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fastening would prevent it from siuking with theja great part of the strength that the manure and round the stem, will keep them from climbins earth. The earth would sink from it, and leave tillage bring.

the tree; but they are still alive. As to the dicavities about the roots.

294. Now, then, as to the trees in my garden ; minutive creatures that appear as specks in the 288. When the trees are short, they will re-Ithey are to be choice peaches, nectarines, apricots, burk; the best, and perhaps, the only remedy quire no stakes. They may be planted the se-plums, cherries, and grape vines, with a very few against the species of disease of which they are the cond year after budding, and the first after graft- apples and pears. The sorts will be mentioned symptom, consists of good plants, good planting and ing; and these are the best times. If planted in hereafter in the Alphabetical list; but, the good tillage. When orchards are seized with the fall, the tree should be shortened very early tillage for all except the grape-vines, is the same; diseases that pervade the whole of the trees, or in the spring, and in such a way as to answer the and the nature of that exception will be particu- nearly the whole, the best way is to cut them ends to be pointed out more particularly when we larly stated under the name of grape.

down: they are more plague than profit, and, as come to speak of pruning.

1 295. It was obsreyed before, that the ground long as they exist, they are a source of nothing 289. If you plant in the spring, it should be as is always to be kept clear of weeds. From the

f weeds From the out constantly-returning disappointment and

di mortification. However, as there are persons early as the ground will bear moving ; only, bear spring to the fall frequent hoeing all the ground

n who have a delight in quackery, who are never in mind, that the ground must always be dry at over, not only to keep away weeds but to keep top when you plant. In this case, the new roots the ground moist in hot and dry weather, taking

so happy as when they have some specific to ap

a will strike out almost immediately; and as soonlcare never to hoe but when the ground is dry at piy, and to whom rosy cheeks and ruby lips are as the buds begin to swell, shorten the head of the pot. This hoeing should not go deeper than four

almost an eye-sore, it is perhaps, fortunate, tree. After a spring-planting it may be neces-or five inches; for there is a great difference be

that the vegetable world presents them with pasary to guard against drought ; and the best pro-tween trees and herbaceous plants as to the renewal

tients; and thus, even in the cotton-blight or tection is the laying of small stones of any sort of their roots respectively. Cut off the lateral

canker, we sue an evil, which we may be led to round the tree, so as to cover the area of a circle roots of a cabbage, or a turnip, of a wheat or a rye "ope is not

hope is not altogether unaccompanied with good.

(To be Continued.) of three feet in diameter, of which circle the stem or an Indian-corn plant, and new roots, from the of the tree is the centre. This will keep the parts that remain, come out in 12 hours, and the

FROM THE NATIONAL GAZETTE. ground cooler than any thing else:hat you can put operation, by multiplying the mouths of the feed

Messrs. Editors, upon it.

ers of the plant, gives it additional force. But, the

TA paragraph in your Gazette of Saturday, on * 290. As to the distances, at which trecs ought roots of a tree consist of wood, more or less hard :

: the subject of Bees, induces me to mention, that to be planted, that must depend on the sort of they do not quickly renew themselves: they are:

are an easier method of gathering the honey than in tree, and on other circumstances. It will be seen of a permanent nature; and they must not beli,

India, and a more merciful one than what is geneby looking at the plan of the garden ( Plate I), much mutilated during the time that the sap is in

rally pursued in this country, is practised in Ger. that I make provision for 70 trees, and for a row the flow.

many.-There, this interesting little insect is culof grafie vines extending the length of two of the 296. Therefore, the ploughing between trees

estivated to great extent, frequently as an amuseplats. The trees will have a space of 14 feet for the digging between trees ought to take

ement, and very commonly as a source of revenue. square each. But, in orchards, the distances for place only in the fall, which gives time for a li

or a Many treatises have been written on their singuapples and pears must be much greater; other-renewal, or new supply, of roots before the sapli.

ne saplar nature, domestic arrangements and the best wise the trees will soon run their branches into,]be again in motion. For this reason, 11 crops mode of treating them. Perhaps I put some of and injure, each other.

be grown under trees in orchards, they should be
of wheat, rye, winter-barley, or of something Munchausen, when I state that in some parts of

be your readers in mind of the renowned Baron CULTIVATION.

that does not demand a ploughing of the ground Germany they are regularly taken to pasture! yet of fruit trees divides in the spring. In the garden, dig the ground well such is the fact. I have seen on the great heath

ts; the management of and clean, with a fork, late in November. Goof Luneburg in the Hanoverian dominions, hunthe tree itself, which consists of pruning and close to the stems of the trees; but do not bruized

ize dreds of Hives that were carried there from distying ; and the management of the ground where the large roots. Clean and clear all well close:

tant places in the spring of the year, for the bees the trees grow, which consists of digging, hoeing round the stem. Make the ground smooth justl.

just to pasture on the heath flowers ; herdsmen atand manuring. The management of the tree there. Ascertain whether there be insects there tend them; and in the autumn they are taken itself differs with the sort of tree; and, there of any sort. And, if there be, take care to de-lhom

to de home again. fore, I shall treat of the management of each stroy them. Pull, or scrape, off all rough bark "T

em. Pull, or scrape, off all rough bark The mode of securing the honey is this, early sort

lar name. But the at the bottom of the stem. If you even peel out in the fall the Bee-father (as the person who culmanagement of the ground where trees grow is the outside bark a foot or two up, in case there betiv

where trees grow is the outside bark a foot or two up, in case there betivates Bees is called) protects himself with

the larger trees; andsinsects, it will be the better.. Wash the stems gloves and a kind of cap long enough to hang for that reason I shall here give directions con-, with water, in which tobacco has been soaktu;löver his neck and shoulders and which has cerning it.

land do this, whether you find insects or not. wire mask-and in dark rainy weather, or early 292. In the first place, the ground is always Put the tobacco into hot water, and let it soak in

! soak in the morning or late in the evening, when all to be kept clear of weeds ; for whatever they 24 hours, before you use the water. This will

"the Bees are at home, he turns the hives upside take is just so much taken from the fruit, either destroy, or drive away, all insects.

Jdown-a match made of dry herbs, such as rue in quantity, or in quality, or in both. It is true, or in both. It is true;| .297. But, though, for the purpose of removing wrapped in tow and linen, which burns without

297. But, though, for the purpose of removing that very fine orchards have grass covering all all harbour for insects yon make the ground smooth fame and makes a great smoke is lighted and the ground beneath the trees; but these orchards just round the stem of the tree, let the rest of thes

s; but these orchards just round the stem of the tree, let the rest of the smoke blown upon the hive, which drives the would be still finer if the ground were kept clear the ground lay as rough as you can ; for the bees to the lower part of the hive, and gives him from all plants whatever except the trees. Such rougher it lies the more will it be broken by the

e an opportunity of taking what quantity of honey he a piece of ground is, at once an orchard and a frost, which is a great enricher of all land. When

nce an orchard and a trost, which is a great enricher of all lang. When thinks they can spare, leaving a sufficiency for pasture; what is lost one way is, probably, gained the spring comes, and the ground is dry at the winter the other. But, if we come to fine and choice top, give the whole of the ground a good deep fathi

ne to fine and choice top, give the whole of the ground a good deep father takes too large a tribute, or that an early fruits, there can be nothing that can grow beneath hoeing. which will make it level and smooth

which will make it level and smooth winter prevents the Bees from replenishing their to balance against the injury done to the trees.

done to the trees. enough. Then go on again hoeing throughout the stock

enough. Then go on again noeing throughout the stock as expected-they then are regularly fed 293. The roots of trees go deep ; but the prin- summer, and watching well all attempts of in- with a composition consisting of sugar honey cipal part of their nourishment comes from the sects on the stems and bark of the trees.

wine and water, boiled together, which is put in top-soil. The ground should be loose to a good! 298. Diseases of trees are various in their kind;

their kind; a saucer under the hive. depth, which is the certain cause of constant but, nine times out of ten they proceed from the

Your's, A GERMAN. moisture; but trees draw downwards as well as root. Insects are much more frequently an effect wpwards, and draw more nourishment in the for-than a cause. If the disease proceed from blight, mer than in the latter direction. Vine-yards, as there is no prevention, except that which is sug

TOBACCO OF UPPER CANADA. TiLlobserves, must always be tilled, in sonje way gested by the fact, that feeble and sickly trees are A letter from Amherstburgh, Upper Canada, or other; or they will produce nothing of value. frequently blighted when healthy ones are not ; published in the Quebec Gazette, says-" There He adds, that Mr. EVELYN says, that “when but, when the insects come, they add greatly to the has been some stir this winter in consequence of ** the soil, wherein fruit trees are planted, is evil. They are generally produced by the dis- the Tobacco trade. Next spring I think there “ constantly kept in tillage, they grow up to an ease, as maggots are by putrefaction. The ants will not be less than one hundred hogsheads ship. "Orchard in half the time, they would do, if are the only active insect for which there is not alped from hence. The Lower Canada Merchants

the soil were not tilled.” Therefore, tillage is cure; and I know of no means of destroying will soon have to find us other Markets than useful ; but, it were better, that there were tillage them, but finding out their nests and pouring Montreal and Quebec, for the quantity will inwithout under crops; for these crops take away boiling water on them. A line dipped in tar tiedlcrease at least ten fold the year after.

291

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DISEASES OF WHEAT.

side, are totally destroyed, and present a hard and from two to five feet in length. This cylinThe following notice of the singular diseased fibrous substance, abortively attempting to put|der is placed horizontally across the frame A, innearance of wheat, on the fields near York in forth new roots. I have discovered neither on leaving room for the clearer D, on one side, and Virginia was furnished by a very respectable the leaf, nor stalk, nor roots, any thing like an in-the hopper E, on the other. In the cylinder is and esteemed correspondent and we beg leave sect, or its eggs, though I use an excellent mag-|fixed an iron axis, which may pass quite through, to refer him, and our readers, to the full, and in-nifying glass. The external leaf of each shoot or consist only of gudgeons driven into each end. teresting remarks of many careful observers, decays first. I have marked several bunches and! There are shoulders on this axis, to prevent Pecorded in our former volumes—to be satisfied roots, but can make no discovery of the insect ; any horizontal variation, and it extends so far of the peculiarities of the disease which he de- can this be the fly-does it feed under the surface without the frame as to admit a winch at one scribes and the difference between those and thes of the earth, and upon the roots of the vegeta-end, by which it is put in motion, and so far at Col ravages of the Hessian Fly. Edit. Am. Far. ble ? are such the appearances of the plant, when the other end, as to receive the whirl, by which

York, Va., 1st December, 1822. assailed by the fly? At a distance, the wheat looks the clearer is turned. The surface of the cyDEAR SIR,

well and healthy ; it is only when you visit the linder is filled with teeth, set in annular rows, I havenever known so mild a November as the field, that its decay is seen at present. I was, un-| which are at such a distance from each other, as ht. I have now green peas, in full bloom, in til recently, a sceptic as to the existence of the to admit a cotton seed to play freely in the space mu garden, and shall gather some to-morrow or fly, in this part of the state ; all my neighbours between them. The space between cach tooth

W ay. Our forward wheat crops were very differing with me. If not the fly, it is an insect, in the same row, is so small, as not to admit a nomising until within a few days; they are now or a disease of the plant, which is producing the seed, nor a half seed to enter it. These teeth

nunc and it is thought, the Hessian Fly has, same effects, as the fly; and I learn that some of our are made of stiff iron wire, driven into the wood a to appearance with us. Can you inform me farmers, are preparing to plough up their wheat of the cylinder, the teeth are all inclined in the the Flv attacks the roots of the wheat? Ito re-sow! I never experienced any thing like same way, and in such a manner, that the angle

heen this day partly engaged in examining the present appearance of my crop, and that too, included between the tooth, and a tangent draws hunches taken from my wheat field, which upon land in fine heart, under good tilth, manu- from the point, into which the tooth is driven, will

ceeded the first of October ; the blades are red formerly with kelp, and which produced a be about 55 or 60 degrees; the gudgeons of the was turning yellow, generally beginning at the points, heavy crop of Indian Corn. Your's respectfully, cylinder run in brass boxes, each of which is and advancing to the stalk ; the roots on ont

T. G******.'

in two parts, one of which is fixed into the wood

of the frame, and the other is confined down COTTON GINS

lupun the axis with screws. CUINE INVENTED BY ELI WHITNEY, FOR GINNING COTTON, Linder parallel and contiguous to the same. It

3d. (C.) The breastwork is fixed above the cyA SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE MACHINE INVENTED BY ELi WHITNO POLITELY SENT TO US, FROM THE UNITED STATES' PATENT OFFICE, BY WM. THORNTONE

has transverse grooves or openings through which the rows of teeth pass as the cylinder re

volves, and its use is to obstruct the seeds while N°1

the cotton is carried forward, through the grooves, by the teeth. The thickness of the breast work is two and a half, or three inches, and the under side of it I, is made of iron or brass.

4th. (D.) The clearer is placed horizontal with, and parallel to the cylinder. Its length is the same as that of the cylinder, and its diameter is proportioned by convenience. There are two or four brushes or rows of bristles, fixed in the surface of the cleaver, in such a manner, that the ends of the bristles will sweep the surface of the cylinder. Its axis and boxes, are similar to those of the cylinder. It is turned by means of a band F, and whirls ;-it moves in a contrary direction from the cylinder, that puts it in motion, by means of the two small whirls GG, whose axis are pivots made fast in the frame, and it so far outruns, as to sweep the cotton from the teeth, as (fast as it is carried through the breast work.The periphery of the whirls is spherical, and the band a broad strap of leather. And at H, there is a groove to permit the wheel G, to recede from the other, to tighten the band by a

screw at the end under A.

1 5th. One side of the hopper E, is formed No2

Fig 3

by the breastwork C, the two ends by the frame, and the other side J, is moveable from, and to: wards the breastwork, so as to make the hopper more or less capacious.

The cotton is put into the hopper, carried through the breast work by the teeth, brushed off from the teeth by the clearer, and flies off from the clearer, with the assistance of the air, by its own centrifugal force. The machine is turned by water, horses, or in any way, most convenient.

There are several modes of making the vari. ous parts of this machine, which together with their particular shape, and formation, are pointed out and explained in a description with draw. ings ; attested as the Patent Laws direct, and

lodged in the office of the secretary of state. The principal parts of this machine, are, 1st, parallelogramic form, and proportioned to the A sectional side view of parts of the machine, the trame; 2d.the cylinder ; 3d, the breastwork; other parts, as may be most convenient.

is given in Fig. 3, above, wherein the clearer; and 5th, the hopper.

2d. (B.) The cylinder is of wood, its form i: B, represents the cylinder, with rows of iron or (A.) The frame by which the whole work perfectly described by its name, and its dimen- other metal teeth, which pass through I, the ported and kept together, is of a square or sions may be from six to nine inches diameter,'brazen or lower part of C, the breastwork, which keeps une seed trom passing through the machine our readers. a complete view of so important asmore or less, would make "ant. ***** with the cotton.

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machine, and enable all of them to understand brush or fan, as it may be called, roars loudly, it D, represents the clearer, with bristles in it to the

It to the nature of the reported improvements. Jis an evidence that we have air sufficient. At brush the cotton from the metal teeth, as the cy-1 Alter having veretur coamined the foregoinglihe end of the brush cylinder, where the pulley linder turns round. E, the hopper which holds description, any one may easily form

a cct will be placed, there should be a box on top of the cotton, but permits the disengaged seed to opinion as to the value of improvements, detaileaftne guugcan, and also at the bottom, as the band pass through the grating at K.

below. For this account of Dr. Nutt's improve-tends to bear it upwards. The boxes should be

ments, we are indebted to J. R. Bedford, Esq. of made of brass, lest they should take fire, as the When we received the following account of im- Alabama, as we formerly mentioned. And we motion of the brush is very great. provements made on cotton gins, by Dr. Rush have taken great pleasure in preparing the arti- Figure 10. Gives a side view of the brush cyNutt, near Petit-Gulph, Mississippi : we applicle for the press, as we indulge the hope, that it linder, with its pulley at one end, and a set of ed to Wm. Thornton, Esq. of Washington City, may be useful to many persons, and entertaining to arms ; for one board or flange, 34 inches wide, for a description of Whitney's Cotton-Gin, from every reader.-Edit. im. Farmer.

with the hair inserted and worked in, like a shoe the Patent Office that we might place before

brush,

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Figure 1. Is the seed board.

lect on them ; and if not taken away, will be Figure 2. Is the grate screwed on at the low- forced into the cotton room. end, as in all gins ; but above it continues up, and Figure 8. Is to show the eddies in the trunk and forms a curve for the roll, keeping a distance below the screen. The screen lays on, and is from the wood of two inches; then turning back, supported by them. The term eddies I have it is screwed to the top part of the first cross bar, applied to the cross boards, which form twelve forming in part the grate fall.

divisions. These partitions break the current of Figure 3. Is a straight grate, designed to de- air below the screen ; consequently, very little tach false seed from the cotton, before it reach-cotton is forced below it, although it affords every es the brush.

opportunity for the dirt, leaf and false seed to go Figure 4. Is and end view of the brush, 18 in- down. These boards should be about a foot and ches in diameter, and has six motions to one of a half, or two feet apart. the rag cylinder. The end of the board, which Figure 9. Shows a door, covering two eddies.is seen at the extremity of each arm, and has the It is necessary to have doors to all that part of the hair inserted into it, is 3 inches broad, which trunk, under the screen, so that it may be cleanwill generate more air, than if wider. led out occasionally; it is sufficient, for one side

| At each end of this board, will be seen repreFigure 5. Is the under sheeting of the brush, of the trunk, to have them; and as I have be

sentations or end views of the board, to show how made of plank, forming part of a circle, until it gan with one door to cover two, so it may be con

it is made, and a hole through the thick part, is perpendicular to the brush; then it runs tinued ; say, six doors to twelve eddies. The

with a bunch of hair inserted. Another represtraight off to the screen, which is represented by side of the trunk, where the doors are to be, need sen

è need sentation also serves to show how the board is the dots.

not come lower, than half an inch below these

"ellet on, and screwed to the arm. The planking now turns down to form the low-screen, as the doors can close the balance-these

Figure 11. Shows how the screen is made. er part of the trunk, say four and a half inches, should be hung by hinges, and kept in place by a and then turns and goes forward to form the bot- wooden button. tom of the trunk.

The joints of the doors should be directly oppoFigure 6. Is to shew the upper sheeting be- site every second eddy, so that no air can escape ginning as near the rags as possible, and conti- from one ecdy to another, and indeed the sheetnues round, a true part of a circle, until it gets ing around the fan or brush, and the trunk, should within five inches of the lower sheeting, on a be air tight. perpendicular line. It then sets off in a straight This trunk is supposed to be 20 or 24 feet line, and forms the upper part of the trunk; ma-in length. My own is twenty-four feet ; but king the trunk five inches above the screen, which if there was sufficient room, I would have it foris four and a half inches above the bottom. It ty. should be remembered, that the upper and lower The cotton should be blown into a room, apart sheeting of the brush, should not be nearer the from the press room, to prevent it from attaching hair in the brush, than a quarter of an inch ; ifto the screws. At the top of the room, into it be so near as to touch, it will roll the cotton, which the cotton is blown, there should be a garand defeat our intentions. Near the mouth, or ex- ret, and an opening in it, for the air to escape tremity of the trunk, the upper planking is ele-through, as it will carry with it, a great quantivated, which makes the mouth larger ; this I ty of dirt, and short lint. I have endeavoured have found by experience to be best.* The slight to turn the current out of the house by a small touches of the pen in the trunk, shows the di- trunk put through the wall, but the circulation rection the cotton takes, when struck down from of the air without, was such, as to keep back the saws.

the dust, and lint, and soon choak the conductor. Figure 7. Shows where the siding doors This lint and dust should be got rid of, as it is ve. should be on the top of the trunk ; ther can be ry injurious to the machinery of factories. Tone slat at each end of the cross sticks, with rabbited in, and slide, presenting a smooth sur-| At the sides of the gin stand, there should be holes at equal distances in the slats, to receive the face within. It is necessary, almost every day to air holes of about 12 or 13 inches, cut out of the ends of the cross sticks. There is a slat to supslip these doors, and sweep the screen, as in damp upper part of the stand, in form of half a cylin- port the sticks in the middle. This stick should weather, many false seed, dirt and leaf will col- der, and opposite the upper half of the brush cy-be nailed to this middle slat, to prevent their

Jlinder, or clearer, as this is the only way that air springing or warping out of a true line ; they # We have only shown a portion of the trunk, can be adınitted to the brush, with advantage-should be regularly spaced at such distances in its length, of course the slight elevation, at in this manner, likewise, the greatest quantity of apart, as to suffer a cotton seed readily to drop the extremity is not scen in our cut.

air, will be generated. It is evident, that a brush through ; the sticks should be nearly round, being Edit, Am. Farmer. serving as a fan, should have but four arms, as a little flatted at bottom, and made of a wood that

will receive a good polish. My own are made of bent, when laid with steel : this can be done, and , and from ten to twelve pounds of sugar co 1: cherry, and polished with sand paper, they are gardened, after being bent.

l is, if properly inarlo, and of good cider, a fine nearly half an inch in diameter. I have given It is perhaps unnecessary to cap much on the sous beverage, to drink in summer, when dilutend views of the side slats : sharp at top. Salscore of pullies, their size willdeponderentd with water; and in the German Counties of that when the screen is laid in the trunk thev tatu merent motions, small pullies should be solid, lennsylvania, it was the favourite drink. when per gradually from the sticla, luulle sides of the ind large ones have spokes, each should be they got any refreshment at taverns, by all those trunk, and no trash can settle on them. The made of plank, and placed so as to preserve the persons who could not afford to get wine. Those middle slat is rounding on the top edge, for theircle, if the timber should shrink. Tightening persons that I knew most famous for makng same purpose; they can be made of plank, one ullies should always be large; their axles will good cider royal, put rye whiskey to it instead of inch thick, and three broad.

leat less, and also enable us to cause the band to brandy, as it sooner became assimilated to the Figure 12, in the above cut, gives a side view embrace more of the pulley that is to be driven cider and vinous than brandy, ; that is, it was of the eddy boards, that are to extend cross- The placing of the pullies depend entirely up not to be tasted, when brandy, could always be wise of the trunk, with the niches on top of on the form of the stand. My gin has on the discovered by a nice palate. Brandy put to sider

or wine after it is well fermented, never loses its it, for the lower edges of the slats to drop in. Up right end of the rag cylinder, a pulley,a,

flavour in either cider or wine, and instead of beon these boards, the screen will rest its whole ex

coming vinous, as it ought to be, by ferm ntation, it tent. An end view is also presented of this

is only branded cider, or what used to be called, board, made sharp at top, to prevent trash from

some 30 or 40 years ago, Sampson; which was settling on it, in passing through the sticks.

one gill of brandy or other spirits, put to a tankFigure 13. Is to give a front view of one bar

ard of cider, which always produced head-aches. of a grate, with a niche, at the upper shoulder, to

You also, in the last Farmer, make mention of enable us to take out the false seed.

the naked Barley-I remember it for at least fif

ty years, and it was used by the German farmers 13

of a part of York County, Pennsylvania, and Frede ick County, Maryland, to make coffee of;

and I recollect of hearing it spoken of as infi14

nitely superior to Rye, as to its flavour and salubrity-But I do not recollect of seeing any of it

for upwards of thirty years; but formerly I have The roll will bring up the tag of cotton attached to the false seed, on the back of the grate, to of 11 inches; this, coupled to a drum or big band seen it brought to York Town, Pennsylvania and the turn at Figure 2 ; then as other tags come on, wheel, b, of 8 feet diameter, drives the cylinder, Frederick Town, Maryland, .for sale by the nam the preceding ones will be forced on to the niche, and is tightened by a pulley, c, 3 feet diameter : of Coffeef Barley-The Germans call it “ Coffeda

gerst." when they can either be removed or suffered to at the other end, or to the left is a pulley, d,

To make Barley Coffee. drop. If they drop, they will be stopped before

Roast it in the mapner that common coffee is they reach the saws, by a piece of leather, that

roasted, then take one portion of coffee to about sets off from the wood, in a direction towards

as much as one third of the quantity you commonthe grate, and touches it ; the leather will yield

ly use for one meal ; then take three times that to the passage of the false seed, and then fall

quantity of the roasted barley whole (not being back to its place; this piece of leather is noticed of

lof 26 inches, which is coupled to the brush pul (ground) and boil it by itself, then strain it through thus, * in cut numbered one to nine. Were we li to have the niche at the top of the roll, where rey, e, or a little more than 4 inches diameter, a tin strainer, with smaller holes than a cullin.

land a tightening pulley f. of 20 inches diameter, der ; put that liquor over the first portion of cofthe grate makes a sudden turn back, the falseln. seed would be brought into the roll again; but asli

Thung in a sliding frame nearly over the brush pul-stee and make it in the usual manner. the ginner has time to remove a great many, lof

lley, which keeps the band to a necessary degreel. I knew a very respectable Clergyman, who was I adpoted the plan to make the place for theirlor roller and lever. y, lof tirhtness by a weight suspended to a sweep, fond of some of the good things of this world :

that for several years, I was acquainted in his faremoval farther back. I consider this form of al"

mily, always used his coffee made in the above grate, very essential in a point, not yet noticed;

manner-and he used it, because he thought it which is, that it enables us to gin much faster ;| CIDER ROYAL AND BARLEY COFFEE. Jan improvement on foreign coffee. for when there is a tag of cotton throwing up the

Vineyard, near George Town, ?

P. S.-I have called on a German's son, now roll just above the saws, preventing them from ta

Feb. 8, 1823.

middle aged, who says he has often assisted his king as much cotton along with them, as they! J. S. SKINNER, Esg.

father in making Cider Royal, and he says, that my would otherwise do, and a wad of false seed un- Dear Sir,-I observe in your Farmer of yester- receipt for making it, is correct. His father was der and between the grate, the saws are always day, a receipt to make Cider Oil, as you call it-famous for making good cider royal of the best robbed, of more or less cotton, in their passage. I have some doubts that the person who furnished quality. He himself, attempted this last year to Where the saws pass the grate, as above, at 14, you with the receipt, is ignorant of what it ex- make one barrel of it, and it turns out to be as it will be observed, that the bars of the grate actly is; as well as of the manner of making it-hard as the hardest cider. He spoke to a person slightly narrow, which will prevent the possibili. I have seen it made very often by Germans, and who makes good cider, one whom he could depend ty of the fibres being cut or broken.

it is by them called cider royal; and by putting on, and gave him an extra price: the cider was It is better for a small seed to escape, than for sassafras, or any thing else to flavour it, I am cer- made early in the morning, and brought to him the fibres to be injured; and as it is almost impos- tain would injure it; the way I have seen it made before 9 o'clock; he immediately drew off some sible to keep always from rubbing, I have adopt- as follows:

of the cider, and put to it ten pounds of sued this plan, and I think with advantage : From

To make Cider Royal.

gar, and four gallons of apple brandy, and bunged the upper end of the grates, to an inch below the Take a clean well hooped cask, and burn a sul-it up tight immediately. He attributes the hardpoint, where the saws pass through, (saving the phur match in it, and keep the bung close stop-les

eton.ness to a fermentation having taken place before niche) they should be very near to each other ;lped for about two hours: then put in four gallons the sugar and brandy was put to it, instead of the then the distance between them should gradually lof good apple or cider brandy: then take four gal. sugar and brandy being put in the cask first. widen, so as to let the dirt, leaf, and small beards|lons of the cider immediately from the press, and fall readily as they get loose. It is a matter of put it to the brandy, shaking the barrel well to the greatest importance, that every grate, be-absorb the sulphurous gas, (the cider ought to

FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER. ; fore going to a gin, should be laid with steel; a be strained through a flannen,) and then fill the DEAR Sır.

CELLERY. short thin piece, can be easily welded on that barrel with the cider before any fermentation has part of the grate, where the saws pass. When taken place, and bung up the barrel tight imme-raising cellery ; and set down to give you an ac

I have just read the remark in your paper on This is done, one set will last longer, than six or|diately, and put it in a cool place, and rack it off Icount of the arrangement of his plants, when fieight without it. I have never known a gin to in March following. If it is not fine when rack nally planted out, by one of the best regular scienprepare cotton as well the second and third ed, it may be fined with the whites of eggs-and|tific and practical gardeners I ever knew; his arvears, as the first; and the reason is very obvious: as soon as quite bright, rack it again into a clean rangements were such, that I never saw a vacant the corner of the grate, wears a little, and as soon as cask and it will keep for years. Some persons do space in his garden; as one article was market. this is done, small seeds are crushed and carried not sulphur the cask, under an idea that it produing, another was coming forward in the same through. It is folly to say a grate cannot be well ces head-ache; others put but three gallons of bran- bed.

His method of raising cellery, I give you exact-1 NOTE.- After a salt marsh has been complete

PORCELAIN CLAY. ly as I saw it, and noted it down; but you maylly, diked in, and inclosed froin the inundations of The proprietors of an extensive bed of what vary it by making more rows or less, at your own the tide, according to the method described by A competent judges have pronounced to be genuine pleasure. His bed or trench was dug by hand, Chotanter, in No. 31, Vol. 2, of this paper, it might porcelain clay, are desirous of obtaining some about one foot deep, and five feet wide; well ma Joften during the winter, and in the summer too, particular information concerning the same. Unnured with well rotted manure, and then planted when not charged with a crop, have ils surface der the belief that either the editor of the with nine rows of cellery, about six inches apart|coated over, elevated and fertilized by this Ita- American Farmer himself, or some of his intelin the rows, and the rows six inches distant, as lian Colmata. There are few salt marshes so se-ligent correspondents, can furnish the desired inper enclosed plan*: by this method, a bed fifty|cluded as not to admit of being covered by the formation, the following enquiries are respectfulfeet long and five feet wide, contained nine hun-muddy streams, from the adjacent hills. The me-ly submltted. dred plants: they took less ground, less manure, thod of pouring on the turbid current, when re-! Is there at this time, in the United States, a and one third only of the necessary covering in quired, and of preventing its escape for a while manufactory for converting this kind of clay in. winter, that the single rows would ; and if water- through the tide trunk, must be so obvious, as to to wares? ing was necessary, once passing by the side with a need no explanation. Three or four Colmata, Jur-| What would be the probable cost of such an watering pot, as on a bed of a single row, sufficed ing the winter, would add as many inches of ele establishment-the expenses in carrying it on for three rows : so what was sufficient for three vation to its surface, besides the additional soli- and can persons be procured in this country, who

understand the business? hundred plants, in the common way, did here do dity and fertility. for nine hundred. I never knew him fail, and I

Answers to these enquiries, as well as any other thought, that when so combined, the manure and

|information connected with the subject, will be | TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. lih water had more effect than the length way. I

thankfully received.

C. F. saw three beds this year, so managed by his wi

* Rowan County, (N. C.) 28th January, 1823.

A Virginia Farmer, in No. 47, Vol. 3d. of your dow, about fifty feet each, with twelve or thir

Ipaper, asks for information on the best course to teen rows as fine as any I ever saw.

be pursued to prevent hogs from being infested FROM POULSON'S AMERICAN DAILY ADVERTISER. The manner of earthing them up was to place

ce with vermin, and how to destroy the vermin after two planks edgeways across the bed, and between

n hogs are infested. In answer to this inquiry MODE OF BURNING CLAY FOR MAtwo adjoining rows, and putting the earth between (1

I will state, for his information, a method which! NURE, AND WARMING A HOUSE AT the plants.

I have practised with success in removing vermin THE SAME TIME, viz:
With respect I remain,

\from högs. It is, to tar them. The operation is! Take a quantity of clay, as many cart loads as Your obedient servant,

performed by taking a small mop, and rubbing thesis wanted, and make it, with the addition of watar on each hog, on different parts of the body:- ter, to the same consistence as that used for The lice will leave the hogs and crawl into the bricks; only there is no occasion of mixing any straw or leaves where the hogs sleep. These loam with it; and for the sake of having the clay beds should be burnt two or three days after the in a convient form, a mould may be made the hogs are tarred-and the tarring should be repeat- same width as a brick mould, and half the length; ed for a fortnight or three weeks, as often as once then fill this mould half full of the worked clay, a week, so as to destroy the young vermin which and put a handful of spent Tanners' bark or small will be hatched from the knits on the hogs, at the chips, over the clay, and fill the mould full, so time of tarring them. The first and perhaps second that the clay will be over and under the tan, or time, to add a little brimstone to the tar is chips; and when dry it is fit for the fire; in this thought advisable.

way the tan or chips, when the clay is heated Will you or some of your numerous correspon- red hot, become combined or converted into soot, dents, inform us of the best method of removing which makes a fine manure for cold clay lands.vermin from cattle, sheep, mules and horses-my The grates used for burning Lehigh or Schuylkill sheep and cattle are very badly infested with coal, would be admirably adapted for this mode them at this time. They are an insect of not the of burning clay, as they have a strong draught, twentieth part the size of those that infest hogs, Jespecially when the blower is put on; and there but infinitely more numerous, and when a sheep is no occasion for more coal than is just sufficient or cow becomes infested by them, it is almost im- to completely destroy its adhesiveness. possible to keep them alive through the winter. It is presumed this mode of burning clay would

A North Carolina Farmer. very much diminish the expense of coal, and a March 12th, 1822.

boy could make it up in the form proposed. 205

Count Rumford recommended using clay, incorThus you may extend your bed to any length.

RUTA BAGA,

Iporated with charcoal, and formed into balls, for

fuel ; but charcoal is expensive, and tan may be CULTIVATED AS A SECOND CROP.

got very low in the Summer season, though dry

Albany, N. York, 4th January, 1823. weeds, or chips, are as good.
DRAINING AND RECLAIMING THE VAL)
DI CHIANA, NEAR CORTONA. IN ITA. DEAR SIR,

A Lover of Improvements.
My improvement in the ruta baga culture con-
LY.

Philadelhhia. January 23d, 1823. sists in growing them as a second crop, upon a clo“The Knights of St. Stephen have conquered ver lay. The grass is cut about the 15th or 20th a large part of this vale from the river Chiana, lof June. If I have manure, and the scravings of WILD SHEEP OF NORTH AMERICA. which, being subject to floods, had formed here my yards will always afford me a few loads, 1 an immense morass. The method which they take about a dozen carts full and spread it upon wool of the Ovis Montana Americana, brought

We have been favoured with a specimen of the employed, is called a Colmata, and seems to have an acre. The ground is then immediately plough from the Rocky Mountains, near the sources of been known in the Antoiine reigns. It consisted ed well, one pound of seed sown broadcast per the Missouri and Columbia rivers. This wool, here of an enclosure of stupendous dikes, which acre, and harrowed in with a light harrow, length- lin fineness, softness, and delicacy, resembles that received the inundations, and confined them for a wise of the furrow. A single thinning and clean-lof the Cashmere goat, from which the beautiful while on the morass. When the river had fallen,ling with the hoe, is all the further attention I give shawls of that name are made. We learn on the this water was sluiced off into its channel; but, them, until they are drawn in November. My lauthority of a gentleman, who has traversed the during its stagnation on the surface enclosed, it first experiment gave me a product of six hun-JRocky Mountains from the north branch of the had left there a deposite of excellent earth; and dred bushels. They should be thinned to a dis-Columbia to the Athapescow, that numerous a succession of such deposites has given solidityltance of eight or twelve inches; and for this ope- Aocks of these sheep inhabit that region. No to the bog, raised it above the level of ordinary|ration a skim hoe of the required width has a de- doubt is entertained that this animal may be dofoods, and converted into the richest arable. Bylcided preference over the common hoe. Thelmesticated, and its fleece wrought i..to fabrics, this enterprise has the Religion of St. Stephen de-stubble and roots of the clover decompose rapid- I which will rival in richness and beauty, the farservedly become the first proprietor of the plain; iy, afford nutriment and moisture, and render the famed productions of the east. The French govwhile the lands immediately round Cortona count soil friable and light.

ernment have recently imported several hundreds more masters than any Township in Tuscany."

I am, dear sir yours, &c.

of Cashmere goats from their native region, Forsythes Remarks on Italy, 100. John S. SKINNER, Esq.

J. B***. which thrive well in France, and promise to be

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