« AnteriorContinuar »
do among our corn, The pea dropper, with the fruit, which probably is the case in our western attention, in a particular manner, to this subject, ! peas in a basket on his arm, follows the plough, countries.
land to urge you to guard against acquiring a habit and with a pipe bowl or end of the neck of a In sowing broad cast for manuring, I would sow of expressing yourself with an air of self-suíficigourd in the other hand, dips the peas out of the one and a half to two and half bushels of seed ency and conceit, as no man likes to be dictated basket, and on getting directly between two hills to the acre, if I had seed a plenty, on land which to by a mere boy, or indeed by any one. of corn, drops the peas in the last furrow made by had been previously broke up, and if time admit. Accustom yourself to active and industrious the plough, and covers the peas with his foot; or ed, harrowed; and cover them with the plough or habits, for as Paley says, “man is a bundle of if the ground is old and free of stumps, he drops harrow from one to two inches deep; and this is habits ;” and always bear in mind, that what a the peas in the last furrow but one, and the plough all, when sowed for manure, that should be done man professes to know, he should be thoroughly by the last furrow covers the peas, which is by to them, for the more weeds and grass grows acquainted with-prefer being alone, to spending far the best way if the land will admit it to be with them the better.
your leisure time, with the idle and dissolute; done, as then the peas come up on a ridge, and I am promised, by an acquaintance, a few peas pursue wisdom with all your might, reading are not so apt to be washed up by heavy rains of an earlier kind than either of those I send much, but selecting such books, only, as will add between the 20th of May and the 20th of June, you; should I get them in time I will forward you much to your stock of sterling knowledge, and the time within which we wish to get our peas a few, as I am certain it must be an object with be particularly attentive to your religious duties, all planted. This is the way where we do not you to get of the earliest sorts, so as to be able to always bearing in mind, that the self-conceited ridge up our land as advised' by Arator; where save seed for the next year's sowing, before you infidels, of the present day, have not found even that is done, we open a hole on the ridge between turn in the vines for manure. As to the pea a substitute for the bible-strive to do vour“ duty the corn with a hoe, drop the peas in it and cover vines, when we find we are likely to be short of towards God, and your duty towards your neighwith the foot or hoe-you will probably think it fodder, we save them for hay; cattle, horses and bour, and to co unto all men, as you would, they strange that we put so many peas in a hill, but sheep, eat them greedily; in fact, they eat the should do unto you ;" by this course you may be assured it is correct, and we cut down the dry vines as they stand in the field all the winter learn what constitutes real honor, justice, honesty, gourd neck, or fill the bottom of the pipe bowl, through, particularly in moist weather. Sheep truth, disinterestedness, generosity, humanity, and till we find that on dipping into the basket to fill are fonder of the hay made of the pea vine, cut all those virtuous qualities that constitute the reit, it will hold on an average about twelve peas, while green and cured, than they are of Indian ally just and noble soul. and these are dropped as nearly together, or in corn blades, or any kind of hay that I have met When you have acquired fixed notions on these a heap, as can well be done, as the hand walks with. I have said much more already on the sub- subjects, endeavour to regulate your conduct by along the row without stooping. After the peas ject of this pea than I fear you will have patience them, and do not let the opinion of the world, are planted, we generally plough the corn alto-to read, but still not enough to give you a full self-interest, or all the powers on earth, drive gether the other way. But in this way, among idea of its importance to the farmer in the level you from that line of steady industrious, and honoyour corn, I do not think the pea would ripen be- sandy country of the Carolinas. Cooked green rable conduct, which your own judgment and fore frost, but planted by themselves in a patch, or dry with a little pork or bacon, it furnishes a conscience tell you is right, but be cautious, hear I have no doubt our earlier kinds would come to substantial and very palatable food for our labour-the opinion of other people with attention, weigh perfection. Of the kinds I send you, the black ers; in fact, I am very fond of them myself, par- the matter well before you say yes or no-but pea is nearly a fortnight earlier than either of ticularly of the corn pea, which were we in pos- when you have once said it, adhere most steadily the others, which ripen nearly at the same time; session of the art of splitting and drying, would to the opinion, so long as your judgment says you if any difference, I think the corn pea rather ear- be as good or better than the English split pea, are right, but should you become convinced you lier than the tory. I plant the pea principally so much used on board their vessels.
are wrong, say so at once; any blockhead can say, for fattening hogs, cattle and sheep, which are
"I am right,” but it requires a man of sense to turned into the fields as soon as the corn is gather
WILLIAM BLACKLEDGE. say, “I am wrong.” With these short admonitions ed, and eat off the peas at their pleasure, and N. B. If you know or can procure correct in- I will take leave of this subject, and proceed in this saves me the trouble of gathering the peas, formation of the manner in which the English the next letter to call your attention to farming though doubtless they waste a great many, and dry and split their peas, I should be much pleas- and grazing, particularly as it is practised in our food would go much further in fattening our ed to have it explained in your useful paper. your native country, where in all probability you stock, could we gather it and feed it away with
will sometime return to enjoy the little farm, that regularity to them. But our cotton crop requires a We sincerely hope some one of the re- is yet in reserve for you. to be gathered at the same time with our peas spectable English gentlemen farmers, residing in
“ALBION.” and corn, and therefore we find it best only to this country and subscribers to the farmer, will take the time necessary for saving our seed peas communicate this information if in their power.
LETTER SECOND. in those districts of our country, where we gol Ed. Am. far.
-"Hail, patroness of health, upon raising pork for market, which is the case in
And contemplation, heart consoling joys my neighbourhood, but on the Roanoak where
And harmless pleasures, in the throng'd abode cotton does not do so well, and lower down the
FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER.
Of multitudes unknown ! hail rural life !" country, they pick large quantities of peas for sale, which are generaðly shipped from or con- LETTER FIRST-FROM A FATHER TO
My very dear Son, sumed at our sea ports, before this season of the
In reading, or attending to discussions on agriyear; and therefore I fear I shall hardly be able! "A father blest with an ingenuous Son
culture, you will bear in mind, that every obserto get the few bushels you want to experiment Father, and friend, and tutor, all in one." vation of a practical farmer, or the man of sciupon in the broad cast way, for improving worn
ence, which is intended to promote improvement out lands as a substitute for clover. From the My very dear boy,
in the system of cultivating the soil, ought to be appearance of the leaf and vine, as well as roots As you have arrived at the time of life, when received in good part, by those to whom it is adof those I send you, I think you will perceive that lads usually fix on the business they intend to dressed. When a man communicates his own ideas my suggestion to XYZ is a good one. But I will pursue, at a more mature age, and as you, from a and experience to others, individuals can comspare no pains in my endeavours to have two or child, have manifested a strong partiality for ag-Ipare, appreciate, adopt or reject-none are conthree barrels of the peas sent to you; William/riculture, I am now induced to address a few let-trolledDun of Newbern, and Abner P. Neale of Wash ters to you on that subject, and also on your fu-lo. He travels and expatistes as the ington, both merchants, are the gentlemen I shall ture conduct in life, in order that you may not be apply to, to send you the peas. Plant those I send left entirely destitute of a father's advice, should
From flow'r to flow'r, so he from land to land ; you by mail in hills about three feet apart about God call me from this world, before your judg-1
The manners, customs, policy of all, the 5th of June, and hoe them two or three times ment has been matured by the experience of age.
$|Pay contribution to the store he gleans; to keep the weeds and grass under: light sandy It is very common to hear persons, who have a
rience or age. He sucks intelligence in ev'ry clime, land suits them best, and I would try the plaster lived long, and have seen much of mankind,
And spreads the honey of his deep research on some of the hills, barely to see if it made any complain of the awkward pertness, and self suf-|^
At his return-a rich repast for me." difference. In the western parts of this state I ficiency of youth, and to observe, how much In order that you may form a more correct idea presume the pea does not do well, as they do not more pleasing boys would appear, were they to of cultivating a farm on a regular system, I will cultivate it. The soil of the western parts of express themselves with becoming diffidence, give you a plan of the farm upon which I passed his state is pretty much the same with that of and respect to their superiors in age, who cer- the beginning of my life, making some deviaestern parts of Virginia, with which you tainly have had a much better opportunity of tions, in order that the system may be more cominted. With us, in our stiff rich lands, knowing, “ what is truth," than lads just emer-plete-this farm contained six hundred acres of
all to vine, but yields very little ging from childhood ; indeed, I wish to call your land, of a quality which was once considered of
but little value, but by judicious management, No. 15.-20 ewes, 6 milch cows, 1 hackney No. 17.-6 working horses, and 10 hogs. has now become one of the most complete farms horse.
No. 18.-6 working horses, and 10 hogs. in the neighbourhood.
No. 16.–20 ewes, 4 milch cows, 10 calves, 1 By this arrangement you have a regular system A tenant usually enters on a farm on the 6th hackney horse.
of farming and grazing as practised in some April, but on all well regulated estates, the out No. 19.-100 once shorn wethers, and 10 four parts of England, which shall be more fully exgoing tenant is required, by the agreement with year old oxen.
plained in my future letters, and afterwards I inhis landlord, to furnish the incoming one, at an No. 20.--100 once shorn wethers, and 10 work- tend to make some observations on live stock earlier period, with various keeping for his live ing oxen.
in general, and which kind of each breed, is to stock, and other accommodations, at a price to No. 21.-100 Crone ewes, 10 three year old be preferred for those parts I have visited, dube settled by valuation ; and the incoming tenant heifers and calves.
ring a residence of seven years in the United is likewise required to take the crop of fall-grain, No. 22.-100 Crone ewes, 10 four year old feed States. and all the grass seeds and clover, sown the pre-ing heifers.
“ALBION." ceding year, and some other property in like
PLAN OF THE FARM. manner; which mode enables an incoming tenant, if he be a good farmer, to get the whole of his
NORTH. spring crop of grain into the ground, and also to have on the farm its full number of live stock, by
E the first of May, which on the above farm, was as follows: 360 Ewes, giving support to 400 lambs
Irrigated 40 ewes, which had missed, having
Turnips. lambs, at $10 00,
400 00 200 Crone ewes, which had not had the
E ram the preceding season, at $7 00 1400 00
No. 200 she haggets, at $7 00
Irrigated F 200 he do. at $10 00
Barley. 200 once shorn wethers, at $12 00 2400 00
No. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No. 18. 1200 sheep, and 400 lambs,
No. 8. 20 one year old cattle
C 20 two year old, at $50, 1000 00
No. 9. 10 working do. do. 100, 1000 00
F Grass Seeds, 10 Milch Cows, 100, 1000 00 Red Clover.
second year. 20 Calves to be raised in the
Feeding Pasture. D Feeding Pasture. course of the year.
No. 22. 120 head of cattle.
Grass Seeds. 12 working horses at $150 $1800 00
No. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, are pasture 2550 00 20 horses, and three foals to be raised 4 enclosed Paddocks of 15 acres each is 60 acres. grounds which have never been plowed.
A. The dwelling house. in the course of the year.
B. The grist, threshing and straw cutting mill. 20 hogs at $15 300 00
C. Farm buildings. Carts, wagons, and other dead stock
No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, are arable D Original water course. estimated at
E. Water courses, cut to carry water to meaFor seed, labour, household furniture,
No. 11, 12, 13, 14, are grass grounds, which dows. &c., and pocket money,
F. Occupation roads.
reading, from all whose minds are open to convic
tion. ding to common estimations, for to stock and cultivate what is termed a convertable farm ; but first
The essential points of the English turf horse,
Virginia, February 14th. rate grazing ground will require full double that MR. SKINNER,
are, a thin and deep shoulder, narrow breast, sum of money per acre; indeed, during the French
delicate clean legs, long in the pasterns, a broad
The symptoms of a revival in the long laid or wide hock well let down, and a thigh or haunch war, it was very common to put full forty pounds spirit of the turf, together with several pieces, more remarkable for length than bulk. A long sterling worth of stock, upon each acre of ground, which have appeared in the publick prints, upon back more common than a short one, and a where the pasture was first rate--but then, gra- the improvement of our stock of horses, setting body oftener flat sided than round—and, finally, ziers frequently made five guineas of each sheep, forth erroneous views of the subject, as I conceive, the taller the better, but not less than sixteen and fifty guineas of each oxen.
will be my apology for troubling you with the hands, for a first rate courser. This carcase and About the 1st of May, the pasture ground will take its full quantity of live stock, which on the should you deem them worthy a place in its coat of hair so fine, as to express the very veins
following remarks, for the American Farmer, set of limbs is covered by a skin so thin and a above farm, was depastured as follows :
columns. No. 8.-120 ewes, 160 lambs, and 10 yearling
as well as the muscles, beneath the delicate in
Perhaps the novelty of the opinion, that the tegument. steers.
No. 90-120 ewes, 120 lambs, and 10 yearling taste and passion for racing so far from contribu A long, low, slouchirg carriage, in every gait, heifers.
ting to, has retarded the progress of improvement follows as a consequence of the above form and No. 10.-120 ewes, 120 lambs, and 10 two year in our horses, may attract some curiosity ;-but, proportions. The very best calculated, truly, old steers.
when it is stated further, to be an opinion delibe- for a four mile heat, on a smooth course, but No. 12.-200 she haggets, 10 two year old heif- rately formed, upon an experience of twenty that it is totally unsuited to the road, I will use ers, and 3 young horses.
year's breeding, commenced under the full im- no other argument to prove, than one which all No.14.-200 h haggets, 10 three year old steers pression, that the English race horse was the sagacious readers will have deduced already and 3 young horses.
perfection of the species, I may hope for a patient from the premises, if it were not established by
FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER.
the known general rule, that “a race horse is alturalized—and I have but little doubt had we pro- this time, and has been so since the fall of 1819. stumbler."
ceeded upon the rational plan of breeding solely By publishing this, it may induce others to try Equally disqualified by the nature of his skin, with an eye to qualities for service, rather than the experiment, the success of which I underis he for the harness—the slightest pressure the worse than useless properties for the turf, take to warrant. producing a gall-and as unsuited are his long Virginia would now have had the most valuable
Pohick, Fairfax County, Virginia. legs and limber pasterns to the frequently deep race of horses in the world ; but, unfortunately, state, and irregular surface of our roads, that a about twenty five or thirty years ago, the late horse of compact form and nirable movements, Colonel Hoomes, of the Bowling Green, of well
FROM THE FRANKLIN GAZETTE. with a strong coat on his back and shoulders, and known racing memory, and many others, availnot within a hand of his height, will always being themselves of the passion for racing, inun FACTS RESPECTING CANALS. found more lasting and serviceable. Moreover, dated the state with imported English race hor
The longest canal in Europe, is that of Languethe running stock are frequently vicious and un-ses, well nigh to the extinction of the good old manageable, and very generally so shy and timid, stocks of Janus, and Fearnaught, and
Jolly Roger. Mediterranean. It is 192 miles long, and was be
doc, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the purposes of war.-In England, the horses of this and many other but little less tried and approved gan in 1666, and completed in 1680. The exstrain, are rarely used, but to contribute to the racers. The difficulty of getting a fine saddle pense was 13,000,000 of livres equal to about most ruinous and expensive of their pleasures* - horse has of late become a general remark; and 2,400,000 dollars. Louis XIV. the reigning moand I am strongly inclined to the opinion, that when you do find one, with the exception of now parch, contributed 5,000,000 of livres, and the the highest style cf the English race horse, and then a Diomed or Bedford cross, you rarely province of Languedoc the remainder.
The name of the architect was Riguet, who, as which,
it has been a very prevalent folly with us hear of any other of the late imported blood in to take as our model, is a forced anomaly in the his veins. The descendants of Cormorant, and a reward of his merit and talents, was presented species, introduced and propagated by a prodi- Sterling, and spread Eagle, and Seagull, and self and his heirs.
by the king with his quarter of the profits for himenormous wealth of the nobility of England is trum; and twenty others which might be addel, feet deep and
4000 paces in circumference and is
The reservoir with which it commences, is 24 alone able to sustain. The noble animal to be cherished as the com- probationarv term of over pampered exoticks
supplied by a number of springs from the Noire,
and rivulets. panion of our manly pleasures and glorious such as have the stamina to go through the trial Achievements, should be of the form for power, and become naturalized to corn and fodder in rise each. In some places it passes over bridges
This canal has 104 locks, of about eight feet docile and courageous in his temper, quick, firm log stables, may form the basis of some future and clear in his movements. These properties good stock; but, I dare say, we shall never hear solid rocks for one thousand paces.*
of vast height; and in others it is cut through are found for the most part connected with round of many of them again. Upon this subject, few ness of contour and strength of articulation ; with perhaps have had more experience than the an. there were nearly 60,000,000 of dollars expended
“ From the year 1758 to 1803, it is estimated a texture of skin and strength of coat, which will thor of this communication; having laboured unbear the pressure of the saddle and the friction der the racing nania for a term of years, that on canals in Great B-itain; the whole subscribed of the Carness; and as far as my experience has almost reduced him to a race of worthless gar: which they occupy is 2896 miles. In this aggregone, it is rare, that you find a horse of this rans, though none of their distinguished dams description exceeding 'fifteen hands and a half cost him less than a hundred guineas a piece, and gate of length and expense, 43 canals, being prihigh. All the finest horses in the world, may be were certified
, s hogen an descontaminated three of the Duke of Bridgewater, Sir Nigel traced to the Arabian stock. The English race succession of famous English ancestors down to Boyer Grisley, and the Earl of Thanet. Of the objections above described, but which I am about twelve years ago, I became convinced of acts passed for canals, ninety were on account of
collieries opened in their vicinity; and fortyhappy in believing, the Author of Nature has my delusion, and since I have been endeavouring kindly decreed shall never be made indigenous to to get back to the well known old stocks, and seven on account of mines of iron, lead, and copour soil and climate.-The English blooded breeding exclusively with a view to useful quali- per, and for the convenience of furnaces and
forges working on them. stock, tho' kept pure and uncrossed, essentially ties, the result has answered my most sanguine change their characters after a few generations hopes.
“Eight of these furnaces, and twel:e of these in our climate, and manifestiy for the better, as to
One of your constant readers with a full iron ore, and consumed 12,324 tons of pit coal an
forges, in one county only, worked 24,824 tons of every rational and useful purpose. The native share of Virginia fondness for horses.
nually ; manufacturing in the same time 13,104 Virginia horse of the third and fourth generation,
tons of iron goods. More than 100,000 tons of pit from the light and washy figures of the puresi
coal are annually taken down the Severn, for the English stock, become less tall, with more bulk
FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER.
Madely and Brozely Mineries, to the towns and shorter and stronger jointed, with a thicker and
RATS. coarser coat ; with these changes, there is a
villages in the neighborhood.”
FULTON. correspondent one in gaits and carriage. They. In the year 1817, the rats were so numerous are more active and sprightly in their movements, in my stable and carriage house, as to defy cats and better able to stand the vicissitudes of our and traps, I was therefore compelled to try the nal improvements.
* Dobson's Encyclopædia, and Breck's Interclimate. Our food, our climate, and our man- effects of powder and shot, which was continued agement are quite sufficient to account for these for several days without perceiving any great dichanges. Our maize, which forms three-forths minution of them, but to my surprise in fifteen or Means of rendering Wood, Linen, &c. &c. inof the grain fed to our horses, in the parts of the twenty days, not a rat was to be seen, and my
combustible. state below the mountains, (where eur best hostler assured me he has not seen one since. In Mr. Benjamin Cook, of Baskerville House, horses are found), is by far more nutricious than the year 1819, my barn, two miles from my house, Birmingham, in his experiments on the Alkalis, the oats of Europe, or any other grain used for the became so much infested by them, that my over-bas discovered that all linen, cottons, muslins, food of horses in any other country. Our young seer complained of the daily havock they were &c. &c. when dipped in a solution of the pure horses are more exposed to the weather, and making upon the grain, &c. he was furnished vegetable alkali at a gravity of from 124 to 130, when taken in hand are not put into close and with powder and shot, and directed to shoot as taking water at the gravity of 100, become inwarm stables, and clothed, as is generally the many as possible, but at the same time cautioned combustible. That all timbers become incomoase in England.
to wad his gun with wood or bits of woolen cloth; bustible when saturated with a solution of alkali It is a fact well known to the amateurs in this many were killed and others escaped wounded at the gravity of 140 to 150. He has two mefavourite animal of the Virginians, that we into their holes; it was observed that from these thods of saturating timber, first by letting the abounded much more in a fine race of horses for holes they were soon compelled to retreat, and timber in the plank lie in the solution for several the saddle and the harness thirty years ago than invariably pursued by another. Now, as it is well weeks, until the alkali has perfectly filled up the at this day. This was precisely the period when known to all, that rats are very fond of flesh, 1 pores of the wood-but the method he prefers, is the descendants of some of the best of the Eng-am induced to believe that attracted by the smell the use of a powerful machine, by which he exlish stock which had been early imported into of blood, they are induced to attack the wounded tracts or forces out the sap, and then forces the the colony, had become acclimated and fully na- and eat them—that this soon becomes a favourite alkali through the whole tree, thus filling up all
jood, and they are by this means taught to des- the pores aid rendering the tree incombustible; it may be saftly asserted, that racing has put troy each other, and the weaker soon become this he prop ses todo as soon as the tree is felled, more of the estates of the English nobility to nurse, ford for the stronger-be this as it may, I can and before the bark is taken off. When the bark than any other single cause,
assure you, my barn is entirely free from rats atsis in its best state he performs this operation in a
few hours, which, while it renders the wood How throbb'd each bosom at the sound
27 head of horses for draught and saddle. incombustible, completely prevents the dry rot. The exulting sea-boy's shout above,
1 female ass. The solution of pure vegetable alkali which As far, upon the wide waves bound,
14 brood mares, principally of the Jersey blood. Mr. Cook prepares for securing from fire muslins, Burst into sight the land we love!
19 colts, rising one to four years old, princicottons, &c. &c. is as pure as the clearest spring
pally by Exile, and possessing strong marks of water, perfectly free from smell, and will not Athwart the wave, the beacon light
the sire. discolour the finest cambrics or muslins. When Shoots brightly forth its twinkling ray,
1 waggon of narrow tyre. so many dreadful accidents are continually hap And sweetly onward thro' the night,
1 ox cart. pening from ladies' dresses taking fire, from bed Its star-like lustre lights our way ;
1 horse cart, and harness complete. and window curtains being set on fire either byl The heavens are bright, the wave is low,
4 voke of fine oxen. accident or carelessness of servarts, we cannot And mild winds gently bear us o'er
A quantity of milch cows. but consider this discovery as one of great im- The azure waste- with morning's glow
A quantity of stock cattle. portance to society.
We tread again our native shore !
A flock of sheep. For ship timbers, its value is enestimable, and
ARIEL. A wheat fan. not less so for all timber for houses and public New York, Jan. 31.
Two families, containing together ten persons, buildings.
they will be sold in families, and not to be taken
out of the state. They are orderly, and valuable
people, and are not disposed of from any fault.
The sale will take place on Tuesday the 25th Mr. Edward Jakes, an English surgeon, has in
day of March next, and will begin at 10 o'clock vented an apparatus by which the stomach may BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1823.
in the forenoon. The condition of the sale will be emptied of poisons, that have been taken byl accident or design. In cases where that organ The article in this paper on the culture of
be made known by me at the time of selling,
and the stock may be seen by an application to has become unsusceptible to the action of emetic the Vine, from the Massachusetts Agricultural
me, at any time before the day of sale, living on substances, the skilful application of this instru- Repository, is the one referred to by General
the premises. ment will not fail to rescue the sufferer from im-Swift in a late essay, and is worthy of attentive
MARCEY BRIGHY, pending destruction. Mr.J. has tested the effica- consideration. We rejoice to see that the subject cy of his invention by experiments upon himself, attracts more and more attention, and hope before
Tuscarora, 23d Feb. 1823. having relieved his stomach of ten drachms of many years, to see our tables enriched and adornlaudanum which he had adventurously swal-ed with this exquisite fruit. There is, as we have
el EXILE is a beautiful dark bay, sixteen hands lowed.-R. I. American.
recently understood, a very large and delicious m;
Shigh, will be four years old in May. He is adgrape in the Arkansaw Territory, which, we
mitted by the best judges who have examined HOGS. apprehend, would be a valuable acquisition, in
; him, to be the finest description of horse, ever An Ohio farmer recommends coals, as useful wherever it can be propagated. It is represented.
imported into this country, as well on account of in fattening hogs. After giving his hogs a small to be much larger than the fox grape, of golden
en his breed, as his great bone and figure. The sire quantity daily, say two pieces to each, about the colour, having but one seed in the centre of the
the of Exile is considered one of the most splendid size of a hen's egg, they discontinued rooting, fruit the skin transparent and thin, as the outer
coach horses in England ; his grand sire is the were more quiet, and appeared to fatten faster. coat of the Onion, and the fruit growing not in
"famous Yorkshire horse Mollineaux, which sold He omitted the coal a few days and they com-bunches, but separately-such is the description
prion for 1100 guineas. It is the mixture of the Cleve. menced rooting ; he gave it again and they ceas- we have had of it, and we would thank any
any land Bay, with the racing blood, which produces ed to root. He supposes that the coal corrects subscriber in that quarter who would give us a
us a the old English Hunter ; and it is the cross from that morbid fluid in the stomach which incites more particular account it, with cuttings, them, that makes the Jersey horse more valuathem to root deep in search of fresh earth. when convenient to send them.
ble than the southern ; giving them bone, size, os
and high round action. The colour of these horses Axtract of a letter from Messrs. King & Gral. cie, dated Liverpool, January 1. | PRICES CURRENT.-CORRECTED WEEKLY. I with brown muzzles ; and they combine the fine
is confined to the various shades of bay, always COTTON.
Flour, best white wheat, $7 25—Howard st. symmetry, smoothness of coat, and clean legs of Sales in December, American, 25,420 bales; Superfine, $6 621Wharf, do. 6 121—Wheat, the blooded. In fine it is now admitted in EuBrazil, 9,980; West India, 1,630 ; East India, white, $i 35 to i 40–Red do., $1 32 to 1 354 rope, that this breed only can increase the size 1,170 ; total 38,200 bales.
Rye, 71 to 75 cents—Corn, 60 to 62 cts.- of the blooded horse, without taking from their The total sales during the year 1822, were Oats, 35 to 374 cents, Beef, live cattle, $5 activity, wind and figure, 462,805 bales, viz. 296,540 American; 128,830 to $5 50 per cwt.-Beef, 8 cents per sb. Brazil: 26,300 West India; 11,135 East India. Bacon, round, 10 to 11 cts.-Pork $4 501 ACENTS FOR
50 AGENTS FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER. 821
to 5 50 per c lb.-6 to 8 cts. per lb.-Mutton, 5 American,
87,000 86,400 Ito 6 cts, per lb.-Beans, $1 371 to 1 50% Peas, ir Complete sets of the first, second and third Brazil, &c, 45,900 42,500 black eyed, 55 to 60 cts.-Red Clover Seed, 88-vols. of
a ciever Seed volsof the “ AMERICAN FARMER,” new and corEast India, 27,100 18,500 Orchard Grass do. $3-Herds' Grass do. $3—
42_rected Editions, can be had of the following perWest India,
6,850 5,600 Timothy do. $5_Millet, $2_Flax Seed, 75 to 80 sons; price of which, bound, $5 per vol. or $4
- Icts.-Whiskey, from the wagons, 32 to 34 cts.lin Sheets :
per gal.- Apple brandy, 30 to 32 cts.—Peach do., M. CAREY & SONS and E. LITTELL, Phi Sales of tobacco in the month of December ;165 to 70 cts.Shad, none in market-Herrings, ladelphia. Virginia leaf, 300 hhds. ; stemmed, 247 do.; No. 1, $3 62 per bbl.-No. 2, $3 374_Fine W. A. COLMAN, New-York. Kentucky leaf, 475 do ; stemmed 42 do. Total, salt 80 to 90 cts. per bush. --Coarse, do, 75–WELLS & LILLEY, Boston. 1064 hogsheads.
Butter, 20 to 25 per lb.-Eggs, 25 cts. per doz./WM. F. GRAY, Fredericksburg.
-Turkeys, 75 cts, to $1–Geese, 371 to 50 cts. PETER COTTOM, Richmond, Va.
Chickens, $2 per doz.-Straw, $10 per ton-RICHARD COTTOM, Petersburg.
E. THAYER, Charleston, S.C.
nd JOSEPH GALES, Raleigh, N. C. D'er the ocean silently
W. F. REDDING, special agent, now journey prices same as before. Descends the gentle shade of even ; The moon has risen from the sea,
1 ing through the Southern States. Into the broad, and the deep blue heaven;
The fourth volume, now publishing, can be And from her airy wandering,
forwarded to any part of the United States, on Like a falling fake of snow,
At Tuscarora on Carrolton manor near Freder-application being made, by letter or otherwise, to The sea-bird rests her wearied wing ick Town; the late farm of Robert Patterson,
J. S. SKINNER, Baltimore. On the billow's quiet flow.
Esq. deceased, a variety of stock of the first
quality and character, such as never was before Yet ere the day beam left the skies, Loffered at a public sale in Maryland ; consist-Printed every Friday at 84 per annum, for JOHN S. SKINNER, Edi
tor. by JOSEPH ROBINSON, at the North West corner of Market And twilight veil'd the ocean o'er,
and Belvidere streets, Baltimore; where every description of Book We saw from yon blue billow rise, I The imported horse Exile, a description of
and Job Printing is executed with neainess and despatch-Orden
from a distance for Printing or Binding, with proper directions Far, far and faint, our native shore; which will be found below.
No. 50.-Vol. 4.
893 THE AMERICAN GARDENER., chicken grapes, hanging on it from every boughsing measured your distances, put in a cutting at
of an oak or some other timber-tree! This grape each place where there is to be a vine. You aré CHAPTER V.
resembles, as nearly as possible, what is, in Eng- to leave two joints or buds out of ground. From FRUITS.
land, called the Bluck Cluster ; and, unquestion-these will come two shoots perhaps; and, if two Propagation, Planting, Cultivation. ably only wants cultivation to give it as good a come, rub off the top one and leave the bot
flavour.' Does the Rose Bug prevent these vines tom one, and, in winter, cut off the bit of dead LIST OF FRUITS.
from bearing, or from ripening their fruit ? Ta- wood which will, in this case, stand above the 310. GRAPE.—This is a very important arti- king it for granted, then, that this obstacle is bottom shoot. Choose, however, the upper one cle ; and, before I proceed to treat of the culture imaginary, rather than real, I shall now proceed to remain, if the lower one be very weak. Or, of the grape-vine, I must notice the astonishing to speak of the propagation and cultivation of the a better way is, to put in two or three cuttings circumstance, that that culture should be almost grape vine in the open ground of a garden ; and, within an inch or two of each other, leaving only wholly unknown in this country, of fine sun. Ilin doing this, I shall have frequently to refer to one bud to each out of ground, and taking away, have asked the reason of this, seeing that the PLATE III.-The grape vine is raised from cut- in the fall, the cuttings that send up the weakest fruit is so good, the crop so certain, and the cul- tings, or from layers. As to the first, you cut off, shoots. The object is to get one good shoot, comture so easy. The only answer that I have re- as early as the ground is open in the spring, aling out as near to the ground as possible. This ceived is, that the rose-bug destroys the fruit - piece of the last year's wood; that is to say, a shoot you tie to an upright stick, letting it grow Now, this I know, that I had a grape vine in my l piece of a shoot, which grew during the last sum-lits full length. When winter comes, cut this court-yard at Philadelphia ; that it bore nothing mer. This cutting should, if convenient, have shoot down to the bud nearest to the ground.the first year ; that I made an arched trelis for it an inch or two of the former year's wood at the The next year another, and a much stronger to run over ; and that I had hundreds of pounds bottom of it ; but, this is by no means absolute- shoot will come out ; and, when the leaves are of fine grapes hanging down in large bunches-ly necessary. The cutting should have four or off, in the fall, this shoot will be eight or ten feet Yes, I am told, but this was in a city; and five buds or joints. Make the ground rich, long, having been tied to a stake as it rose, amongst houses, and there the grapes do very move it deep, and make it fine. Then put in the and will present what is described in Fig. 1, well. Then, 1799, I saw, at Spring Mills, on cutting with a setting-stick, leaving only two PLATE III. You must make your trelis ; that is, the banks of the Shuylkill, in Pennsylvania, the buds, or joints, above ground ; fasten the cut-put in your upright Locust-bars to tie the next Vineyard of Mr. Le Gau, which covered about ting well in the ground ; and, then, as to keeping summer's shoots o. You will want (See Fig. 2.) two acres of ground, and the vines of which were it cool and moist, see cuttings, in Paragraph 275. eight shoots to come out to run horizontally, to loaded with fine grapes of, ai least twenty Layers from grape-vines are obtained with great be tied to these bars. You must now, then, in different sorts. The vineyard was on the side ease. You have only to lay a shoot, or limb, how-winter, cut off your vine, leaving eight buds or of a little hill; on the top of the hill was a corn- ever young or old, upon the ground, and cover joints. You see there is a mark for this cut, at a, field, and in the front of it, across a little valley, any part of it with earth, it will strike out roots fig. 1. During summer eight shoots will come, and on the side of another little hill, was a wood the first summer, and will become a vine, to beland, as they proceed on, they must be tied with of lofty trees; the country in general, being very carried and planted in any other place. But, ob- matting, or something soft, to the bars. The much covered with woods. Mr. LE GAU made serve, vines do not transplant well. For this rea- whole vine, both ways included, is supposed to wine from this Vineyard. The vines were plant- son, both cuttings and layers, if intended to be go 16 feet; but, if your tillage be good, it will go ed at about four feet apart, grew upright, and removed, are usually set, or layed, in fiower pots much further, and then the ends must be cut off were tied to sticks about five feet high, after the out of which they are turned, with the ball of in winter. Now, then, winter presents you your manner of somie, at least, of the vineyards of earth along with them, into the earth where they! vine as in fig. 2.; and now you must prune, France.-Now, are not these facts alone decisive are intended to grow and produce their fruit.-I which is the all-important part of the business.in the negative of the proposition, that there is a have now to speak more particularly of the vines Observe, and bear in mind, that little or no fruit generally prevalent obstacle to the growing of for my garden. PLATE I. page represents, or ever comes on a grape-vine, except on young grapes in this country ? -Mr. HULME, in his at least, I mean it to represent, on the south side shoots that come out of wood of the last year. Journal to the West (See my Year's Residence, of the Plats No. 8 and No. 9, two trelis works All the four last year's shoots that you find in fig. 2, Paragraph 892,) gives an account of the Vine- for vines. These are to be five feet high, and would send out bearers ; but if you suffer that yards and of the wine made, at VEVAY, on the are to consist of two rows of little upright bars you will have a great parcel of small wood, and Ohio. He says, that, that year, about five two inches and a half by two inches, put two feet little or no fruit next year. Therefore, cut off 4 thousand gallons of wine were made ; and, he into the ground, and made of Locust, and then of the last year's shoots, as at b. (Fig. 3.) leavobserves, what more can be wanted for the grape- they will, as you well know, last for ever, with-ing only one bud. The four other shoots will vine, than rich land and hot sun.-Besides, is not out paint and without any kind of trouble. Now, send out a shoot from every one of their buds, and the grape-vine a native here? There are many then, bear in mind, that each of these Plats is, if the vine be strong, there will be two bunches different sorts of grapes, that grow in the woods, from East to West, 70 feet long. Each will, of grapes on each of these young shoots; and, climb the trees, cover some of them over, and therefore, take, four yines, allowing to each as the last year's shoots are supposed to be each bear and ripen their fruit. How often do ve meet| vine, an extent of 16 feet, and something more for 8 feet long, and as there generally is a bud at, or with a vine, in the autumn, with grapes, called overrunning branches.-Look, now at PLATE III about, every half foot, every last year's shoot
will produce 32 bunches of grapes; every vine 128 bunches; and the 8 vines 512; and, possibly, nay, probably, so many pounds of grapes! Is this incredible? Take, then, this well known fact, that there is a grape vine, a single vine, with only one stem, in the King of England's Gardens at his palace of Hampton Court, which has, for, perhaps, half a century, produced on an average, annually, a ton of grapes; that is to say 2,240 pounds, Avoirdupois weight. That vine covers a space of about 40 feet in length and 20 in breadth." And your two trelises, being, together, 128 feet long, and 4 deep, would form a space of more than half the dimensions of the
vine of Hampton Court. However, suppose you Fid, ke
have only a fifth part of what you might have, a hundred bunches of grapes are worth a great deal more than the annual trouble, which is, indeed, very little. Fig. 4 shows a vine in summer - You see the four shoots bearing, and four other shoots coming on for the next year, from the butts left
at the winter pruning, as at b. These four latPlate. I
ter you are to tie to the bars as they advance on
during the summer.-When winter comes again, which exhibits, in all its dimensions, the cutting ning, Fig. 2. The same year's vine pruned in you are to cut off the four shoots that sent out become a plant, Fig. 1. The first year of its be- winter, Fig. 3. The vine, in the next summer, the bearers during the summer, and leave the ing a vine after the leaves are off and before pru- with shoots, leaves, and grapes, Fig. 4. Hav (four that grew out of the butts. Cut the four