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DER OF THE STATE.
a source of great national wealth. We hope thislen, and afford him at least a hope of better times, FLAX DRESSING MACHINE. laudable example will be followed by the govern- is still a problem unsolved and unsolveable. The
We have been told by our friend. Mr.J. M. Ely ment of the United States; and that measures Sands, this day, were again completely crowded of New York, who has just returned from Engwill be taken, through the agency of the enter- with cattle, and altogether, the supply might be land, “ that whilst he was in London, he visited prising officers of our army stationed on the Mis- said to exceed that of any corresponding Octo: Mr. Brindley's establishment, where he saw souri, to procure a number of these curious and ber market for some years past. As this is “ Flax in the various stages of its dressing, and valuable animals. Perhaps it would be worth the the season when the farmers lay in their winterers,
was informed that Mr. Brindley had invented expense to send an exploring party, specially for a good many beeves, of course, changed masters:l“ a machine, the specification of which ne had that object. A skin of this animal is deposited but the prices left the seller nothing to boast of." not filed, but which he says he will warrant in the Lyceum of Natural History in this city, and Cattle bought 3 or 4 months ago, so far from re- " shall accomplish all that can be desired. The was presented by John Jacob Astor, Esq. paying the expense of feeding, were in many in-" old machines he is confident will be entirely New York Paper. stances disposed of at dead loss, and, in others, “
superceded.” driven 'home in the forlorn nope of finding a bet
ter market. Small Highland bullocks were sold A FINE HEIFER.
at from 30s. to 458. per head; good two year olds PRICES CURRENT.-CORRECTED WEEKLY. Mr. Lewis Davis of Hopewell Township, Cum- from £3 to £4 10s. and five guineas; and excelberland county, Pennsylvania, slaughtered on the lent three year olds at £7 10s. Indeed, last week,
Flour, best white wheat, $7 25—Howard st. 8th inst. a heifer aged 3 years 9 months and 15 the very best lot of bullocks in the market-and Superfine, $6 87–Wharf, do. 6 121–Wheat, days ; raised and fattened by himself, which beautiful cattle they were-only brought £7 4s. white, $1 35 to 1 40–Red do, $1 32 to 1 35– weighed as follows:
The principal dealers" hung back" Rye, 71 to 75 cents-Corn, 60 to 62 cts.Quarters, 950 lbs. (till near the “ fag end” of the market, and then,
Oats, 35 to 37} cents, Beef, live cattle, $5 Rough Tallow,
1521 lbs. we believe, excellent bargains were got from di- to $5 50 per cwt.-Beef, 8 cents per lb. Hide,
11 cts.-Pork $4 50 83 lbs. vers farmers, who had nothing else for it-who-Bacon, round, 10 must meet “the laird,” or the laird's factor, in a
to 5 50 per c lb. 6 to 8 cts. per lb.Mutton, 5 Total, 11853 lbs. few days, and who know that to go empty handed 10.6 cts. per Ib.
--Beans, $1 37 to 150—Peas
, is not the best way to obtain a reduction of rent. black eyed, 55 to 60 cts.-Red Clover Seed, $8
Orchard Grass do. $3—Herds' Grass do. $3—
Timothy do. $5–Millet, $2—Flax Seed, 75 to 80 FARMER'S NOTICE.
cts.-Whiskey, from the wagons, 32 to 34 cts. Keep your children at school if possible, and
PUBLISHED IN THE AMERICAN FARMER, BY OR- per gal.- Apple brandy, 30 to 32 cts.-Peach do., take care not to find fault against the school-mas
65 to 70 cts.--Shad, none in market-Herrings, ter in their presence. Some people are always
No. 1, $3 62} per bbl.-No. 2, $3 371-Fine complaining of the school master or mistress.
Prince Georges County, January 6th, 1823.
salt 80 to 90 cts. per bush.-Coarse, do. 75Let the school be ever so well kept they will be A report of the Tobacco Inspected at and de-Butter, 20 to 25 per lb.-Eggs, 25 cts. per doz. dissatisfied. If your children complain, ten chan- livered from the Queen Anne Inspection Ware- – Turkeys, 75 cts. to $14Geese, 37} to 50 cts. ces to one they are in the wrong; and should you house, during the quarter commencing on the Chickens, $2 per doz.-Straw, $10 per tonwish to injure them, you cannot do it more effec- seventh day of October, eighteen hundred and Hay, $16 to 17. tually than to join with them against their mas-twenty-two, ending the sixth day of January,
MARYLAND TOBACCO-Not in great demand, eighteen hundred and twenty-three.
prices same as before.
Reinprove the sledding when you have it. Keep your
FOR SALE, tic
spect Total. cattle well-it is a poor plan that some farmers
NAKED OR NORTHERN BARLEY. have, of starving their cattle in order to sell hay
A few bushels of the above for sale at Robert in the spring. Have you not an old horse which
Sinclair's, Ellicott-street, near Pratt street wharf. is not worth keeping? Do not let another winter Number in
Price $4. For a description of this grain, see find him on your hands: give him to the crows.
American Farmer No. 46, Vol. 4. This grain is It would be well to see about getting a good
well adapted to our climate, as has been well supply of fencing stuff. There is nothing that shows the thrifty farmer to better advantage than Number de
proved by the gentleman who raised it in Harford his fences.
county, having commenced a few years ago, with If your fences are poor, you hazard
a few grains. the loss of all your crops.
Is your threshing done? If so, you can spend those days which are stormy, still to advantage.
WELLS & TYLER, Inspectors,
AGENTS FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER. Get all your farming tools in order-your yokes, bows, ax helves, shovels, carts, &c. &c. A good
Queen Anne Warehouse. to Complete sets of the first, second and third iariner will not find much idle time. Remember
TREASURY OFFICE, ANNAPOLIS, FEBRUARY
vols. of the “ AMERICAN FARMER,” new and cor
rected Editions, can be had of the following perthat the hand of diligence defeateth want; pros11th, 1823.
sons; price of which, bound, $5 per vol. or $4 perity and success are the industrious man's at
True copy from the original report on file in in Sheets :tendants. this office.
M. CAREY & SONS and E. LITTELL, Phi
B. HARWOOD, Tr. W. S. Md. ladelphia.
W. A. COLMAN, New-York.
WELLS & LILLEY, Boston.
was kill- from flour, which is at present used for that pur- PETER COTTOM, Richmond, Va. by Mr. William Halliday, flesher in Moffat, pose in China and Japan. It is only necessary to * gross weight of which was 29st 9lbs.—141b. to mix the rice flour intimately with cold water, and E. THAYER, Charleston, S.C.
RICHARD COTTOM, Petersburg. stone, viz
gently simmer it over the fire, when it readily JOSEPH GALES, Raleigh, N. C. Four qua ters
22st 12lb. forms a delicate and durable cement. Head and feet
W. F. REDDING, special agent, now journey. 2 0 Hide and tallow 11
ing through the Southern States. THE FARMER. The fourth volume, now publishing, can be 29 9
forwarded to any part of the United States, on Cattle Market Oct. 30.-As we do not happen
application being made, by letter or otherwise, to
BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1823. cbelong to the family of croakers, we would
J. S. SKINNER, Baltimore. much rather be excused from the disagreeable Los AMERICAN SENNA.-We have received task of reporting the weekly state of our cattle samples of the leaf, and seed of Senna, cultiva- Printed every Friday at 8a per annum, for JOHN S. SKINNER, Edie market. For a long time past, every succeding ted in Alabama. It has been used in families
tor, by JOSEPH ROBINSON, at the North West corner of Market Wednesday has been worse than another; and there, and considered as good as the Alexandria
and Belvidere stretts, Baltimore; where every description of Book
and Job Printing is executed with nearness and despatch-Orders when the farmer's prospects are to begin to bright- Senna
from a distance for Printing or Binding, witb proper directions promptly attended to addressed to J. Robinson, Baltimore.
No. 49.- VOL. 4.
383 THE AMERICAN GARDENER. decks of the ship'; and, is it any wonder, that a in the year 1800. They are now growing there,
barrel of pomace, instead of apples, arrive at in the gardens of the two Messrs. Paul's. CutCHAPTER V.
Liverpool or Lordon? If, instead of this care-tings from them have been carried and used as
less work, the apples were gathered ( a week beografts all round the country. During the few FRUITS.
gore ripe ; ) not bruised at all in the gathering ; days that I was at Mr. James Paul's, in 1817. Propagation, Planting, Cultivation,
laid in the sun, on boards or cloths, three days, to several persons came for grafts : so that these
let the watery particles evaporate a little; put trees must be pretty famous. The fruit is large, LIST OF FRUITS.
into barrels with fine-cut straw-chaff, in such a thin skinned, small stone, and fine colonr and 299. Having in the former parts of this CHAP-way as that no apple touched another; carefully flavour, and the tree grows freely and in beauTER, treated of the propagation, planting, and carried to the ship and put on board, and as care-tiful form. For Pruning see PEACH. To precultivation of all fruit trees (the grape vine only fully landed ; if this were the mode, one barrel, serve cherries gather them without bruizing ; excepted) it would remain for me merely to give though it would contain only half the quantity, take off the tails ; lay them in the sun or on dry á List of the several fruits; to speak of the dif- would sell for as much as, upon an average, ta-deal boards; when quite dry, put them by in terent sorts of each ; and of the mode of preser- king in loss by total destruction, twenty barrels bags in a dry place. They form a variety in the ving them ; but the stocks and pruning vary, in sell for now.' On the deck is the best part of the start-making way: some cases; and, therefore, as I go along, I shall ship for apples; but, if managed as I have di 304. CHESNUT.-This is an inhabitant of have to speak of them. Before, however, I enter rected between decks would do very well.-In the the woods; and, as to its fruit I have only to on this Alphabetical List, let me observe, that keeping of apples for market, or for home use, say, that the American is as much better than only a part of the fruits mentioned in it are pro- the same precautions ought to be observed as to the Spanish as the tree is a finer tree.-To preposed to be raised in the garden ; and that the gathering and laying out to dry; and, perhaps, serve chesnuts, so as to have them to sow in the 70 trees, shown in the Plate I, are intended to to pack in the same way also is the best mode spring, or to eat through the winter, you must mark the places, and, in some degree, the form, that can be discovered. Dried Apples is an arti- put them into a box, or barrel, mixed with, and of 6 Apple trees, 6 Apricots, 6 Cherries, 6 Nec-cle of great and general use. Every body knows, covered over by, fine dry sand. If there be magtarines, 30 Peaches, 6 Pears, and 10 Plums; and that the apples are peeled, cut into about eight gots in any of the chesnuts, they will work up that the trelises, on the Southern sides of Plats, pieces, the core taken out, and the pieces put in through the sand, to get to air; and, thus, you No 8 and 9, are intended to mark the places for the sun till they become dry and tough. They have your chesnuts sweet and sound and fresh. 4 Grape-Vines, there being another, Plate to ex- are then put by'in bags, or boxes, in a dry place. To know whether chesnuts will grow, toss them plain more fully the object and dimensions of this But, the flesh of the apple does not change its into water. If they swim, they will not grow. trelis work.
nature in the drying ; and therefore, the finest, 305. CRANBERRY,- This is one of the best 300. APPLE.-Apples are usually grafted on and not the coarsest, apples should have all this fruits in the world. All tarts sink out of sight, crab stocks (See Paragraph 281 ;) but, when you trouble bestowed upon them.
in point of merit, when compared with that do not want the trees to grow tall and large, it 301. APRICOT.-This is a very delightful made of the American Cranberry. There is a is better to raise stocks from the seed of some fruit. It comes earlier than the peach; and little dark red thing, about as big as a large pea, Apple not much given to produce large wood.-- some like it better. It is a hardier tree, bears as sent to England from the north of Europe, and Perhaps the Fall-Pippin seed may be as good as well as the peach, and the green fruit, when the is called a Cranberry ; but, it does not resemble any. When you have planted the tree, as di- size of a hickory-nut, makes a very good tart.- the American in taste any more than in bulk.com rected in Paragraphs 283 to 289, and when the When ripe, or nearly ripe, it makes a better pie It is well known that this valuable fruit is, in time comes for shortening the head, cut it off so than the peach ; and the tree, when well raised, many parts of this country, spread over the low as to leave only five or six joints or buds. These planted and cultivated, will last a century:- lands in great profusion; and that the mere will send out shoots, which will become limbs.- Apricots are budded or grafted upon plum stocks, gathering of it is all that bountiful nature reThe tree will be what they call, in England, a or upon stocks raised from Apricot-stones. They quires at our hands. This fruit is preserved all dwarf standard ; and, of this description are to do not bear so soon as the peach by one year.— the year, by stewing and putting into jars, and be all the 70 trees in the garden. As to pruning For the pruning of them see PEACH.-There are when taken thence is better than currant jelly see PEACH ; for, the pruning of all these dwarf many sorts of Apricots, some come earlier, some The fruit, in its whole state, laid in a heap, in a standards is nearly the same. The sorts of Ap-are larger, and some finer than others. It may dry room, will keep sound and perfectly good for ples are numerous, and every body knows, pretty be sufficient to name the Brussels, the More- six months. It will freeze and thaw and freeze well, which are the best. In my garden I should Park, and the Turkey. The first carries most and thaw again without receiving any injury. It only have six apple trees; and, therefore they'fruit as to number ; but, the others are larger'may, if you choose, be kept in water all the should be of the finest for the season at which and of finer flavour. Perhaps two trees of each while, without any injury. I received a barrel they are eaten. The earliest apple is the Juna- of these sorts would be the most judicious selec- in England, mixed with water, as good and as ting, the next the Summer Pearmain. Besides tion. I have heard, that the Apricot does not do fresh as I ever tasted at New York or Philathese I would have a Doctor-apple, a Fall-Pip- in this country! That is to say, I suppose, it delphia. pin, a Newtown Pippin and a Greening. The will not do of its own accord, like a peach by 306. CURRANT.-There are red, white and quantity would not be very large, that six trees having the stone flung upon the ground, which black, all well known. Some persons like one would produce; yet it would be considerable, and it certainly will not ; and it is very much to be best, and sone another. The propagation and culthe quality would be exquisitely fine. I would commended for refusing to do in this way. But, tivatior of all the sorts are the same. The currant not suffer too great a number of fruit to remain properly managed, I know it will do, for I nev-tree is propagated from cutting8; and the cuton the tree ; and I would be bound to have the er tasted finer Apricots than I have in America; tings are treated as has been seen in Parathree last-named sorts weighing, on an average, and, indeed, who can believe that it will not do graph 276. When the tree has stood two years 12 ounces. I have seen a Fall-Pippin that in a country, where there are no blights of fruit in the Nursery, plant it where it is to stand; and weighed a pound.–To preserve apples, in their trees worth speaking of, and where melons ri- take care that it has only one stem. Let no limbs whole state, observe this, that frost does not pen to such perfection in the natural ground and come out to grow nearer than six inches of the much injure them provided they be kept in total almost without care?
ground. Prune the tree every year. Keep it darkness during the frost and until they be used, 302. BARBERRY.— This fruit is well known. ihin of wood. Keep the middle open and the and provided they be perfectly dry when put The tree, or shrub, on which it grows is raised limbs" extended; and when these get to about away. If put together in large parcels, and kept from the seed, or froin suckers, or layers. Its three feet in length, cut off, every winter, all the from the frost, they heat, and then they rot; place ought to be in the South Border; for, the last year's shoots. If you do not attend to this, and, those of them that happen not to rot, lose hot sun is rather against its fruit growing large. the tree will be nothing but a great bunch of twigs, their favour, become vapid, and are, indeed good 303. CHERRY -Cherries are budded or and you will have very little fruit. Cultivate for little. This is the case with the Newtown grafted upon stocks raised from cherry-stones of and manure the ground as for other fruit trees. Pippins that are sent to England, which are halt any sort. If you want the tree tall and large, See paragraphs 289 to 296. In this country the lost by rot, while the remainder are poor taste- the stock should come from the small black currant requires shade in summer. If exposed less stuff, very little better than the English ap- cherry tree that grows wild in the woods. If to the full sun, the fruit is apt to become too sour. ples, the far greater part of which are either you want it dwarf, sow the stones of a morello or Plant it therefore, in the South Border. sour or mawkish. The apples, thus sent, have a May-Duke. The sorts of cherries are very 307. FIG.–There are several sorts of Figs, every possible disadvantage. They are gathered umerous; but, the six trees for my garden but all would ripen in this country. The only carelessly ; tossed into baskets and tumbled into should be, a May-cherry, a May,duke, a black- difficulty must be to protect the trees in winter, barrels at once, and without any packing stufi heart, a white-heart, and two bigeroons. ,,The which can hardly be done without covering pretLetween them; the barrels are flung into and ou four former are well known in America, but ty closely. Figs are raised either from cuttings of wagons ; they are rolled along upon pave- never saw but two trees of the last, and those 1 or layers, which are treated as other cuttings and ments; they are put in the hold, or between the 'sent from England to Busleton, in Pennsylvania layers are. See Paragraphs 275 and 277. The
fig. is a mawkish thing at best; and, amongst such pagated precisely like that of the currant. I laid in the ground sloping, leaving one eye level quantities of fine fruit as this country produces, cannot tell the cause that it is so little cultivated with, or only just above the surface. They should it can, from mere curiosity only be thought worth in America. I should think (though I am by no be kept moist, but not wet, as this will rot them. raising at all, and especially at great trouble. means sure of the fact) that it would do very well A spot which receives the morning sun till eleven
308. FILBERD - This is a sort of Nut oblong under the shade of a South Fence. However, o'clock, and not afterwards, is the best for a nurin shape, very thin in the shell, and in flavour as as far as the fruit is useful in its green state, for tarts sery bed for them, but for permanency they much superior to the common nut as a Water-the Rhubarb supplies its place very well. The fruit should be planted where they will receive the melon is to a pumpkin. The American nut tree is is excellent when well raised. They have goose- sun longest, and in this case they should be a drawf shrub. The filberd is a tall one, and will, berries in England nearly as large as pigeon's shaded at noon day until they have entirely put under favourable circumstances, reach the height eggs, and the crops that the trees bear are pro- out. One bud only should be allowed to push of thirty feet. I never saw any Filberd trees in digious. (To be Continued.)
from the cutting the first year; the plant should this country, except those that I sent from Eng
be kept free from weeds; the earth kept light land in 1800. They were six in number, and Communicated for the Mussachusetts Agricul- around it, and as soon as the shot has attamed they are now growing in the garden of the late tural Repository by a Horticulturist.] strength enough to produce laterals, they should be Mr.JAMES Paul, of Lower Dublin Township, in ON THE CULTURE OF GRAPE VINES. rubbed out, and the shoot tied to a small stake, by Philadelphia county. I saw them in 1817, when they were, I should suppose, about 20 feet high. given considerable attention to the cultivation of sion of the sun and air to the shoot will prepare
Many gentlemen in this neighbourhood have which means it will gain firmness, and the admisThey had always borne, I was told, very large Grapes in the open air upon open trellises, and it to bear the
frost of the Fall, and prevent its quantities, never failing. Perhaps five or six bushels a year, measured in the husk, a produce they have had to contend with the many dificul- be subject to, when covered with earth in the
some have succeeded remarkably well, although inbibing the moisture which it would otherwise is no doubt that the climate is extremely favour- ties, which that delicate and delicious fruit is winter. By the 1st Nov. the shoots may be cut
down to two eyes, and by the middle of the month, able to them. Indeed to what, that is good for subject to in this climate.
Having given some personal attention to this with earth, forming a slope to cast off the wet
if it be dry weather, they may be covered over man, is it not favourable ?- The Filberd is pro pagated from layers or from suckers, of which lat- fruit for several years, I am satisfied that it can and prevent the rains from penetratingas the ter it sends forth great abundance. The layers are be raised in great perfection, and with little drier the plant is kept during the winter, in the treated like other layers (See Paragraph 276), trouble to the cultivator, if he set out right in better state it will be in the succeeding spring. and they very soon become trees. The suckers the first instance, and follow up the system pre
The 2d year,– The plants should not be uncoare also treated like other suckers. (See Para- scribed, with attention and care.
vered in this climate till the middle of April.graph 277); but layers are preferable, for the. - Although most men, who have any knowledge Those from the nursery should now be transplantreasons before stated. This tree cannot be pro
in Horticulture, know more or less respecting the ed to the places where they are to remain; a pagated from seed to bear Filberds. The seed, mode of cultivating this plant, yet there are shoot from each eye should be permitted to push, If sown, will produce trees ; but, those trees will many new beginners, who may collect some hints but as soon as you have ascertained which of bear poor thick-shelled nuts, except it be by from these notes, which may aid them in the out- the two will be the strongest and the best situmere accident. It is useful to know how to pre-set; and many gentlemen, who have been longated, you will preserve that, and rub out the serve the fruit; for it is very pleasant to have it in the habit of raising grapes in their gardens, other. The shoot preserved you will be careful all the winter long. Always let the filberds may obtain some information as to the means of to tie up to a small stake as soon as it has length hang on the tree tiil quite ripe, and that is as- preserving the plants from the destructive in- enough for this purpose, to prevent its being brocertained by their coming out of the husk without sect which has of late years attacked the vines, ken by the wind or other casualty. During the any effort. They are then brown, and the butt and destroyed the promise of their early growth summer, the laterals from the four or five lowest ends of them white. Lay them in the sun for a and the fair appearance of their fruit.
buds must be rubbed out, and the shoot be careday to dry ; then put them in a box, or jar, or
The best treatises on the subject of raising fully protected by being kept tied every eight or barrel, with very fine dry sand. Four times as grape vines, recommend planting the cuttings in
ten inches. much sand as filberds, and put them in any dry pots,—but in this country it is entirely unneces
The next Fall you may cut this shoo: down to place. Here they will keep well till April or sary, as the plants may be easily raised in the two buds, (not counting the one in the crotch of May; and, perhaps, longer. This is better a open ground with little trouble and no expense; the plant between the old and new wood), and great deal than putting them, as they do in Eng- and if we can add to our collection of fine
cover over as before. and,intojars, and the jars into a cellar'; orif they do fruits, one, which in sickness, as well as in health,
The 3d year. You will allow shoots to push not mould in that situation, they lose much of their is the most refreshing and nutritive of any that from both the eyes, and suffer them to grow, sweetness in a few months. The burning sun is we possess, with little expense and even with taking
care of them as recommended above; but apt to scorch up the leaves of the Filberd tree. profit to the cultivator, we shall do a great good. the bud in the crotch must be rubbed out. This I would, therefore, plant a row of them as near The best mode of raising the plants is by cut
year you must rub out the laterals from the five as possible to the South fence. Ten trees at eight tings taken from the vines at the Fall pruning, lowest buds, and nip in the other laterals to one feet apart might be enough.- The Filberd will and preserved in carth till spring: These may eye, so that if the plant grows luxuriantly the do very well under the shade of lofty trees, if those be made either of one eye of bud or of four or sap may burst from the buds of the laterals, and trees do not stand too thick. And it is by no five, attached to a small portion of the two years not from those of the main branch, as it would do means an ugly shrub, while the wood of it is, as old wood, forming a cutting in the shape of a lif the vine was dressed too close. Be careful to well as the nut wood, which is, in England, called small mallet.
keep the branches tied up that they may not be hazle, and is a very good wood. In the oak- The 1st year. They may be raised in a small broken. In November, cut down the two branchwoods there, hazle is very frequently the under nursery bed, prepared of a good light soil-set in es as follows: the most feeble of the two, to two wood ; and it makes small hoops, and is applied the ground six inches distant from each other, buds, to produce wood branches the succeeding to various other purposes. I cannot dismiss this with the rows wide enough apart to permit them
season; and the strongest, to three buds, for fruit article without exhorting the American farmer to be weeded with a narrow hoe ; 07, they may branches, and cover them as usual. to provide himself with some of this sort of tree, be put in the first instance, where they are to be which, when small, is easily conveyed to any reared, and left to grow, at the distance of five,
The 4th year.- If you keep your vines properly distance in winter, and got ready to plant out in six, or seven feet, or more according to the wish-dressed, you may have your first fruits without in. the spring. Those that are growing at Mr. es of the cultivator. In this latter case there jury to your plants. After this the system to be Paul's were dug up, in England, in January, should be three cuttings put into each spot six pursued must depend on the strength of your shipped to New York, carried on the top of the inches apart, to insure the setting of one. When vines, and this will depend on the goodness of stage, in the dead of winter to Busleton, kept in this is ascertained with certainty, the two weak- the soil and the care you take of your plants. à cellar till spring, and then planted out. These est may be withdrawn, leaving the rest of the But as a general rule, the following points must
be attended to. were the first trees of the kind, as far as I have three to grow. If the cuttings be of one eye been able to learn, that ever found their way to each, they should be from the last year's growth, 1st. The number and length of your fruit this country. I hear that Mr. STEPHEN GER- and a small piece of the branch an inch long branches must always depend on the strength of RARD takes to himself the act of first introduc- should be left attached to the bud and extending your plant ; the wood branches are always to be tion, from France. But, I must deny him this. half an inch on each side of it.-These should be cut down to two eyes. He, I am told, brought his trees several years planted two inches below the surface with the 2d. No more branches should be left on the later than I sent mine.
bud uppermost, and a small stake placed by the vine than it can nourish well, and abundantly; 309. GOOSEBERRY.- Various are the sorts, side of them that they may not be disturbed. If this will depend on its age, and the soil in which and no one that is not good. The shrub is pro- the cuttings are of several eyes, they should be it grows.
3d, The branches should be cut in alternately room for the branches which you have been warm, insure a good harvest; if otherwise, you for wood and fruit branches, observing to cut for bringing forward to give you fruit the succeediug vill be sure, if the vines be girdled, to ripen a wood branches as low down on the plant as pos. year. This may be kept up from year to year. portion of your fruit, at least. sible, so as to renew your wood near the bottom and give you a succession of ripe fruit from the annually. No shoots should be permitted to 1st of Sept, to the close of the season. The fruit grow from the old wood, unless wanted for on those branches which are not girdled will PENNSYLVANIA AGRICULTURAL SOCI
ETY. this purpose.
ripen the latest of course, but neither these, nor 4th, No more shoots should be permitted to those which have been girdled, should be short
At the first Quarterly Meeting, held at Nor
ristown, on Saturday, the 11th of January, 1823, grow than can be laid in clear, and handsome, ened, as is customary on vines not thus treated. and without confusion on the trellis, and so as to By this practice, which was first suggested in adopted :
the following Resolutions were unanimously admit the sun and air freely among the branches. the transactions of the Horticultural Society of 5th, The laterals should be rubbed out of the London a few years since, and first brought into the Legislature, for an Act of incorporation for
That the President be authorised to petition wood branches six or eight eyes high, and those use in this country with success by the correspon- this Society, and for such a modification of the that are permitted to remain should be pinched ding secretary of your society, I have raised Act, entitled an “ Act for the promotion of Agriinto one bud. The laterals on the fruit branches grapes in the open air this year, the bunches of culture, &c.” as shall authorize its officers to reshould be rubbed out from the insertions of the which weighed from eight to twenty-eight ounces ; ceive from the Commissioners of shont to the uppermost fruit inclusive, and the and the berries measuring from two to three Counties
Dollars, and to perform others pinched in as above. If the shoots are inches in circumference. On one vine which I their duties as effectively, as if the Pennsylvania very strong, the upper laterals may be allowed planted a few years since a cutting in the spot Agricultural Society had been organized, in conto grow, to take up a greater portion of the sap; where it now grows, I had seventy branches of formity with the but this should not be done unless there is danger fine chasselas, weighing from eight to eighteen Law and that he shall endeavour to obtain, some
sections of said of the eyes bursting in the main shoots. Be care-lounces each.
provision by which the sale of Spirituous Liquors ful always to keep the shouts tied up near their
But the grape vines have of late years been shall be effectually prevented within the distance top. 6th, Never leave more than five good eyes on
attacked by a small insect which makes its of three miles from the place at which the Agri
appearance first in June—but is most abundant cultural Exhibitions shall be held, except at hour a fruit bearing branch, unless your vine is con- in August. This insect, if left to increase de ses licensed according to Lawv. fined to a narrow space, and you are obliged to
stroys the vegetating principle in the leaf, and That as this is an Association of practical Farc preserve only two or three fruit branches; in the plant ianguishes, the fruit mildews, and the mers, disposed to acquire and communicate inthis case the length of the branch must corres- labour and care of the cultivator is lost. Some formation derived from essays on the soil, it shall be pond to the nourishment it will receive from the plant. Select the roundest and fairest branches gentlemen have abandoned their vines in conse, the duty of one of the Assistant Secretaries, ta
of the depredations of this insect, and record 'the substance of all verbal communicafor fruit, and the lowest and most feeble for wood. others with great labour, and expense of time, tions, which any of the members shall make, at The closer the buds
are together, or the shorter have attempted, but in vain, to destroy them with the quarterly meetings. the joints of the branch, the better they are for alkalies and tobacco juice.' This has to be sure That a committee be appointed to report upon fruit ; these may in general be cut to three, four, or five eyes according to their strength. But in operated to check then partially, but not effect. Mr. Pope's Thrashing Machine, which has been
ually. To remedy this evil you have only to this day exhibited. Whereupon Job Roberts, vineries covered with glass, where two fruit
make a small light frame twelve or fourteen feet John Hare Powell, and Henry L. Waddell were bearing branches only are left on strong vines;
long, in the form of a soldier's tent—but with appointed. -twenty, thirty, and forty buds are sometimes
hinges of leather where the top joins so that this That the Directors be instructed to give noleft on fruit branches,
tent may be shut up, or opened at the bottom to tice in such manner, as they shall think fit of the The foregoing rules will be sufficient for any one to build up a vineyard sufficiently large to sup: height of your trellis. This light frame, which their Annual Meeting, for Neat Cattle, Sheep,
any width you may require, according to the intention of this Society, to award premiums, at ply himself-his friends, and the market with should be made of slats of boards from one to two Horses, Swine, Crops, Implements of Husbandry, grapes. But to promote and forward their matu- inches broad, may be covered with an old sail or and Household Manufactures—the value of the rity and size, the following course may be pur- some cheap glazed cotton cloth which will stop prizes, to be determined at the next Quarterly sued.
the smoke, leaving cloth enough loose at each meeting. Accordingly, William Harris of ChesThe first of July you will be able to see the end, to close over, and prevent the smoke from ter county, George Sheaff of Montgomery counstate of your fruit, which will be just formed.-escaping when the tent is spread over the trellis, ty, Henry L. Waddell of Bucks county, Aaron At this time select the highest fruit branches and
A few tobacco stalks moistened and put on Clement of Philadelphia county, and Thomas those which have the finest appearance of fruit
some coals in a pan, will be sufficient to smoke Serrill of Delaware county, were constituted a upon them, and perform the following operation the vines thoroughly; and as the tent is easily Committee from the Board of Directors - Job on the two years old wood, from which these moved along the trellis on small wheels, one man Roberts, Manuel Eyre, Samuel West, and Chas, branches proceeded, taking care not to cut below
may, in a few hours, extirpate this enemy of the Downing were subsequently appointed to aid any of the wood branches.
vineyard. Vines that are already attacked by them. Take a pruning knife with a smooth edge, and this insect to any great degree should be smoked The Committee appointed to examine Mr. hawk's bill, and pass it round the branch where in June, July, and twice in August, or oftener if Pope's Thrashing machine, reportedthe bark is clear from knots, cutting deep enough you find the insect is not completely destroyed. “ After having carefully examined the conto reach the sap wood of the plant ; at a quarter * *3-8ths of an inch below the first cut make the leaf, without wings-very active but easily led to think, that it is well adapted, to the purposes
The insects are first seen on the under part of struction, and observed the performance of Mr.
Pope's Hand Thrashing machine, we are disposanother, running parallel with the first, then destroyed if touched. They afterwards assume of small farms; as it has in our presence, thrashmake a perpendicular cut through this section of the winged state, when it is very difficult to get the bark the same depth, and you may take
out at them, as they hy off on the vines being touched. ed Wheat without difficulty, at the rate of Sixty the ring of bark clear from the branch. This They are yellow, striped with brown across the
sheaves an hour." JOB ROBERTS. will no: prevent the sap rising into the upper part back. The moment the smoke ascends, the wing
JOHN HARE POWEL. of the branch, but it will prevent its descending ed insects quit the leaves and fall to the ground
HENRY L. WADDELL. below this cut, by which means it will be retained dead or alive; the young ones perish, but the
Mr. Joseph Kersey of Chester County, made a in, and distributed throughout the upper part of older ones will revive if not destroyed in their communication on an ingenious mode of making he branch, in a greater portion than it could torpid state. To effect this, you have only to
Thrashing fails--a communication on Sheep, actherwise be, and the branch and fruit will both cover the ground under the tent with a piece of companied by observations, on the expulsion of
Rats. increase in size much more than any of those that
wet cloth before you begin to smoke, to which are not thus treated, and the maturity of the fruit they will adhere until the tent is removed, and
Mr. Job Roberts of Montgomery county, comwill be advanced very much.
they are revived by the atmospheric air; to municated the result of his experience, corroboThis has been denominated Girdling. If the prevent which you will roll, or twist, the cloth rative of Mr. Kersey's remarks.
Mr. Powell of Philadelphia county, made the plant is very vigorous and the season very favor- each time that you remove the smoke house, or
following communications on Mangel Wurtzel and able, the wound will soon be closed, so that it may tent, and replace it again each time before you
Millet be necessary to open it a second time. The pro- smoke, by which means they will be effectually cess does not injure the plant, as you only girdle destroyed. This simple and cheap operation will I have certificates, accompanied by the oaths the fruit bearing branches, which you would in keep your vines clear of this troublesome and of my farmer and his assistant, showing that 982} any case cut out at the Fall pruning, to make destructive insect, and you may, if the season be bushels of Mangel Wurtzel were produced on
1551 perches of land, which had not received upon most young. quadrupeds, when first weaned; or have shewn since, except when fed with grain. more manure than is usually given to potato and have invariably found them materially di- My cattle, of all ages, prefer to both red, and Crops in this county. The soil had been very minished by the use of succulent roots.
the best white clover, ineadow or timothy hay. deeply ploughed, and stirred by Beatson's Scari The application of Mangel Wurtzel as food for I am not disposed to cultivate it as a farinacefier, the manure was after ploughed nine inches sheep, is not the least important of its uses.- ous crop, since I have found great difficulty in under the surface, the Scarifier having been again Ewes yean usually at the season when grass can- protecting it from the ravages of immense Aocks applied, the roller and harrow were used to re- not be supplied. The health of themselves, and sof birds, which it attracts, and in securing it duce the tilth. In April, the seeds were dibbled the thrift of their lambs, essentially depend upon sufficiently early to prevent a large part of the an inch deep-three inches apart, in rows thirty succulent food being had, I am inclined to think, grain from being left on the ground. The seeds inches asunder. Soon after the plants appeared, that no small portion of the success which En- on the upper parts of the stalks, generally ripen, they were thinned, and left at intervals of six glish breeders have met, is to be ascribed to the and fall, before those below have been filled. Í inches—when their leaves had become two in- large stores of roots, which they always have at therefore invariably cut it, when the upper parts ches long, they were cleaned by a four inch tri- command. It cannot be denied that Indian meal of most of the heads contain seeds, which are angular hoe. The earth and weeds were thrown will, of itself, in most cases, produce extraordina- hard. All my observations have confirmed me from them, by a very small one horse plough, ry fatness, as well as great size-but I have been in the belief, that in this stage it affords fodder, leaving a space of four or five inches unbroken led to believe, that diseases are early engendered more nutritious, and more easily made, than any next to them. The furrow was returned by Da- by this species of forcing, which is always ex- sort of hay. The expense of tilling the land, in vis' shovel plough ; they were again hoed, and pensive, and too often eventually destroys the the accurate manner, which I have detailed, is left a foot apart. In the first week of November, animal, which has been thus reared.
not so great as at first view would appear. A they were drawn, closely cut beneath the crowns,
I was induced to cultivate this vegetable, by the yoke of good oxen can scarify three acres and an measured, piled in a cellar in rows, as wood, and success of Mr. Isaac C. Jones, who I may venture half, without difficulty, in one day. I would covered with sand. The expense of planting, to assert, after the most diligent enquiry, is the recommend millet, not merely for its value as a tilling, and gathering the crop, was about equal only person, by whom it had been grown in this food, but for the means it affords of making clean to that of Indian corn.
state, except in small patches or gardens, until the land, without summer fallows, or drill crops. My neat cattle prefer Mangel Wurtzel to any within two years.
The ingenious arguments which have been adroots which I have offered to them. I have
I am, &c. your's.
duced to prove, that deep stirring between growfound its effects, in producing large secretions of
JOHN HARE POWELL. ing crops is advantageous to them and the soil, good milk, very great. I selected in November, JONATHAN ROBERTS, Esq.
are founded upon English experience, properly two heifers of the same breed, and very nearly
President of the Penn. Agricultural Society. directed by close attention to the effects of a of the same age, and in similar condition ; they
moist climate. Some of our writers have prowere tied in adjoining stalls, and have been fed I have made many experiments on various foundly asserted, that as “ dew drops" are found regularly three times a day, by the same man. soils, and at different seasons, to ascertain the on the under leaves of plants after deep stirring One of them has had three pecks of Mangel product, as well as the properties of Millet.- has been given in a time of great drought, the Wurtzel, and four quarts of corn meal daily; the Upon light land, in good condition, it succeeds practice is sound. I should suggest, if I were other, four and a half pecks of Mangel Wurtzel. best. It requires in all cases, fine tilth, and as allowed, that moisture had better be at such The last, which has had Mangel Wurtzel alone, much strength of soil as is necessary to produce times, conveyed to the roots, than be exhaled by is in the condition of good beef, the other is not heavy oats. I have not seen, either in Europe or the sun, or placed on the leaves until his rays more than what graziers call half fat.
America, any green crop, which so largely re- shall have exhausted it all. The valuable parts I am aware that repeated experiments on va- wards accurate tillage and plentiful supplies of of most manures, readily assume the gaseous rious animals, must be made, to sanction any manure, as the species of millet usually grown in form-every deep stirring, to a certain extent, general conclusion, as to the comparative effects this and the adjacent counties. I have sown it in het weather, therefore, impoverishes the soil. of different sorts of food. I mention the trial from the first of May, to the 20th of June, and Deep ploughing, at proper seasons, is, I conceive with the heifers, but as one of a series of attempts have invariably obtained more fodder than could the basis of all good farming ; such crops as shall which I shall make, to determine, whether the have been had from any grass under similar cir enable the husbandman to extirpate weeds, and great German Beet can be as effectively applied cumstances. In the autumn, eighty bushels of obtain large supplies of fodder, without much to the formation of fat, as to the production of caustic lime per acre, were strewed upon an old exhaustion, should be the great objects for his milk, and the enlargement of size.
sward, which was immediately ploughed, closely aim. I would propose that a foul sward receive Thirty perches of this field produced more harrowed, sown with rye, and rolled-the rye its proper quantity of quick lime, which should beets, than nearly two acres which were differ- was depastured in the winter and succeeding be spread, and ploughed under, in its caustic ently managed at the same time. Much de-spring--early in April the land was ploughed state, in the early part of September ; that the pends upon the kind of seed--upon the great again ; the lime and decomposed vegetable mat- field be harrowed sufficiently ; sown with rye at depth of ploughing, and fineness of the tilth--but ter was thus returned to the surface- about the rate of two bushels per acre, as early as not less is dependant upon the quantity of animal three weeks after it was harrowed, to destroy possible--that it be depastured late in the aumanure. Among the various practices into which weeds; early in May it was again harrowed for tumn, and early in the spring—that in May, it be we have been seduced, by the plausible theories the same purpose-within a fortnight it was stir- again ploughed three inches deeper than before of the advocates of British systems of husbandry, red with Beatson's Scarifier, to the depth of nine that it be harrowed, and left until the small there is none which appears to me more absurd, inches, harrowed, sown with Millet, and rolled. weeds begin to appear-early in June, Millet than that which has led us to drill, or dibble, our The crop was fairly estimated at three tons per should be sown-in August, the crop can be recrops on ridges. The English farmer wisely acre. After the millet was cut, the field was moved after the labours of the general harvesc. contends with the evils produced by too much stirred, and repeatedly harrowed, to destroy the The field shouid be slightly stirred with the rain-the American husbandman should as anx- after growth of noxious plants. I intend to again scarifier, occasionally harrowed, and left throughiously guard against his most formidable enemy, sow rye, not only to obtain pasturage, but to pro-out September, for the destruction of weeds as drought. I am inclined to think that there is no tect the soil from the exhalations of the sun. In before. la October it may be manured, and crop, cultivated in this state, which ought not to the succeeding spring, a slight dressing of fresh sown with wheat, or left for a crop of Indian be put upon a flat surface.
manure was ploughed under; the scarifier, roller, Corn. I am, &c. your's, In citing the experiment upon feeding with and harrow were used at intervals as before. On
JOHN HARE POWELL, Mangel Wurtzel, I have no intention to convey the 5th of May, five bushels of millet seeds were JONATHAN ROBERTS, Esq. an idea so preposterous as some of the "Fancies sown on four acres on the 5th of July the crop President of the Penn. Agricultural Society. have conceived, that Mangel Wurtzel, or any of was hauled, and estimated at four tons per acre. the fashionable roots of the day, should interfere I have obtained this season, forty tons from six TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMIR, with the king of vegetables, Indian corn; or that teen acres, of which four only had been manured, where land is cheap, and labour dear, a farmer is the remainder could not have borne a good wheat ON THE PEA-AS cultivated “wise to amuse himself,” and feed his bullocks crop. One of the loads was weighed ; an account by plucking the luxuriant leaves of “the majes- of them was regularly kept; their size was made
Spring Hill, Lenoir County, North tic Beta Altissima." I would merely recommend as nearly equal as possible. I have generally
Carolina, May 8th, 1821. its cultivation, to a limited extent, on all farms.-used a large quantity ot seed, as not more than DEAR SIR, Its influence upon some cattle, milch cows, and two-thirds of that which is usually sown, will vege Agreeably to your request I forward you, this more especially upon calves, during their first tate. Whilst my oxen consumed millet in its day, thirty peas of each of the three different winter, is very important. I have attended, with green state, they performed their work with kinds which I cultivate, being enough for two or sament accuracy, to the ills which are brought more spirit and vigour than they had done before, three hills, if planted in the hill in the way we