even in any of the year.-To have it in winter, preserve it precise-way ; for, they will squeeze each other out. They window seats of a house) half a dozen flower-pots,
ike Majoram (which see), and, instead of chop-will not be large ; but, they will be ripe çarlier, planted with stout plants in September, and taken ping it for sauce, crumble it between your fingers. and will not run to neck.The third mode of cul- into the house in November, will be sufficient. As
236. MUSTARD.-There is a white seeded tivation is as follows: sow the onions any time soon as winter breaks up, put them out in the sort and a brown seeded. The white mustard is used between April and the middle of June, in drills natural ground; and thus you have plenty of in salads along with the Cress, or Pepper Grass, six inches apart, and put the seed very thick along Parsley all the year round. However, Parsley and is sown and cultivated in the same way (See the drills. Let all the plants stand, and they will may be preserved in the natural ground. You Cress.) The black is that which table mustard get to be about as big round as the top of your have only to put straw, or leaves of trees, or long is made of. It is sown in rows, two feet apart, little finger. Then the leaves will get yellow, and, litter, six inches thick on the bed, and to lay on early in the spring. The plants ought to be thin- when that is the case, pull up the onions and lay something to prevent the covering from being ned to four or five inches apart. Good tillage be- them on a board, till the sun have withered up the blown off, (See Endive.) This will preserve its tween the rows. The seed will be ripe in July, leaves. Then take these diminutive onions, put leaves from being destroyed; and when, you go and then the stalks should be cut off, and, when them in a bag, and hang them up in a dry place to get it, you must lift up the covering, of a part quite dry, the seed threshed out, and put by for till spring. As soon as the frost is gone, and the of the bed, and put it down again. use. Why should any man that has a garden ground dry, plant out these onions in good and 240. PARSNIP.-As to the season of sowing. buy mustard ? Why should he want the English fine ground, in rows a foot apart. Make, not drills, sort of land, preparation of ground, distances, to send him out, in a bottle, and sell him for a but little marks along the ground; and put the and cultivation and tillage, precisely the same as quarter of a dollar, less and worse mustard than onions at six or eight inches apart. Do not cover the Carrot, which see, Paragraph 208. But, as he can raise in his garden for a penny? The them with the earth ; but just press them down to preservation during winter, and for spring use. English mustard is, in general, a thing Fabricated, upon the mark with your thumb and forefinger. the Parsnip stands all frost without injury, and and is as false as the glazed and pasted goods, The ground ought to be trodden and slightly raked even with benefit. So that, all you want is te sent out by the fraudulent fabricators of Manches-again before you make the marks, for no earth put up for winter as many as you want during the ter. It is a composition of baked bones reduced should rise up about the plants. -Proceed after hard frost, and these you may put up in the same to powder, some wheat flour, some colouring, this as with sown onions ; only observe, that, :manner as directed for Carrots and Beets. The and a drug of some sort that gives the pungent (if any should be running up to seed, you must greens of Parsnips are as good for cow feed as taste. Whoever uses that mustard freely will twist down the neck as soon as you perceive it. those of Carrots ; but, if the Parsnips be to stand find a burning in his inside long after he has swal-'But, observe this : the shorter the time that these out in the ground all the winter, the greens should lowed the mustard. · Why should any man, whojonions have been in the ground the year before, not de cut off in the fall. has a garden, buy this poisonous stuff? The mus- the less likely will they be to run to seed.-Pre- 241. PEA.This is one of those vegetables tard-seed ground in a little mustard mill is what serving onions is an easy matter Frost never which all men most like. Its culture is universal he ought to use. He will have bran and all; and hurts them, unless you move them during the time where people have the means of growing it. his mustard will not look yellow like the English that they are frozen. Any dry, airy place will The sorts of peas are very numerous ; and I will composition ; but we do not object to Rye bread therefore do. They should not be kept in a warm mention a few of them presently.-The soil should on account of its colour! Ten pounds of seed place; for they will heat and grow. The neatest be good, and fresh dung is good manure for them. will grow upon a perch of ground; and ten pounds way is to tie them up in ropes ; that is to say, to Ashes and compost, very good; but peas, like of mustard is more than any man can want in astie them round sticks, or straight straw, with Indian Corn, will bear to be actually sown upon year. The plants do not occupy the ground more matting (See Endive).-For seed, pick out the dung. Never were finer peas grown than there than fourteen weeks, and may be followed by ano-finest onions, and plant them out in sich land, in are grown in the United States; and, as we shall ther crop of any plant, and even of mustard if the spring.-To grow this seed upon a large scale presently see, they may be had, in the open you like. This, therefore, is a very useful plant, plough the land into four feet ridges, lay plenty of ground, in Long Island, from first of June till the and ought to be cultivated by every farmer, and Jung along the furrows, plough the ground back sharp frosts set in.-The sorts are numerous, one every man who hus a garden.
lover the dung, flatten the top of the ridge a little, class is of a small size and the other large. The 231. NASTURTIUM-An annual plant, with and put along, on the top of a ridge two rows of|latter grow taller, and are longer in coming to a half-red half-yellow flower, which has an offen-Jonions, the rows seven inches apart, and the onions perfection, than the former. The earliest of all sive smell ; but, it bears a seed enveloped in a seven inches apart in the rows. When the weeds is the little white pea, called, in Long Island, the fleshy pod, and that pod, taken before the seed come, hoe the top.s of the ridges with a small hoe, May-Pra, and in England, the early frame-hea. becomes ripe, is used as a thing to pickle.The and plough first from and then to the ridges, two Then come the early Charleton, the Hotspur. the seeds should be sown in the fall, or very early in or three times at the distance of two or three weeks, Blue Pea, the Dwarf, and Tall Marrowtats: the Spring. The plants should have pretty long as in the case of Ruta Baga, cultivated in the and several others, especially the Knight Pea. bushy sticks put to them; and four or five of them field.-When the seed is ripe, cut off the heads and the seed of which is rough, uneven shaped and will bear a great quantity of pods. They will collect them in such a way as not to scatter the shrivelled, and the plant of which grows very tall. grow in almost any ground; but, the better the seed. Lay them, on cloths, in the sun, till dry as -All the sorts may be grown in America, without ground the fewer of them are necessary.
dust ; and then thresh out the seed, winnow it, and sticks, and even better than with. I have, this 238. ONION.–This is one of the main vege-put it away. The seed will be dead ripe in year (1819) the finest peas I ever saw, and the tables. Its uses are many and they are all well August, and transplanted Ruta Baga, or Early crop the most abundant. And this is the manner, known. The modes of cultivation for a crop are York Cabbages, or even Kidney dwarf beans, or, in which I have sown and cultivated them. i various. Three I shall mention, and by either a perhaps, Buckwheat, may follow upon the same ploughed the ground into ridges, the tops o good crop may be raised. Sow in the fall (See (ground, the same year.-Inagarden there always which (for the dwarf sorts) were four feet apart. Paragraph 159,) or early in the Spring. Let the ought to be a crop to succeed seed-onions the I then put a good parcel of yard-dung into the ground be rich but not from fresh dung. Make same summer.
furrows; and ploughed the earth back upon the The ground very fine ; make the rows a foot a part| 239. PARSLEY-Known to every human dung, I then levelled the top of the ridge a little. and scatter the seed thinly along a drill twoinches being to bear its seed the second year, and, after and drew two drills along upon it at six inches deep. Then fill in the drills ; and then press the that to die away. It may be sown at any season distant from each other. In these I sowed the earth down upon the seed by treading the ground when the frost is out of the ground. The best peas. When the peas were about three inches all over. Then give the ground a very slight way is to sow it in spring, and in very clean high, I hoed the ground deep and well between smoothing over with a rake.—When the plants ground ; because the seed lies long in the ground, the rcws and on each outside of them. I then get to be three inches high, thin them to four and, if the ground be foul, the weeds choak the ploughed the ground from them, and to them inches, or to eight inches if you wish to have very plants at their coming-up.-A bed of six feet long again, in the same way as in the case of Swedish large onions. Keep the ground clear of weeds by and four wide, the seed sown in drills at eight Turnips. In a week or two afterwards they had hoeing ; but.do, not hoe deep, nor raise earth about inches apart is enough for any family in the another ploughing; and soon after this they fell. the plants; for these make them run to neck and world. But, everybody likes parsly; and, and lay down the sides of the ridges. This was not to bulk.-_When the tips of the leaves begin where the winter is so long and so sharp as it is in the way in which I managed all the sorts, only in to be brown, bend down the necks, so that the this country, the main thing is to be able to keep the case of the Knight Pea I put the ridges at six leaves lie flat with the ground When the leaves narsley through the winter. It cannot be pre- feet asunder.- This was, of every sort, the very are nearly dead, pull up the onions, and lay them served dry, with success, like Mine, Marjoram, and finest crop of peas I ever saw in my life. When
not sucked, and sown upon level ground, peas Sown as early as possible in the spring, and a not be wet at bottom, and should be kept very tall about irregularly, and, in case of much wet, little bed every three weeks all summer long. clean during the summer. the under pods rot; but, from the ridges they fall The early scarlet is the best. Radishes may be 263. SKÍRRET is cultivated from its root, regularly, and the wet does not lodge about them. raised early in a hot-bed, precisely as cabbage- which is used in soups. It may be raised from You walk up the furrows to gather the peas; and plants are.
seed, or from offsets. It is perennial, and a very aothing can be more beautiful, or more convenient. 250. RAMPION.This is the smallest seed small patch may suffice. The culture in the garden may be the same, of which we have any knowledge. A thimble 264. SORRÉL-This is no other than the except that the work which is done with the plough full, properly distributed, would sow an acre of wild sorrel cultivated. It is propagated from in the field, must, in the garden, be done with the land. It is sown in the spring, in very fine earth. seed, or from offsets. It is perennial. The shade. As to seasons, the early pea may be Its roots are used in soups and salads. Its leaves French make large messes of it, but a foot square sown in the fall. See Paragraph 159. But, in are also used in salads. A yard square is enough may suffice for an American garden, this case, care must be taken to guard against for any garden.
265, SPINACH.-Every one knows how good mice. Sow about four inches deep, and tread the 251. RAPE.-This is a field plant for sheep ; land useful a plant this is. It is certainly preground well down. When the frost sets in all but it is very good to sow like White Mustard, tolferable to an
very good to sow like White Mustard, to ferable to any of the cabbage kind in point of is safe till winter breaks up. These peas will be use as salad, and it is sown and raised in the same wholesomeness, and it is of very easy cultivation, earlier by ten or fifteen days than any that you way.
(There is, in fact, but one sort, that I know any can sow in the spring.--If you sow in the spring, 252. RHUBARB.-This is one of the capital thing of, though the seed is sometimes more do it as soon as the ground is dry enough to golarticles of the garden, though I have never seen nrickly than at other times. To have spinach upon. Sow the May Pea, some Charletons, some it in America. The Dock is the wild Rhubarb, l'very
ock is the wild Rhubarb: very early in the spring, sow (Long Island) on Hotspurs, some Blue Peas, some Marrowfats, and if you look at, and taste, the root, you will or about the first week of September, in drills a and some Knight Pea, all at the same time, and see the proof of it. The Rhubarb plant has foot apart, and, when the plants are well up, thin they will come one after another, so as to give you leaves as broad and long as those of the burs them to six inches. They will be fine and stron green peas till nearly August. In June (about dock. It comes forth, like the dock, very early by the time that the the middle) sow some early pea again and also in the spring. When its leaves are pretty large, as that time comes, cover them over well with some marrow fats and Knight Pea; and these will you cut them off close to the stem, and, if the straw. and keep the straw on till the breaking give vou peas till September. Sow some of each plant be fine, the stalk of the leaf will be from up of the frost. Sow more as soon as the frost sort middle of August, and they will give you eight inches to a foot long. You peel the outsidelis out of the ground; and this will be in pergreen peas till the hardish frosts come.-But, skin from these stalks, and then cut the stalks uplfection in June. You these two last sowings (June and August) ought to into bits about as big as the first joint of a lady's but the
s about as big as the first joint of a lady's but the plants will go off to seed before they be under the South fence, so as to get as much third finger. You put these into puddings, pies,lattain to much size. If you save seed, save it coolness as possible.
tarts, just as you would green gooseberries and from plants that have stood the winter. 242 PENNYROYAL.-A medicinal herb.green currants, and some people think they are 266. SQUASH is, in all its varieties, cultiIt is perennial. A little patch, a foot square is better than either : at any rate, they are full sirlvated like the Cure enough.
weeks earlier. The plant, like the dock, is hardy, 267. TANSY, a perennial culinary and media 243. PEPPER.-See Capsicum.
is raised from seed, from the roots, will grow in cinal herb, propagated from seed, or offsets. One 244. PEPPER GRASS. See Cress.
any ground, though best in rich ground ; and the root in a garden is enough. 245 POTATO.-_Every body knows how same plants will last for an age. It is a very 268. TARRAGON is a very hot, peppery to cultivate this plant; and, as to its preservation valuable plant, and no garden ought to be without herb. It is used in soup and sallads. It is peduring winter, if you can ascertain the degree of it. I should think, that a hundred wagon-loads rennial, and may be propagated from seed, or warmth necessary to keep a buby from perishing, of the stalks are yearly sold in London. A bunch from offsets, or slips. put out in spring. Its you know precisely the precautions required to which you can clasp with your two hands sellslus
as young and tender tops only are used. It is eaten Oreserve a potato. As to sorts they are as nu-for a shilling or two in the very early part of the with beef-steaks in company with minced shalots. merous as the stones of a pavement in a large season ; and that is nearly half a dollar.
. a dollar. This A man may live very well without it ; but, aa
This la city ; but, there is one sort earlier than all others. circumstance sufficiently speaks its praise.
Englishman once told me, that he and six others It is a small round, white potato, that has no 253. ROSEMARY is a beautiful little shrub.la
ruo: Jonce eat some beef-steaks with Shalots and Tarblossom, and the leaf of which is of a pale green, One of them may be enough in a garden. It is ragon, and that "they voted unanimously, that very thin. very smooth, and nearly of the shape propagated from slips, taken off in the spring and
178, taken on in the spring and “ beef-steaks never were so eaten !”
It must be and size of the inside of a lemon cut asunder planted in a cool place.
dried, like mint, for winter use. lonewave This potato. if planted with otherl 254. RUE-Still more beautiful. Propaga-1 269. THYME.-There are two distinct sorts. sorts in the spring, will be ripe six weeks sooner ted in the same manner. One plant of the kind Both are perennial, and both may be propagated than any other sort. I have had two crops is enough.
either from seed, or trom offsets. of potatoes ripen on the same ground in the 255. RUTA BAGA.- (See Turnin.)
270. TOMATUM.—This plant comes from same year, in England; the second crop from 256. SAGE is raised from seed, or from slips.lanec
is raised from seed, or from slips. the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. potatoes of the first. Two crops could be raised To have it at hand for winter it is necessary to In England it requires to be raised in artificial in America with the greatest facility. But, if dry it ; and it ought to be cut, for this purpose, hear
o this purpose, heat, and to be planted out against warm wills. you once get this sort, and wish to keep it, you before it comes out into bloom, as indeed, is the Here it wo
pom, as indeed, is the Here it would require neither. It climbs up very must take care that no other sort grow with it, case with all other herbs.
high, and would require busby sticks. It bears a or near it : for, potatoes of this kind mix the 257. SALSAFY, called, by some, oyster plant, sort of apple about as big as a black walnut with breed more readily than any thing else, though is good in soups, to eat like the parsnip. It is it
slits green husk on. Its fruit is used to thicken they have no bloom! If some plants of this cultivated like the parsnip, and, like it, stands stews and soups, and great quantities are sold in blossomless kind grow with or near the other out the whole of an American winter.
London. It is raised from seed only, being an kinds, they will produce plants with a rough leaf, 258. SAMPHIRE is propagated from seed, annual ; and the seed should be sown at a great some of them will even blow, and they will lose or from offsets. It is perennial, and is sometimes distance, seeing that the plants occupy a good their quality of earliness. This is quite enough to used as a pickle, or in salads.
deal of room. drove the fallacy of the doctrine of a communi- 259. SAVORY.-.Two sorts. summer and
( To be Continued.) cation of the farina of the powers of plants, lwinter. The former is annual, and the latter 96. 1OTATO. (Sweet). This plant isme
Sperennial. cultivated in much the same way as the last."
TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. way as the last.fo 260. SAVOY.-See Cabbage, Paragraph 201. Heat is what it chiefly wants; and great care indeed must be taken to preserve it in winter.
"1261. SCORZENERA.-This is only another Sir I wish to be made acquainted through the 24.7 PUMPKIN See ('ucumber. The cul.kind of SALSAFY. It is cultivated and used in medium of your useful journal, with the most ap. tivation is ne saine, and every body knows the the same manner as Salsafy is.
proved method of making capons. No doubt madifferent qualities of the different sorts, and how 262. SHALOT.-A little sort of Onion, which ny of your subscribers are able, and willing to to preserve and use them all. Jis taken up in the fall and kept tor winter use.I give the information.
S. S. 248. PURSLANE-A mischievous weed Each plant multiplies itself in the summer by Arundie Cottage, Feb. 18t, 1823. that Frenchinen and pigs eat when they can get adding offsets all round it. One of them is a nothing else. Both use it in salad, that is to plant to put out in the spring to produce other! The writer is respectfully informed, that he say, raw,
Isets for use and for planting out again. They will find correct information in Vol. 3, N). 24, 249. RADISH.-A great variety of sorts. silould be planted in rows six inches apart, and page 192 ; yet any thing in addition would be Sogn thin in little drills six inches asurder. four inches apart in the rows. The ground should thankfully received.-Edit. Am. Farmer,
FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER.
Amount brought up, $353 30
$10 44 FIRST YEAR.
All other expenses the same as last year-the manure, Price of one acre of good land, except near large towns, $50 00
hogsheads, and $3.44 interest, to be educted out of the Fencing an acre,
| first of the fourth year's expenses-the whole interest Cuttings of vines for one acre,
174 01 610 poles or stakes, at 2 cents each,
12 20 Digging 610 holes to plant the cuttings in, at 2 cents each, 12 20
Total expense, the fifth year
$184 45 Planting the cuttings and stakes at 1 cent each,
The sixth and seventh year's expenses, the same as the Total capital employed,
fifth year-except in the seventh year, the expense of
sugar probably will not be necessary; for, as the vines grow Interest for one year on the above capital,
older, the grapes become richer: that is, they have more
of the saccharine quality in them. Deducting the price First ploughing say $2, two other ploughings at $1 25,
$306 02 to prepare the ground,
of sugar one year, these two years amount to Three harrowings at 50 cents each, Harrowing and hoeing about the vines three times in the
The total expense in seven years is
$843 77 course of the summer, to keep down the weeds at $2 50
Probable produce, 1600 gallons of wine in the last four each time,
$756 23 Manure the first year-say
10 00 Interest and first year's expenses,
And here it is to be remembered, that if the vines grow on a farm, esSECOND YEAR.
pecially if south of Pennsylvania, the owner will be paid for all the labour of Pruning and digging with the spade three feet on each
his hands, the interest on his money laid out, &c., and will probably have the side of the vines (the pruning this year 18 very tri
Ipoles on his own land, so that he would not have to pay any money for fling, say
them. The only money that he would have to pay out, would be for the 305 poles 14 feet long, to tie horizontally to the stakes two
vine cuttings, the hogsheads, barrels and sugar, amounting to $223, in feet from the ground, to tie the shoots of the vines to, at
seven years and the balance of $1600 would all be furnished within his 3 cents
own premises ; being $1377 for the interest of money advanced, materi. Annual decay of poles, say 20 per cent.
als furnished by him, the labour of his hands, and profit. Harrowing and hoeing three times, as above, at $2 50,
After the seventh year, the annual expense in labour, &c., will probably Additional attendance, as there will be more pruning
be $180—and the annual average produce will be $400-leaving a balthan last year,
lance of $220 profit per acre. The 305 poles being part of the capital, must be added to
The average quantity of juice from the hogshead or vat, will probably the capital of last year, makes it $140 65.-Interest on it 8 44
exceed 450 gallons, from an acre, and if it is obtained clear, the sediment Second years expenses,
847 53 will be trifling ; so that 400 gallons of wine may be calculated on, fit for THIRD YEAR.
use. And where sugar is used, as twelve pounds of sugar make one gallon The same as last year,
$47 53 of liquid, 3 cwt. of it will give 28 gallons and if brandy is added at the 610 additional poles 14 feet long, at 3 cents, to tie to the
rate of ten per cent, there will be about 40 gallons more to add-so that stakes horizontally, at four and six feet from the ground, 18 30 , 450 gallons, I think, may be safely calculated on, fit for use or sale. I am Adding the $18 30 to the capital, makes it $158 95. Ad
now satisfied that when there is a sufficiency of saccharine matter in the ditional interest,
juice, brandy is unnecessary-but I find it very difficult to convince others of Third years expenses,
-866 93 |this fact. This year, if the vines are properly attended to, there will be
I intend to begin to prune my grape vines to day, and if any gentlemen plenty of grapes for the table, and if permitted to hang on, to
wish to be supplied with cuttings, I will send them to any part o. this dismake some wine. On this acre the vines are supposed to be plan
įtrict, to Baltimore, or Norfolk, upon referring me to some one in the disted in rows twelve feet apart, and six feet distant in the rows, and
trict of Columbia for the payment. I will put them up in strong cloth and after leaving three feet on each side of the vines, there will be six
damp moss, so that they may be carried any distance with safety, and keep feet to spare between the rows, which for these first three years
Igood for five or six weeks. may be planted in potatoes, beans, peas or any other meliorating
I charge one dollar per dozen cuttings. crop, which would help to pay part of the above expenses, though
— five dollars for 120 cuttings. I have not given any credit for it. After this year nothing must be
- twenty Gollars for 600 cuttings. planted between the rows of the vines.
The Bland Madeira, the Tokay, Schuylkill, Muskatel, and Constantia, FOURTH YEAR.
all make good wine, and are tolerable for the table. I have also the WorThe same as the third year, except the purchase of poles,
thington grape-a very great bearer. I have not enough of this yet, to
make a separate cask of wine, consequently I have mixed them with . &c. which is to be deducted, which leaves,
others. But I am inclined to think it will make a very good red wine. Annual wear and tear or loss of poles, 20 per cent. on the
I have also the Sweet Water, the Miller Burgundy, Royal Muscadine, whole cost,
Frontinac, &c. These latter are exclusively for the table, except the Additional labour this year in pruning the vines and keep
Miller Burgundy, of which I made a barrel of wine, this last season, that ing them in order, and in their places when misplaced by
I hope will make Champagne, as it is one of the grapes from which that the wind, &c. say
wine is made in France. Picking 150 bushels of grapes in the bunches at six cents
i finished racking my wine, last week—there were, per bushel,
224 Picking 150 bushels off the bunches and bruising them, 10
Six quarter casks of 28 gallons each, cents per bushel,
One small cask of 12 gallons,
Total gallons 404 3 cwt. Sugar, white Havana, the best, at $14
But there were 31 cwt. of sugar used, and as 12 lbs. make one gallon Two persons to attend to the fermenting hogsheads, for,
of liquid, 32 gallons of the above were produced by the sugar. say 20 days, at $1 50 per day, by which time the wine
And two quarter casks, or 56 gallons, were spoiled by being put into ) may be got into the cellar,
casks, that had red wine in them, that came from the Mediterra- 56 Fifteen dollars in hogsheads added to the capital. Interest
nean, which deducted from the whole quantity,
SE on it, 90
Left to be racked, 348 And I have racked off fine and bright, so that there will be scarcely
$197 45 Manure this year,
any sediment from this--about
10 00 · Total expenses this year,
Which left, or ought to leave, of lees, save what was lost by evapora. -$207 45 tion, about
Galls. 38 When the grapes are fermented in the skin, after being bruised and left 999 JO' until the pummice, if it may be so called, has risen to the surface before
the juice is drawn off, and if this is obtained without pressure, there will be gentleman in the country, who keeps a gardener and who has nuse ser very little lee in it. The reason of there being, as before stated, so much vants, with very little expense, and it will at the same time be an agreea. as 38 gallons of lee, was my having mixed the wine pressed from the ble amusement to him. For I think it as rational to have a small vineyard pummice, with that which came off without pressure : that which is as it is to have an apple, peach, or any other fruit orchard. pressed after fermentation, always having more mucilage than when it is One hundred and fifty bushels of grapes to an acre, may appear a great drawn off without pressure.
quantity to those who have not seen them growing in vineyards. But the If you think the above worth publishing, or any part of it, please insert four-tenths of an acre that I measured, averaged more than one peck to it in your paper, as it will save me a good deal of trouble in answering the vine, and it was the first year of their bearing; and I have no doubtin queries that are very often put to me by letter and otherwise--and it will my own mind, that an average of four years will produce more. The enable any person to make a calculation of the expense, according to his rows 12 feet apart, and the vines 6 feet distant in the rows, will make 607 own ideas. I think one or two acres of vines may be cultivated by any vines on an acre.
ller can be made to resist this enormous interna
pressure, we may confidently conclude, that an Fig.1.
iron boat, constructed in a similar way, will be adequate to sustain any external force, which it is likely to encounter from the buffeting of the waves.
2.-Durability. The considerations under the last head apply with equal force to this ; but to these I would add, that an iron boat is not subject to injury from the effects of the sun ; nor from the still more injurious attacks of the worms in southern latitudes. The oxidation of the iron, which will appear to some to detract much from
its durability, will be found of very little moment Fig. 1. View of the Iron Life-Boat, from above. / e Water-line of the boat.
in practice. Fig. 2. Section of the same.
It is evident, that if the well be left entirely 3.-Rate of sailing. The smooth surface of a and 6 Cavities under the seats and at the stern open the water cannot rise in it higher than the iron, and its very great elasticity, must lead to of the vessel.
level of its surface without; and any water that the conclusion, that a vessel, built of this matec Cavity between the ftoor and bottom.
may be taken in, over the sides, will sink down rial, will sail faster than one of the same size and d The well. the well until it finds its proper level.
shape built of wood.
4.-Capacity for burthen. It is found to hold FROM THE LIVERPOOL KALEIDOSCOPE. water, even when the boat is " set down,” with a universally, with respect to canal boats, that
moderate load. A pipe or well is made to pass those made of iron (of which there are numbers TO THE EDITOR.
directly down through both bottoms and through constantly in use) will carry a larger cargo than SIR-Accounts of shipwrecks, and abandon- the cavity between them, so as to allow the wa- wooden boats of the same size. The result must ments at sea, have come before us very frequent-¡ter a free passage without admitting it into the be the same, however you may modify the shape ly of late. The surfering, and loss of life, occa- cavity. The effect of this construction is, that of the boat, or in whatever mode of navigation sioned by such misfortunes, must be lamented by besides the buoyancy acquired, the boat will dis-l it may be employed. all; and will, no doubt, insure a favourable re- charge itself of any quantity of water it may 5.-Cost. It will be expected that I should ception to every at empt that may be made to happen to ship in a rough sea. Should the boat say something of the comparative cost of the remedy the evil. The most obvious method that be loaded deeper than the level of the floor, the common, and the proposed boats. This I can presents itself to the mind, of accomplishing this water is prevented from rising into the interior only speak of at present on conjecture; I think desirable object, is that of providing a life-boat (of the boat by means of a valve.
I may however safely state, that iron boats, with for every vessel that goes to sea. The neglect ot! In order to show the practicability of the plan, the safety apparatus included, will not exceed the this practice must have arisen from the general I have built a boat, which nearly answers to the cost of wooden ones, more than fifty per cent.unfitness of such boats for common use. To re-above description. It is seventeen feet eight Even at this rate, and considering them only in move this obstacle, I have constructed a life-boat inches long, six feet wide, three feet deep, draws 'the light of common boats, they will be the of a different description, which I beg leave to fourteen inches water, and weighs twenty-eight cheapest in the long run. But as the facility of submit to the judgment of the public. I believe hundred, two quarters, and twenty pounds. The making them will increase by practice, and by it will be found to possess all the essential pro-experienced seaman, on inspection of this boat, the invention of Machinery, I should not be surperties of a life-hoat, and to be capable, at the will, no doubt, be able to discover many defects prised to see them sold much lower than wood same time, of answering the common purposes in its shape-but I beg him not to let this circum- ones, before the lapse of many years. of a ship's boat.
stance prejudice his mind against iron life-boats Any gentleman desirous of trying my boat, may Should the adoption of this boat, be the ineans in general. The one to which I refer was built put it to what proof he thinks proper, on appliof lessening the number of victims who annually in a great measure from written descriptions, and cation to Mr. Parry, boatman, who has the care fall a prey to the devouring waves, and of abridg- by a workman who never resided in a sea port of it, at the George's Dock, ferry basin. A moing thereby the sum of human misery, I shall town. Objections of this nature may, therefore, del, shewing clearly the principle on which it acts, not consider the time I have devoted to the sub- be expected, but will be easily obviated in any I beg permission to lodge for inspection at the ofjact as spent in vain.
future attempt. To meet those that may be adfice of the Mercury newspaper. And any further The description of the life boat which I recom-vanced by interested persons against the materi- information on the subject that is desired, I shall mend, is as follows;- It is made of wrought iron al of which my life-boat is made, I request a be happy to communicate as far as lies in my plates, and furnished with a number of air-tight candid consideration of the following reasons in power. cavities, the buoyancy of which renders it im- favour of the use of Iron, in the construction of
I am, Sir, possible that it should sink. The plates are ri- boats of every description :
Your obedient servant, vetted together, somewhat in the manner of 1.-Strength and Tightness. With iron, a
THOMAS JEVONS. steam-engine boilers, but so as to presen: no ob- boat can be built of any strength that may be re Liverpool, September, 1822. struction to the passage of the boat through the quired. The tenacity of the material is so great, water. Some of the cavities are formed in the and the joints that can be made with it are so spaces underneath the seats, and two others are perfect, that boilers of considerable magnitude
TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. formed at the stem and stern of the boat. The are in daily use, bearing a pressure of steam principal use of these particular cavities is to within, equal to one hundred pounds upon every
WOOL-Farmers invited to report the quantity prevent the boat upsetting, which they will do, square inch of their surface; and they are com
annually obtained per head from their pocks. even should the gunnel or side of the boat be for- monly first proved with a pressure of four hun
White Post, Frederick County, Va.? oed considerably under water. Another and dred pounds to the square inch.* If an iron boi
20th January, 1823. 3 much larger buoyant space is formed between
DEAR SIR, the bottom of the boat and false bottom or floor * The bursting point of high pressure boilers is More than a twelve month past an invitation on which the feet of the passengers rest : this from one thousand to one thousand two hundred was given to the growers of wool, through the foor is fixed a little higher than the level of the pounds upon the square inch.
medium of your useful pages, to furnish informa