Imágenes de páginas

5 1-4 nearly.

7 nearly. lb. oz. 7

tion in the form of annual reports, that the far. I lington, long-woolled sheep. I was indebted to the pail—if the distance of 18 years has not mers might compare the value of the different Mr. George W.P. Custis, for the origin of a re- changed my recollection of them, I can safely breeds of sheep, and trace their improvement markable ram, of that breed, which I raised in recommend an insportation of some of their cows,

R. K. MEADE. from year to year. It was hoped that the adop- the year 1807 or 8, the premium ram of that petion of some such plan would bring together in- riod, in this county. This cross, although I beformation on the subject, from various quarters, lieve it is deprecated in England, I shall continue,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. productive of considerable advantages; not mere- by selecting Rams of the longest, closest, finest ly to the breeders of sheep, by suggesting inter- wool, so long as the fibre increases in length,

A NEW METHOD OF PRESERVING mixtures, &c. &c., but to the country at large, without diminishing too much its fineness and

VINES FROM BUGS. by favouring the improvement of our different closeness. As far as I have gone, which is about manufactures of wool. The invitation, as yet, ap- the third cross, I find the wool to have exchang. Bedford, West Chester Cy. N. Y. Jan. 31, 1823. pears to have been neglected : will it be too offici- ed its merino softness, for a silky quality less adapt. Having lately received from your agent at New ous, again to urge the importance of the mea- ed, to be sure, for broad cloth, but much more use

York, Mr. Coleman, the three volumes of your sure, and set the example by way of com

mence- ful for our country purposes, and yielding nearly American Farmer, I observe in one of them, a rement? We plain fariners are too often under an double the quantity of the merino, when both impression, that it is necessary to write in a hand- have been completely cleaned of the dirt, and quest from you, to be furnished with good melon some style and technical manner, to make the prepared for the cards. This difference is ex- The useful information I have received from your offering acceptable. But, waving such scruples, plained by the half blood having a greater sur work, has laid me under no small obligation to I will now mention the result of my last shearing, face, than the merino, double the length of wool, which took place in June 1822. The average, and an increased thickness, as they partake of the you, and I shall feel happy, in rendering you any

assistance in your

laudable endeavours to procure as per certificate, which I hold, is nearly 7 lbs. merino, which possesses this quality, in a remark

and disseminate valuable seeds. per head ; that of the previous year was about able degree.

I enclose a few Musk melon seeds, of a kind 8 lbs. This apparent falling off, of a pound in

I am respectfully,

much superior to any I have ever met with. We the fleece, is to be accounted for in my having

Yours, &c. &c.

received the seeds by the name of Persian melon. parted with 20 of my best sheep, in March last,

R. K. MEADE. to one of your butchers, which left me but few * We shall be glad to obtain and record such however, rather late in ripening. We have rais

Its size is large, and its flavour delicious. It is, wethers and a large proportion of ewes, with details: as every report of facts serves to give led this kind for the last eight or ten years, and lambs by their side, in my Aock. These cir- knowledge to our readers, which enables them always on the same spot, without discovering the cumstances taken into consideration, I am satisfi- to institute comparisons, that must tend to their ed that there has been a considerable improvement advantage. The weight of carcase, the pro- contrivance on the recommendation of another,)

slightest depreciation. We last year adopted a in my flock, since the shearing of 1821. The portions of its different parts, and the period of

which I regard as of very great importance in number shorn in June last, was as follows: maturity, are items too important, to be over the cultivation of melons. As soon as the young looked in any estimate of the value of different

plants appeared, we put over them a box conbreeds of sheep. Indeed it would difficult to err by multiplying comparative points of observa- nailed together, one foot long, and about eight

sisting of four pieces of shingles, or thin boards, tion.-Ed. Am. Farmer.

inches broad-over the top of this box is stretch

ed, a thin piece of worn out muslin, or millinet, and White Post, Frederick County, Va.

the edges fastened with tacks to the side of the January 20, 1823.

box. This cover, while it admits the air and NAPLES CATTLE_AN EXCELLENT BREED. light, protects the plants effectually from bugs DEAR SIR,

and flies, and shields them from cold winds and Permit me to add my testimony to that of frosts. The difference in the growth of the Capt. Jacob Jones, in favour of the Naples cattle. plants thus covered, and those which were left Having spent two or three weeks there in Dec. unprotected, was almost incredible, and I observ1804, I had frequent opportunities of seeing their ed that while the latter were parched with the cows and work oxen, although I do not remem- drought, the soil round the others was constantly ber to have seen a bull. Previously having been a moist, and their leaves in the morning were loadfarmer, and accustomed to see fine cattle here, ed with dew. and in the New England States, my attention was Should you desire it, I can furnish you with naturally drawn to a comparison between foreign Onion seed of a very superior quality,large flat, stock, and our own. I have always mentioned the white onion-a kind we have raised in our garden Naples to my friends as the finest cattle that I had for more than twenty years; and although for ever seen. My impression has always been that nearly the whole of that time planted every year they were of a light dun colour, * but I must pre- in the same beds, we have never found it necessary sume I am mistaken, since Capt. Jones has so re- to change our seed. As I find it more convenient cently viewed them.

Their oxen were large to receive your volume at the end of the year, enough when fat to weigh from 1000 to 1200-ap- than in weekly numbers, should you wish for this, peared to be animals of great frame, and had un- or any other seed in my power to furnish, an inticommonly large horns; they were worked in large mation to that effect by mail will be necessary.

sized horse carts, single, and hauled a burthen I With the best wishes that your work may be -unwashed, but the tags excluded. Having believe often exceeding a ton, with case-they not less advantageous to yourself, than it is useful sheared my sheep at some distance from the were very docile. With respect to their peculiar to the public, I have the honour to be Sir, house, I have not been so particular as I could form, I am not aware of any positive recollection,

Your obd't servant, have wished in selecting sainples, and ascertain being chiefly attracted by their commanding aping the relative weight of carcase to the wool-pearance, and the great loads they moved. The John S. SKINNER Esq. and I am unwilling at this time to hazard an form of their cows I well remember--clean made, opinion on that head-but if you think such me square built, and bulky, with sufficient frames to From the writer of the above, we should be morandums would be useful, I will endeavour, at weigh six, seven, and probably eight hundred, happy to hear frequently-and we take this occathe next shearing, to be more attentive to facts when fat-they were beautiful, looked well adapt- sion to explain as to seeds of vegetables, melons, that relate thereto.* I have been induced to ed to the butcher, and in a superior degree to vines, flowers, grains, &c., that when they can adopt a cross of the long wool, on the Merino,

be recommended as of a quality in any degree with a view to a greater quantity of wool, better * The Bull and Cow, imported by Com. Stew-superior to what is in common use, of the same adapted to domestic purposes, anticipating also art, when he returned from his command in the kind; we shall always esteem it a favour to be a restoration of such mutton, as we formerly had Mediterranean, were, as we have understood, of supplied with small portionstogether with an from our improved English breeds : in which ex- a dark cream colour; we should be glad to know explanation of the particulars wherein that supepectation I have not been disappointed, having into what hands his cattle, which we know he riority consists, and some brief directions as to already obtained a cross of large size, affording highly prized, have fallen, and what is the pro- cultivation, uses, &c., and we reiterate this l'eexcellent mutton, and carrying a heavy fleece ; nise of the progeny of his bull, which ought now quest, not for any use that we ourselves can much superior in quality to those of my former to be numerous, in the neighbourhood of Bur- make of them, for we have found that we have no Bakewet race, or more strictly speaking, ar- lington.-Edit

. Am. Færmer.

leisure for practical experiments. It is quite as

average 7 nearly.



*} weighing 45} average 9 1-8 nearly.



total 2703





Kam long wool
Wethers, do
Long wool Ewes7

the Bakewell
cross on the

Merino Ewe.

much as one head and one pair of hands can do, fto have many of the habits and customs of civili-suceeding; on relating this circumstance when I to superintend the business of a large Post Office, zed life—for instance, their living in well built returned on board the ship, Dr. -, who had and at leisure times to keep up a course of reading cabins, cultivating the soil, rearing cattle, and been a resident some time on the coast, informed and do the writing necessary to conduct a journal horses, &c. &c. On visiting the Conchetta tribe, me, I might thank my stars I did not succeed in which has for its object, to improve the science, residing on the waters of the Trinity, I was much grappling one; that they possessed a poisonous and practice of a pursuit in which the whole na- astonished to observe some customs among them, quality, by inflicting a wound with the tail, which tion inay be said to be engaged.-When seed such which appear to me to be of a religious origin. produced almost instantaneous death, but with as we have mentioned are received, they are sent The green corn dance; or, feast of the first fruits, the most excruciating pain. He had been witagain in all directions.

They move, as by cen-appear very similar to some of the laws and re-ness of its effects* but a short time previous, in tripetal and centrifugal motion, from, and to every gulations resembling the Jews—and the respect the person of a young stranger; the wound was point of the compass, and thus are the good with which the custom is venerated, and the te-inflicted in the palm of the hand, which appearthings of Horticulture and Agriculture widely nacity with which they adhere to all the minutix ed to affect the system similar to the bite of the and equally diffused.

of its forms, will be proven by the following Rattle snake, but was more rapid and certain in

occurrence :After traversing for some days its progress. It is of the species called stinging TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER, through a region destitute of inhabitants, either Bat, vulgarly called the "Sting-a-Ree'- I did

Montague, Dec. 10, 1822. aborigines or emigrants, I arrived at an Indian not put full faith in the Doctor's statement, until VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL PRODUC- habitation, and with great pleasure, observed a lit was confirmed by indisputable authority, and TIONS OF TEXAS.

field of coin adjoining the hut, which appeared then, rest assured, I felt very grateful for my esDear Sir, -Having perused with considera- to be just in perfection for eating. After the cape. Their appearance in water is similar, at a ble interest, a few numbers of your valuable usual introduction of shaking hands, and a few little distance (as before stated) to the Turtle. paper, it induces me to send you some observa. enquiries relative to my further rout, I made ap- On a nearer view, the head and its posteriors retions made during an excursion to the Southward, plication for the purchase of some new corn, sembles the Bat with extended wings. On move last summer. Parts of the months of May, although I observed the squaws preparing a dish ing through the water, they wave the sides of June and July, I was exploring the Province of of fish and beans to set before me, yet being a their apparent shells, which propels them through Texas, where I observed a variety of new (to me) great lover of young corn, and it so great a rarity, the water, together with the aid of three feet; vegetable productions; and many others, with 1 persevered in my application, and which ap- the tails appear to be about one third of the length which I was acquainted-but, the luxuriant pieared to produce some weighty consultation. of the body, near the root of which, project the difference of their growth, owing to the more Not before having any difficulty in conveying my stings resembling cock spurs, and very brittle ; congenial temperature of the Texas atmosphere, 'ideas, which were all by signs, I concluded they decreasing in length to the termination of the tail. produced so astonishing a change, as afforded were either very stupid, or were determined not When the wound is inflicted the sting breaks off, me almost as much gratification as the discovery to understand me-but to place the matter beyond leaving the broken part in the wound. This lata of a new species. I particularly remarked the being misunderstood, I tore an ear from its stalk ter account is on the authority of others. prickly pear, which grows abundantly, border- and laid down some silver, and desired six ears

Yeur's respectfully, ing the coast of the Gulph, and around the for it. A boy, after some hesitation, was des

J. C. L. bay of St. Bernards. One stalk I measured, was patched for them. I directly placed one by their four and a half feet in height; a staunch trunk, fire to roast, which was immediately opposed by It is more probable that the effect was that apparently formed of the leaves, but grown the whole family, with some warmth. It then of lockjaw, which is often produced by slight thick and strong in the requisite proportion, to struck me, there was some superstitious reason punctures of the sinews, in the palm of the hand. sopport the new productions that projected from for opposing it. I desisted, but taking some fire

Edit. Am. Far. around it in great numbers; some of which, were with me for the purpose of forming one near the quite 12 inches, on the middle leaves or branch - door, (where there was abundance of fuel,) but in

Milledgeville, January 1, 1823. es. Blossoms were putting forth, one of which that I was again disappointed the same objec

TO KILL VERMIN. appeared to have arrived at maturity, measured tion was raised as before. I was then handed

MR. SKINNER, about 4 inches in length. A Mr. Vance, with some spunk, steel and fint, to strike fire for my- Some one of your correspondents some time whom I conversed, and who had spent the last self-the day then was fast declining, and wish- since enquired how the vermin were to be desix or eight years in the different provinces of ing to reach the village six miles further, I de-stroyed, or in other words, were to be prevented Mexico, informed me that in Province, clined their offer, and after partaking of their from destroying our poultry. It saved me the (where he contemplated spending the remainder beans and making some presents to the boys, I trouble of making the enquiry, and I have since of his life,) it arrived to much greater perfection departed, and reached the town previous to sun tried every method recommended without sucthan in Texas-so much so, that he intended try-down; where we were kindly received. I was cess. ing the experiment of enclosing his fields with it pleased to find one of the natives, who spoke a I have just been informed by a very notable by digging a small trench, and setting the largest little bad English. The king, and a number of housewife, who I have long known as a very and most Aourishing leaves with their edges in others assembled on seeing us arrive, and we successful raiser of poultry, that an effectual and contact with each other. He felt satisfied, that were solicited to partake of whatever they had- indeed the only effectual remedy is to burn your in less than three years, it would form a barrier but determining not to burden them, as their hen house. impregnable to either man or beast ; and from provision was scarce, ! directed my comrade to This method may seem extraordinary, and methe growths I saw, I have full faith in the cor- prepare supper; and the corn which had been thinks I see some of your readers throwing by rectness of his theory.

brought on, was accordingly produced for the your paper in a pet, but I must ask their patience Bordering the streams, I observed a great vari-purpose of cooking- observed it produced the a moment until I state the manner. ety of grapes. One species, on the last of May, same agitation and excitement, as at the place 1st. In a wet season, spread the floor of your e about the size of the Madeira grape, al- where we procured it. After some private talk hen house with dry straw as much as two inches though it was quite a month previous to their among theinselves, the one who spoke English, deep, then take from your nests the straw or ripening-consequently, I could form no opinion came forward with a request from the king, that other materials of which they are made, and place of their quality . I am satisfied they do not par- the corn would not be eaten in their village them on the straw in the middle of the house, set take of the Fox species, the vine and leaf being then; that it was an established custom among fire to it, to guard against accident, have a carequite different. Another production of the coun- them, (and deemed almost sacrilegious to act ful hand or two by, with vessels of water, ready try, which I much admired, was the running otherwise) --not to eat their new corn, until the to extinguish any fire which may catch to the rose. (I believe it is also a native of Louisiana.) “ CORN DANCE” was over-the third ensuing house. It blooms early in the season, producing a blos- day it was to take place, and would continue two, 2d. Two hands are next to be provided, one som very similar to the Burgundy rose; but its three, or four days, according to the determina- with a vessel of water, and the other with a suprunning is the most astonishing quality relative to tion of the heads of the tribe, when assembled. ply of dry straw, of which he is to fire a hand. it. One stalk I saw, was quite 30 feet in length. Contemplating to remain two days among them ful at a time, and use it as good housewives do Many of the inhabitants of Louisiana have them to rest our horses, we thought it best policy to a kettle of boiling water, when they wish to get planted at one corner of their dwelling, and by comply with their request.

clear of certain other little animals, that somebeing careful to nail them up as their length in On a water excursion in the Bay of St. Bernard, times are troublesome to beds, and bed rooms, creases, they will in time have a living wreath I saw several singular animals, somewhat resem- viz : to search with the fame, every crack or around their residence; which, when in bloom, bling the fresh water soft shell Turties, from 12 cranny, which by any possibility might serve to forms a most beautiful appearance.

to 30 inches diameter.-being ignorant of their shelter the vermin. The use of the water is of In my excursions through the country, I visited dangerous qualities, I attempted to seize several course, to prevent any accidents arising from the several tribes of Indians. Some of them appear by the tails, and was some tiine within an inch of use of the burning straw; this operation is to be

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very particularly performed, and no part of the cember last, and the first day of April next-who may receive any of this seed, with a view to house is to escape, and it well done at first, and satisfactory evidence will be given, and required, make trial of it, to give us, from time to time an your house is once effectually rid of them, the of the age of the hog, when killed, and its account of their progress. business need be repeated only twice a year, weight when cleaned. The money to be placed CULTIVATION OF COTTON AT THE MAURITIUS. once in the spring, and once in the fall. in the hands of John S. Skinner, on or before

It is planted here in the months of November 3d. Should your poultry be infected with the the 20th day of February next, with whom the and December, (our spring, and the trees last vermin, when they come out with their young, preliminaries may be adjusted, and by whom the three or four years ; after the first year they are fasten round their necks, a woollen string anoint- bet shall be decided.

cut off nearly even with the earth, and they shoot ed with mercurial ointment; it should be drawn

up again to nearly their usual height, when it is tolerable tight, and placed near the body, or they

necessary to turn off their tops, and keep them will scratch it off.

at the height of about four feet and a half. They Respectfully, Your obedient servant,

A report of the Tobacco Inspected at and de- are planted in rich ground at 7 and 8 feet distance, JOHN A. JONES.

one from the other; and in poor ground, at about livered from Piscattaway Inspection Warehouse, N. B. The woollen string should be fastened during the quarter commencing on the first day 5 feet distance, only two plants are left in the round the neck as soon as possible, after they

of November, eighteen hundred and twenty- same hole, and the seeds are planted about one are hatched, lest they become infected, before two, ending the sixth day of January, eighteen Jinch under ground ; it is necessary to keep the hundred and twenty-three.

field very clean, and clear of weeds, and let the you have relieved the old one.

cotton be perfectly dry before it is collected: the Growth Domes

plants ought to be hoed, and their roots, well

PATTERSON, N. J. February 5, 1823.

not of

covered when young. After the cotton is coltic



lected, it is passed through a mill, and cleaned growth.


state. We are reputably informed, that Mr. John

by means of cylinders, after which it is picked by Flood, of this town, recently purchased four of

hand, and freed of all dirt, and impurities, then

hhds. the ten pigs, which, with the sow, obtained the Number in

sent to the press to be embaled. 47


48 premium in Sussex County the past season.spected.

0 The weight of the four above mentioned, are sta


Flour, best white wheat, $7 25-Howard st. 315

Number de-

174 Superfine, $6 87}-Wharf, do. 6 121-Wheat,

white, $1 35 to 1 40—Red do., $1 30 to 1 32— 413

Rye, 71 to 75 cents—Corn, 58 to 60 cts.369


Oats, 35 to 37cents, Beef, live cattle, $5 1439 lbs.

TREASURY OFFICE, ANNAPOLIS, FEBRUARY to $550 per cwt.-Beef, 8 cents per lb. Age 14 months. 3d, 1823.

-Bacon, round, 10 to 11 cts.-Pork $4 50 One of the ten having been hurt when young,

?rue copy from the original report on file in to 5 50 per c lb. 6 to 8 cts. per lb.-Mutton, 5

to 6 cts. per lb.-Beans, $1 37} to 1 50—Peas, was killed, and weighed only about two hundred this office.

B. HARWOOD, Tr. W. S. Md.

black eyed, 55 to 60 cts.-Red Clover Seed, $8weight, the remaining nine (one of which weighed

Orchard Grass do. $3—Herds' Grass do. $3_ 469 lbs.) with the sow, are said to have weighed between 37 and 38 hundred weight-altogether,

Timothy do. $5—Millet, $2—Flax Seed, 75 to 80 this whole family of eleven, exceed two tons in

Kingston, Tennessee, 14th Jan. 1823. cts.—Whiskey, from the wagons, 32 to 34 cts. John S. SKINNER, Esq.

per gal.-Apple brandy, 30 to 32 cts.-Peach do., weight. We have not the name of the gentleman who

Sir_In the Farmer of the 27th December, 65 to 70 cts.-Shad, none in market-Herrings, received the premium in Sussex, but we wish last, I see an account of a machine to cut the fur No. 1, $3 62} per bbl.–No. 2, $3 371–Fine him success in his enterprize.-Chronicle.

off of skins, without injuring the hide, I wish salt 80 to 90 cts. per bush.—Coarse, do. 75– much to hear more about it ; its cost, for one thing, Butter, 20 to 25 per lb.-Eggs, 25 cts. per doz. and if it is getting in general use.

An answer -Turkeys, 75 cts. to $1_Geese, 37} to 50 cts, WILD-GARLIC-CAN IT BE ADVANTAGEOUSLY to this from its inventor, will much oblige Chickens, $2 per doz.-Straw, $10 per tonCULTIVATED?

SAMUEL MARTIN. Hay, $16 to 17.
Adams County, Pa. January 6, 1823.

MARYLAND TOBACCO-Five hhds, of the new J. S. SKINNER, Esq.


crop has been to market–4 hhds. from Mr. John Sir-I have observed in No. 41, of this Vol.

Mercer, sold for $12 25 cts.--2 hhds. second your liberality in making inquiry respecting the

2 hhds. from Frederick $18. best method of Cultivating the Crab Grass ; BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 14, 1823. which has encouraged me to make a similar re


AGENTS FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER. quest-one, that in my opinion, is of no less im

We are happy to have it in our power to state,

or Complete sets of the first, second and third portance.

I have been told that the Wild Garlic, has ma- that Jas. A. Buchanan, Esq.of this city, has import- vols. of the." AMERICAN FARMER,” new and corny valuable qualities, which make the cultivation cd, through the medium of our worthy Consul rected Editions, can be had of the following perof it very desirable for early pasture, and to af- at the Isle of France, Martin Bickham, Esq. a sons; price of which, bound, $5 per vol. or $4

in Sheets :ford a richness or high favour to milk and butter, bag of cotton seed, specially picked and preparthat cannot be obtained from any other plant. ied for the purpose, by a planter of high stand- M. CAREY & SONS and E. LITTELL, Phia

ladelphia. have not seen any of this valuable plant cultiva-ing, in that colony, who has kindly furnished ted, either in drill or broad cast-therefore

some interesting remarks upon the most appro- W. A. COLMAN, New-York.

any information respecting its cultivation, would be ved plan of cultivating it. We understand this WELLS & LILLEY, Boston. thankfully received from your numerous corres

seed is deposited at the store of the Warren WM. F. GRAY, Fredericksburg. pondents.

Factory, No. 3, Hanover-strect, where all PETER COTTOM, Richmond, Va.
Your's Respectfully,

applications either by letter or otherwise, for RICHARD COTTOM, Petersburg.

small quantities, will be gratuitously attended to E. THAYER, Charleston, S.C.
whilst it lasts. We bope the distribution of this JOSEPH GALES, Raleigh, N. C.

truly valuable seed, will be judiciously made by W. F. REDDING, special agent, now journey. NEW JERSEY AGAINST THE GREAT Mr. Buchanan, for it well known, that the ing through the Southern States. RIVAL STATES OF NEW-YORK AND cotton of the Isle of France is superior to any in

The fourth volume, now publishing, can be VIRGINIA.

the world, with the exception of our very best forwarded to any part of the United States, on Bridgetown, January 13th, 1823. long staple Sea Islands. It behoves our most ac- application being made, by letter or otherwise, to A Jerseyman offers to bet that he will kill a tive planters to follow up this attempt to intro

J. S. SKINNER, Baltimore. hog, on or beiore the 12th day of Marin nex, the duce a new description of cotton into our country, age whereof will then be 1 year alid 9 months, and we entertain the most sanguine hopes, that Printed every Friday at 8 per annum, for JOAN S. SKINNER. Edi which will weigh nor than any hog of the same the issue of these exertions may realize the ex

tor, by JOSEPH ROBINSON, at the North West corner of Market

and Belvidere stretty, Baltimore; wherr every discription of Pook age, killed in cather of the States of New York, pectations of the gentleman with whom they ori

and Joh Printing is executed with neness and despatch-Orders or Virginia, any time between the 1st day of De- ginated. We shall of course expect all those

from a distance for Printing or Binding, with proper directives promptly attended te, addressed to J. Robinson, Baltimore,



No. 18. – VOL. +. AMERICAN FARMER.–Baltimore, 21st February, 1823.
THE AMERICAN GARDENER. formed with a sharp knife, so that there may be|merous movements of the arms, hands, and

nothing ragged or bruised about either wood or fingers, and is no more to be taught by written diCHAPTER IV.

bark. The time for taking off cuttings is that of rections than the making of a chest of drawers is. Vegetables and Herbs.

the breaking up of the frost. They should be To read a full and minute account of the aci, 271. TURNIP.-It is useless to attempt to planted in a shady place, and watered with rain of budding and grafting would require ten times raise them by sowing in the spring; they are water, in dry weather, until they have got shoots the space of time that it requires to go to a neighnever good till the fall.—The sorts of Turnips several inches long. When they have such bour's and learn, from a sight of the operations are numerous, but, for a garden, it is quite suffi- shoots they have roots, and when they have these, that which, after all, no written directions would cient to notice three; the early white, the flat no more watering is necessary. Besides these ever teach. To bud and graft, in all the various yellow, and the Swedish, or Rutabaga, which occasional waterings, the ground should, espeo modes, form a much nicer and more complicated last is a very different plant indeed from the cially in hot countries, be covered with leaves of operation than that of making a shoe ; and I defy other two.—The two former sorts should be sown trees, or muck, or something that will keep the any human being to describe adequately all the about the end of July, in rows (in a garden) two ground cool during the hot and dry weather. several acts in the making of a shoe, in less than feet apart, and thinned out to a foot distance in 277. SLIPS differ from cuttings in this, that two volumes each larger than this. The season the rows.' Good and deep hoeing and one digging the former are not cut, but pulled, from the tree. for taking off the cuttings for grafts, is any time should take place during their growth; for, a large You take a shoot of the last year, and pull it betwen Christmas and March. Any time after turnip of the same age is better, weight for weight, downwards, and thus slip it off. You trim the the sap is completely in a quiescent state and bethan a small one, just as the largest apples, or ragged back off; then shorten the shoot so that it (fore it be again in motion. When cut off they peaches, growing upon the same tiee, are better have six joints left; and then plant it and manage will keep several months. I cut some here in than the small ones growing on it the same year.- it in the same manner as directed for cuttings. January last (1819). They reached England in The Swedish turnip, so generally preferred for The season for the work is also the same. March; and, I hear that they were growing well table use here, and so seldom used for the table 278. LAYERS.-You take a limb, or branch in June. A great deal has been said about the in England, ought to be sown early in June, in of a tree, in the fall, or early in the Spring, and season for grafting, and Mr. Marshall tells rows at a foot apart and thinned to three inches pull it down in such a way as to cause its top, or the English, that it must not be done till the sap in the rows. about the middle of July they small shoots and twigs to lie upon the ground. in the stock is just ready to flow freely. He had ought to be transplanted upon ridges three feet Then fasten the limb down by a peg or two, so never seen an American Negro-man sitting by a apart (in a garden), and during their growth, that its own force will not raise it up. Then hot six-plated stove, grafting apple-trees, in the ought to be kept clean, and to be dug between prune off all the small branches and shoots that month of January, and then putting them away in twice at least, as deep as a good spade can be stick upright; and, having a parcel of shoots his cave, to be brought out and planted in April! made to go.-As to the preserving of turnips lying horizontally, lay earth upon the whole, all I have seen this ; and my opinion is, that the during the winter, follow precisely the directions along upon the limb from the point where it work may be done at any time between October given for the preserving of Beets, See Beet.- begins to touch the ground, and also upon all and May; nay, I am not sure, that it may not be But the Swedish Turnip is of further use as pro- the bottoms of all the shoots. Then cut the shoots done all the summer long. The cuttings, too, ducing most excellent greens in the spring, and off at the points, leaving only two or three joints may be taken off, and put on directly; and the at a very early season. To draw this benefit or buds beyond the earth. The earth laid on, sooner the better ; but, in the winter months, they from them the best way is, to leave a row or two should be good, and the ground should be fresh- will keep good off the tree for several months. in the ground, and when the winter is about to digged and made very fine and smooth before the 282. STOCKS must be of different ages and set in, cover them all over with straw or cedar branches be laid upon it. The earth, laid on, sizes in different cases; and even the propagaboughs. Take these off when the winter breaks should be from six inches to a foot t ck. If the ition of the stocks themselves is not to be overup, and you will have very early and most ex- limb, or mother branch, be very stubborn, a little looked. Stocks are formed out of suckers, or cellent greens; and when you have done with cut on the lower side of it will make it the more raised from the seed; and the latter is by far the greens, the Turnips are very good to eat. easy to be held down. The ground should be the best; for suckers produce suckers, and do

272. WORMWOOD is a herb purely medi- kept clean from weeds, and as cool as possible in not grow to a handsome stem, or trunk. Crabs cinal. It may be propagated from seed, from hot weather. Perhaps rocks or stones (not large) are generally the stocks for Apple-grafts, and slips, or from offsets. kought not to occupy a are the best and coolest covering. These layers Plums for Pears, Peaches, Nectarines, an') Iprispace of more an a foot square. It must be will be ready to take up and plant out as trees af- cots. However, we shall speak of the sorts of dried and put by n bags for winter use. ter they have been laid a year.

Stocks, suitable to each sort of fruit-tree by and 279.' SUCKERS are, in general, but poor by : at present we have to speak of the raising of CHAPTER V.

things, whether in the forest, or in the fruit gar- Stocke. If the stocks be to be of crabs or apples,

den. They are shoots that come up from the the seeds of these should be collected in the fall Propagation, Planting, Cultivation. roots, at a distance from the stem of the tree, or, when the fruit is ripe. They are generally got

at least, they do not come out of that stem. out by mashing the crabs or apples. When the PROPAGATION.

They run to wood and to suckers more than trees seeds are collected, put them immediately into 273. All the fruits to be treated of here, ex- do that are raised in any other way. Fruit trees fine earth ; or sow them at once. It may not, rept the Strurberry, are the produce of trees, raised from suckers do not bear so abundantly, however, be convenient to sow them at once: and or' of woody plants. All these may be propa. and such good fruit, as trees raised from cuttings, perhaps, the best way is to sow very early in the gated from seed, and some are so propagated. But slips or layers. A sucker is, in fact, a little tree spring. If the Stocks be to be of stone fruit, the others are usually propagated by cuttings, slips, with more or less of root to it, and is, of course, stones, as of cherries, plums peaches and others, layers, or suckers; or by budding or grafting to be treated as a tree.

must be got when the fruit is ripe. The best way

280. BUDDING:-To have fruit trees by this is to put them into fine earth, and keep thein 274. The methods of propagation, best suited metkod, or by that of grafting, you must first have there till spring. The earth may be placed in a to each kind, will be mentioned under the name stocks ; that is to say, a young tree to bud or cellar; or put into a barrel ; or a little pit may be of the kinds respectively; and therefore, in this graft upon. What are the sorts of stocks proper made in the ground, and it may be placed there. place I am to describe the several methods ge- for the sorts of fruit-trees respectively will be When the winter breaks up, dig a piece of ground perally, and the management suited to each. mentioned under the names of the latter. The deep and make it rich; make it very fine; form

275." When the propagation is from seed, the stock is a young tree of some sort or other, and it into beds, three feet wide; draw drills across it so ing should be in good ground, finely broken, the bud is put into the bark on the side of this at 8 inches distance; make them from two to three and the seed should by no means be sown too young tree during the summer; and not before inches deep; put in the seeds pretty thick (for thick. How to save and preserve the seed will ihe bud be full and plump: The work may ge- they cost little); cover them completely; tread be spoken of under the names of the several nerally be done all through the months of July the earth down upon them; and then smooth the trees. But the seed being good, it should be well and August, and, perhaps, later.

surface. When the plants come up, thin them sown, well covered, and carefully preserved from 281. GRAFTING is the joining of a cutting to about three inches apart; and keep the ground inice and other vermin.

of one to another tree in such a way as that the between them perfectly clean during the summer. 276. CUTTINGS are short pieces, cut in the tree, on which the cutting is placed, sends up its Hoe frequently; but not deep near the plants ; spring, from shoots of the last year, and it is, in sap into the cutting, and makes it grow and be for, we are speaking of trees here, and trees do most cases, best, if they have a joint or two of the come a tree. Now, as to the way, in which this, not renew their roots quickly as a cabbage, or a former year's wood at the bottom of them. The and the way in which budding, is done, they can- turnip does. These young trees should be kept cutting should have altogether, about six joints, not, upon any principle consistent with coinmon during the first summer, as moist as possible, withor buds; and three of these should be under sense, become matter of written description.fout watering ; and the way to keep them as moist ground when planted. The cuts should be per- Each is a mechanical operation, embracing nu. as possible is to keep the ground perfectly clean


pon stocks.

and to hoe it frequently. I cannot help observ- that they had become almost wholly extinct. At have all been described in Chapter 1, Paraing here upon an observation of Mr. MARSHALL : Busleton there had been as great a mortality as graph 20, save and except, that, for trees, the as to “weeding,” says he, “ though seedling in any other part. Yet I, that year, saw the ground should be prepared as directed for Asfla

trees must not be smothered, yet some small Nectarine tree large, sound in every part, fine ragus, which see in its Alphabetical place, in weeds may be suffered to grow in summer, as and flourishing. It is very well known, that the Chapter IV.

they help to shade the plants and to keep the peach trees here are very short-lived. Six, seven 284. Before the reader proceed further, he

ground cool.Mercy on this Gentleman's or eight years, seem to be the duration of their life. should read very attentively what is said of transreaders! Mr. Marshall had not read Tull; if This lecturine had stood seventeen years, and was planting generally, in Chapter III, paragraph he had, he never would have written this very likely to stand twice as long yet to come. It is 109 and onwards. He will there perceive the erroneous sentence. It is the root of the weed now growing in the garden of the late Mr. James absolute necessity of the ground, to be planted that does the mischief. Let there be a rod of Paul, in Lower Dublin Township; and there any in, being made perfectly fine, and that no clods, ground well set with even small weeds,and one may see it –It is clear to me, therefore, that great or small, ought to be tumbled in about the another rod kept weeded. Let them adjoin each the short life of the peach-orchards is owing to the roots. This is so capital a point, that I must other. Go, after 15 or 20 days of dry weather ; stock being peach. No small part of the peach- request the reader to pay particular attention to examine the two; and you will find the weedless trees are raised from the stone. Nothing is more it. To remove a tree, though young, is an operaground moist and fresh, while the other is as dry frequent than to see a farmer, or his wife, when tion that puts the vegetative faculties to a severe as dust to a foot deep. The root of the weed sucks he or she has eaten a good peach, to go and test ; and, therefore, every thing should be done up every particle of moisture. What pretty make a little hole and put the stone in the ground, to render the shock as little injurious as possible. things they are, then, to keep seedling trees in order to have a peach tree of the same sort! 285. The tree to be planted should be as young cool?_To proceed: these seedlings if well ma- Not considering, that the stone never, except by as circumstances will allow. The season is just naged, will be eight inches high, and some high- mere accident, produces fruit of the same quality when the leaves become yellow, or, as early as er, at the end of the first summer. The next as that within which it was contained, any more possible in the spring. The ground being prespring they should be taken up; or this may be than the seed of a carnation produces flowers like pared, and the tree taken up, prune the roots done in the fall. They should be planted in rows, those from which they proceded. The peaches with a sharp knife so as to leave none more than four feet apart, to give room to turn about amongst in America are, when budded, put on peach- about a foot long; and, if any have been torn them; and at two feet apart in the rowe. if intend-stocks ; and this, I think, is the cause of their off nearer to the stem, prune the part, so that ed to be grafted or budded without being again swift decay. They should be put on plum-stocks ; no bruizes or ragged parts remain. Cut off all the removed. If intended to be again removed, be- for, to what other cause are we to ascribe the fibres close to the roots; for, they never live, fore grafting or budding, they may be put at a foot long life and vigorous state of the Nectarine at and they mould, and do great injury. If cut apart. They should be kept clean by hoeing be. Mr. Paul's? The plum is a closer and harder off, their place is supplied by other fibres more tween them, and the ground between them should wood than the peach. The peach-trees are de- quickly. Dig the hole to plant in three times be dug in the fall, but not at any other season of stroyed by a worm, or, rather, a sort of maggot, as wide, and six inches deeper, than the roots the year.–The plants will grow fast or slowly that eats into the bark at the stem. The insects actually need as mere room. And now, besides according to the soil and management; and he do not like the plum bark; and, besides, the the fine earth generally, have some good mould who knows how to bud or to graft, will know plum is a more hardy and vigorous tree than the sifted. Lay some of this six inches deep at the when the stock is arrived at the proper size for peach, and, observe, it is frequently, and most bottom of the hole. Place the roots upon this in each purpose.—To speak of the kind of stocks frequently, the feebleness, or sickliness, of the their natural order, and hold the tree perfectly most suitaule to the different kinds of fruit-trees tree that creates the insects, and not the inscets upright, while you put more sifted earth on the is reserved till we come to speak of the trees that create the feebleness and sickliness. There roots. Sway the tree backward and forward a themselves; but there are some remarks to be are thousands of peach trees in England and little, and give it a gentle lift and shake, so that made here, which have a general anfilication, France that are fifty years old, and that are still the fine earth may find its way amongst the roots relative to the kinds of stocks. It is supposed in vigorous fruitfulness. There is a good deal in and leave not the smallest cavity. Every root by some persons, that the nature of the stock climate, to be sire; but, I am convinced, that should be closely touched by the earth in every affects the nature of the fruit; that is to say, there is a great deal in the stock.-Before I quit part. When you have covered all the roots with that the fruit growing on branches, proceeding the subject of stocks, let me beg the reader never, the sifted earth, and have seen that your tree from a bud or a graft, partakes more or less of if he can avoid it, to make use of suckers, par-stands just as high with regard to the level of the the flavour of the fruit which would have grown ticularly for an apple or pear-orchard, which ground as it did in the place where it before stood, on the stock, if the stock had been suffered to almost necessarily is to become pasture.' Stocks allowing about 3 inches for sinking, fill up the grow to a tree and to bear fruit. This is Mr. formed out of suckers produce suckers; and, if rest of the hole with the common earth of the MARSHALL’s notion. But, how erroneous it is, the ground remain in grass for a few years, there plat, and when you have about half filled it, tread must be manifest to every one when he reflects will arise a young wood all over the ground; and the earth that you put in, but not very hard. that the stock for the pear tree is frequently the this wood, if not torn up by the plough, will, in a Put on the rest of the earth, and leave the surface white-thorn. Can a pear partake of the nature short time, destroy the trees, and will in still less perfectly smooth. Do not water by any means. of the haw, which grows upon the thorn, and time, deprive them of their fruitfulness. Besides Water, poured on, in this case, sinks rapidly down, which is a stone-fruit too? If this notion were this, suckers, being originally excrecences, and and makes cavities amongst the roots. Lets in oorrect, there could be hardly a single apple- unnaturally vigorous, make wood too fast, air, Mould and canker follow; and great injury orchard in all England: for, they graft upon make too much wood'; and, where this is the is done. erab-stocks; and, of course, all the apples, in case, the fruit is scanty in quantity. “Haste

286. If the tree be planted in the fall, as soon the course of years, would become crabs. Apri" makes waste” in most cases; but, perhaps, in as the leaf begins to be yellow ; that is to say, in cots and Peaches are, in England, always put on nothing so much as in the use of suckers as October early, it will have struck out new roots plum-stocks; yet, after centuries of this practice, stocks. By waiting a year longer and bestowing to the length of some inches before the winter they do not become plums. If the fruit of the a little care, you obtain seedling stocks; and, sets in. And this is certainly the best time for graft partake of the nature of the stock, why really, if a inan has not the trifling por- doing the business. But, mind, the roots should not the wood and leaves? Yet, is it not visible tion of patience and industry that is here re- be out of ground as short a time as possible ; and to all eyes, that neither ever does so partake ;- quired, he is unworthy of the good fruit should by no means be permitted to get dry, if This, then, like the carrying off the farina from and the abundant crops, which, with proper you can avoid it; for, though some trees will live the male to the female flower is a mere whim, or management, are sure, in this country, to be the after having been a long while out of ground, the dream. The bud, or graft, retains its own na- reward of his pains. 'Look at England, in the shorter the time out of ground the sooner the ture, wholly unchanged by the stock; and, all that spring! There you see fruit trees of all sorts roots strike; and, if the roots should get dry beis of consequence, as to the kind of stock, is, whe-covered with bloom; and from all of it there some-fore planting, they ought to be soaked in water, ther it be such as will last long and supply the tree times comes, at last, not a single fruit. Here, rain or pond, for half a day before the tree be with a suitable quantity of wood. This is a mat- in this favoured country, to count the blossoms is planted. ter of great importance ; for though peach will to count the fruit! The way to show our grati- 287. If the tree be for an orchard it must be grow on peach, and apple on apple, the trees are tude to God for such a blessing, is, to act well five or six feet high, unless cattle are to be kept not nearly so vigorous and durable as if the peach our part in turning the blessings to the best out for two or three years. And, in this case, the were put on the plum and the apple on the crab,

head of the tree must be pruned short, to prevent In 1800, I sent several trees from England to

it from swaying about from the force of the wind, Messrs. James and Thomas Paul, at Busleton,


Even when pruned, it will be exposed to be in Pennsylvania. There was a Nectarine amongst 283. I am not to speak here of the situation loosened by this cause, and must be kept steady these. It is well known, that, in 1817, there had for planting, of the aspect, of the nature of the by a stake; but it must not be fastened to a stake, been so great a mortality in the peach orchards, soil, of the preparation of the soil ; for these until rain has come to settle the ground ; for, such



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