Imágenes de páginas

No. 7.- VuL. I.


team with low slides, drawn either by singles and conceit themselves in the high road to agri

horses, mules, or oxen, which slides can take cultural wealth and distinction. Not that I would MR. GARNETT'S ADDRESS. their loads without requiring (as in the cart and by any means check the wish to make what we [CONCLUDED.]

wagon fashion) one hand to stand on the top of want, instead of purchasing, if the saving is real, With respect to wheat, there are many me- the grain, and another on the wheel, in order to not merely apparent. But whenever this self thods not generally practised, by which a con- take it from a third, who has his station on the supplying fancy seizes us, we should take care siderable saving of time and expense might be ef- ground, will draw the whole crop together in never to forget, that the cost of the self-instructing fected. And tirst, as it regards seeding. We nearly half the time consumed by the usual scheme, in regard to the making of agricultural simple, three-shift farmers, consider it a very mode. These slides are nothing more than two implements, is precisely the difference between important saving to sow our wheat in corn land; long poles, connected by a platform of boards of the work of cobblers, and that of master-workthe previous culture of which last crop, effects thin plank, in front of which are two uprights fixed men-added to the time lost both in making and such a complete preparation of the soil, that asin an auger-hole, or mortice, at the two upper using tools of inferior quality. It would be well single ploughing with small ploughs, and one corners, to the other end of which uprights a also to remember, that unless we buy of others harrowing, if the corn is all cut off, accomplishes small rope is attached. This rope, after the such articles as they make, :nd we want, they the whole seeding process, without a hand-hee, slide receives its load, placed crosswise with the cannot purchase of us such things as ive make, except among stumps, and in very grassy spots.heads in the centre, is passed over it, and hooked and they want. “ To live and let live,” is a maxI am aware that I am now treading on very de- in two notches made in the other uprights, which im of universal application ; and if properly inbateable and debated grounds; and I am not are loosely fixed at the two lower corner's, that troduced into practice, forms one of the surest without apprehensions, that a whole host of fal- they may be taken out, as soon as the load ar- and strongest ligaments of society. Without lowists, and your 5, 6, 7 and 8-shift farmers may rives at the destined spot, when the whole slips this, indeed, the division of labor, which is one assail the above opinion, which is totally deficient out without tangling. The lower uprights are of the greatest advantages of the social state, in complication to recommend it. But be it then again placed in their holes or mortices, and would prove a curse instead of a blessing. This known to all whom it may concern, that I speak the slides return to the field. The front end of maxim in fact, contains within itself the essence only of our Rappahannock country on tide-water, the poles are long enough for a horse or mule to of universal justice. Once establish it, as the where naked summer fallows have been found noi be geared before the platform, and the other ends rule of conduct for nations, as well as individuals, to compensate the farmer for the additional labor extend about the same distance behind. Any and not only would contention, slander, cheating, of preparation; and indeed it is a doubt with common crop-hand, with three grains of common extortion, and theft, cease in private life, but many, whether wheat sowed in corn land with us, sense, can make them; and the only cost, except war itself, that dreadful scourge, and greatest disdoes not make full as much per acre, as it will the labour, is a few nails. Lastly, the common grace of human nature, would forever disappear from a naked fallow. In defence of our 3 shift method of separating the grain from the straw, from the fair face of creation. method, I will state the following facts, both ge-by treading it out, has no one circumstance to neral and particular, from my own experience : recommend it, but is in all respects the most I will conclude these observations, relative to The first is, that my fields, cultivated in 3 shifts, wasteful, slovenly, and expensive that could be the saving of time and expense, in the foregoing but grazed only by sheep, have obviously improv- devised. To use machines, which are now so particulars, with a few remarks on economizing ed considerably in a few years, both in my own improved as to cost very little, saves all the time in the operations of fencing and ditching. In all opinion, and in that of all who have noticed them. and labour of stacking; the grain requires but one open, level land, the latter process should be The second is, that an acre of corn, (the best in fanning, which may be executed by the same executed principally with the plough ; the throwmy field) which I have just measured, produced horse-power that works the machine; whereas ing out the dirt, and trimming the sidies, being sixty bushels. The same acre, three years ago, trodden wheat always needs two fannings, and the only operations which require other tools. produced only ten barrels and one bushel. All sometimes three, all performed by hand. Ma-These last should be spades and ditching shovthat has been done to this acre for improvement, chined wheat commands a better price at mark- els, instead of hand hoes, which are most comwas to roll in plaster the wheat which was last et, will make better four, and the offal is in- monly used, and frequently so worn out, as not to season sown upon it, and last spring to sow one comparably more valuable. Yet such is the in- hold more than a handful of dirt each. As to bushel of plaster on it, as it was ploughed up for veteracy of habit--the more inveterate always, fencing, it seems to be a prevalent opinion, that €017. The seasons were nearly alike. In both, when we are conscious of its being wrong, that live fences should be preferred on every account we suffered much from drought-not less, I think, streading with horses or mules and sometimes to dead ones. This opinion, however, I think during the present summer, than when this acre even oxen, is still the prevailing method. we derive from too close an imitation of the English made ten barrels and one bushel, and the culture Whilst we are on the subject of economizing, system of husbandry ; which, but a little reflecin both cases was as nearly alike as practicable; I will take this occasion to suggest, that a very tion will satisfy us, is not in all respects adapted and the distance 55 feet by 18 inches, single stalk. general saving might be made in selecting the to our country. In regard to live hedges, for ex

Another great saving in the seeding process is, best implements of every kind—for the best are ample, I think it in my power to prove, not only to select the best and purest seed, and not to be always the cheapest in the end ; instead of the that they are not the best and cheapest inclotoo sparing of it; for it is obvious, that unless you scandalous, make-shift tools, which are found on sures for general purposes with us, but in fact, give as much seed as your ground will bear, you far too many of our farms; some of them, indeed, the dearest and worst, except in a few particular must loose intinitely more in your crop, than you so little resembling the things for which they situations; and even then, that they are not enpossibly could have saved by sowing thin. Most are intended, that a stranger, accustomed to good titled to so great a preference, as has generally of us, I believe, have heretofore erred in this par- agricultural implements, would be puzzled to been corceded to them. I can affirm, from my ticular; for experience has proved, that our lands guess what they were. There cannot be a great- own experience, that a cedar post-and-rail fence, in general, wherein we have formerly sown from er mistake in economy than this make-shift plan, without any ditch, the materials for which, grow three pecks to one bushel, will produce much bet- which is as irrational, as it is common. For even spontaneously over a large portion of our state, ter when the quantity of seed has been increased admitting that a half-tool will do half-work, there and will grow by planting, almost every where in from one bushel to one and an half per acre. is an irretrievable loss of time. But the fact is, our country, will last, without the slightest repair Thick wheat is also much safer from rust, than that it is a physical impossibility, for even half-of any kind, for thirteen or fourteen years ; thin. Another important advantage in seeding work to be executed in the same time, if at all, and may be made to last 6 or 8 years longer, by a may be gained, by levelling the ground, either by with an implement half worn out, or so illy made, few occasional supplies of rails and posts. But chopping with the hand-hoe, or harrowing, and as scarcely to answer half the purpose of a good this last fact need not be taken into the calcularolling much more than is common. Although one. Yet there are thousands, into whose heads tion, by those who think it too vague as to the there is some little additional labour at first, this you can never beat it, that economy means any quantum of repairs. I also know, from my own is amply compensated by the more equal distribu- thing but the immediate, direct saving of money. experience, that either cedar, chesnut, or locust tion of the seed; by preparing the surface better To tell them that the best mode often of econo-|-(the last of which is still more durable than eifor grass seed, where you wish to sow them on mizing, is to lay out money, provided it be done ther) will, in 14 years, grow sufficiently large, to your wheat; and by greatly facilitating the clean judiciously, would be to subject yourself with make the fence anew, if planted by the side of collection of the wheat itself when cut-either by them, to a strong suspicion of lunacy. Such men it—one or two to each pamel

. A few words now, the hand, or horse-rake, which last is a labour- never can be made to believe that they get their as to the cost. Throughout a large portion of saving implement, said to be of great value, by“money's worth” in any thing that they pur-Jour state, wood for fencing will not sell at all; all who have ever tried it. The present mode of chase ; and if they can only contrive, no matter and where there is any market for it, the price is collecting this crop by hand-rakes of the worst at what expense of time and labour, to cobble up so low, as to render the cutting of it for sale, but possible construction, and drawing it together in (“within themselves," as they call it) some awk- a poor business. In the first of these cases, then, ox carts and horse-wagons, is to the last degree ward imitation of what they want, they chuckle which are much the most numerous, no expense wasteful, tedious, and expensive. Half the usual and exult in their own fancied ingenuity and thrift, should be calcı ted, but the cutting, preparing,

and putting up the materials. The posts of my we know that our children, or some other persons(bers on their Tickets, as furnished by the Clerk, ience were not even bewed the only labour be- must necessarily cut down, let us make better and under the direction of the Marshals. stowed on them being the cutting off at cach end, calculatijns, than welieretofore hare clone, in re

III. and boring with a two inch anger, six holcs to ard to the policy of adopting them, either as a Gentlemen who hare line Animals, not intendoach post. The rails were made simply by cut- general, or partial system of inclosure. I have led to be offered for Premiums, will gratify the ting the poles of a proper length, trimming the said nothing of stone-fences, because the inateri- Society by exhibiting them in their Field, where bodies, and fitting each end into the auger holes. als are not generally found in sufficient quantities; Pens will be allotted to them, subject to the same This was the whole cost for 14 years; but the but these fences are manifestly the best of all, rules with those who contend for Premiums. fence would have been equally permanent, if when they can be made without the labour of dis

IV. put up (as I have since tried) like a common tant transportation. worm-fence, and secured at each lock by two I will no longer trespass on your time, gentle

No Animal can be removed from the Pens, but large stakes or split posts, fastened together by men, but conclude with expressing my anxious by permission of a Marshal or Trustee. a large wooden pin, which mode would occupy wish that the approaching Congress may relieve

V. pot more than one fourth pari of the time spent our suspense and solicitude by a complete revision The avenue between the ranges or Pens, is inin making the post-and-rail fence. Let us now of our present tariff; and by the adoption of such tended exclusively for the Trustees, Committees, endeavour to ascertain the time and cost of mak- a moderate and permanent system of duties, as Members of the Society, and invited persons ; it ing a live-hedge. The shortest time, that I have may secure an adequate revenue for all legitimate is therefore requested and expected, that'no other over heard assigned for the maturity of one, has purposes, without materially affecting consump- person enter the same, but at the invitation of been 8 years, and the longest 14;—the last of tion, or injuriously checking the industry and en- one of the Trustees; but the Field will be free to which, from my own observation, I believe to be terprise of either of the three great classes of so- all. much nearer the truth. But we will assume a ciety. To attempt the regulation of their private

VI. middle period, and say, that 11 years are neces-concerns by extending towards them what is All Articles, under the head of “ Domestic sary to complete a live-hidge. To say nothing called “Government protection and encourage- Manufacture,” it must be carefully noticed, are of preparing the ground and planting-the hedge, ment,” nearly resembles in folly, and far surpass- to be deposited in the Society's Rooms, on Monduring the whole period of its growth, will re-es in mischief, the conceit of the philosopher in day the 8th, to be examined by the Committee, quire land, either originally good, or made so by Rasselas, who imagined that he had the power to on the 9th, being the day before the Cattle Show. manure. It will require also, at least two annual regulate the seasons. As the Deity alone can Persons offering them will hand to the Secretary, cultivations with the plough or hand-hoe, and wisely manage the last, so the animating and all the necessary Certificates of the growth of the one annual pruning—the last of which operations, controling principle which he has implanted in Wool and Flax, and of the Manufacture, being not only becomes more and more laborious every each individual bosom to seek its own happiness, within the State of Massachusetts, as they are ycar, but must be forever repeated at stated in- is, in general, the only safe guide for the manage- not permitted themselves to be present at the extervals, or the hedge will attain such a growth, ment of the first. This is a matter which our amination by the Committee; but they are exas to shade and impoverish a considerable por- political principles have fixed as far beyond the pected afterwards to see to their own goods, tion of your land. The greater part of 11 years power, as the God of nature has placed it beyond which are not allowed to be removed from the too, the field which this hedge is designed to in- the ken of our government. Let agriculture, Hall, until after the public sale on the 11th. close, will require, for its protection, either a commerce and manufactures stand as they ought

VII. very deep ditch, or as good a dead fence, as to doấon their own footing ; neither looking up All persons offering Articles under the head of would be necessary if no hedge was there ; and to government, and praying for partial, unconsti- “ Inventions,” will place them in the Lower Hall after all, not one hedge in twenty will be so care- tutional interferences in their own favour—but as directed by the person who will be there to refully reared, as to exclude all kinds of stock each laboring in their respective vocations to ma- ceive them, on Monday the 8th, and on the 9th, equally as well as a good fence. But last of all, nage their own private affairs in their own way; they will attend the Committee, furnished with our law of descents, which is still farther sanc- and they will then show themselves for what they evidence of their usefulness, &c. agreeably to the tioned by a public' feeling daily increasing in naturally are,-good friends, mutually dependent premium list. its favor, opposes an insurmountable objection to on each other for necessaries and comforts ;-not

VIII. the adoption of live hedges, as a general system ever restless and quarrelsome rivals for govern

Those persons offering Working Oren, (having of inclosure. This law, co-operating with public ment patronage.

regularly entered them,) will arrange them in the sentiment, is perpetually changing both directly

Society's Field, under the direction of a Marshal, and indirectly, the sizes and shapes of our farms.

and must thereafter be under the direction of the Divisions and subdivisions are continually making ; MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL Committee for that purpose. and these again are removed, and many small


IX. farms so united, as again to form large ones. Un- The following papers are now published for preless, then, it can be benificial generally to the servation and reference. They may in most the Match, will have them in the field designated

Those persons who have entered Ploughs for cause of our agriculture, for our planters and particulars serve as models for other societies, for that purpose, and be ready to start at 9, A.M. farmers to do, what they may know beforehand, less experienced than the ancient and respecta

of the 11th. that others must necessarily undo, or lose by the ble society of Massachusetts—we should alneglect, it seems perfectly obvious, that no kind ways be glad to get useful hints from any quar

X. of fences will suit our state of society, but such ter, much more from one so eminently worthy

The following Gentlemen being appointed as are soon and easily made; and speedily remov- of respectful consideration.-Edit. Am. Far.

Marshals, Col. D. S. GREENOUGH, Col. LUSHER ed to other situations, when found to be in the

GAY, W. Tileston, and G. W.BEALE, Esq'rs. way, in their original positions.-In England, the


it is expected that every person having business dimensions and forms of their farms are secured To be observed at the CATTLE SHOW, EXHIBITION at the Show, will follow their directions, as also in most cases for many generations, by their law OF MANUFACTURES, PLOUGHING MATCH. and those of the Trustees of the Society, so that pro of primogeniture, and by their clerical and noble public sale of ANIMALS AND MANUFACTURES, per order and regularity may be supported. orders. With us, the natural love of change, at Brighton, on Wednesday, the 10th, and

XI. which prompts cach succeeding generation to al

Thursday, the 11th of October, 1821.

As the Chairman of each Committee will preter what their fathers have done, added to that necessity for alteration, which results from the

pare Rules and Regulations, it is expected and re

I. nature of our institutions, renders it altogether

Business will commence on each day, at

quired, that all persons having business with impossible for either the shape or size of our A. M. On the first day, the Trustees and Mem- either Committee, will govern themselves accor

dingly. farms long to continue the same. If, therefore, bers of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting

XII. there are any situations in our country, where Agriculture, will move in procession from the

The Premiums will be awarded on the 11th at live-fences are preferable to dead ones, it must Agricultural Hall, to the Meeting House, where he only around yards, gardens, orchards, and along prayers will be offered, and an Essay on an 4, P. the Meeting House ; and the Treapermanently fixed public roads. But even then, Agricultural subject will be delivered ; and the surer will immediately after, in the Society's Hall I have strong doubts, provided we consult econo

of Gentlemen composing the several pay all premiums awarded to persons living more my alone, whether fences, such as I have de-Committees, and other necessary arrangements, than 10 miles from Boston ; and all others are scribed, of locust, cedar, or chesnut, either com- will be announced.

requested to call on him within ten days. bined, or each wood by itself, would not be found


XIII. to be far preferable. At all events, before we go All Stock, entered for Premium, must be put

The examination of Animals, will be on the any farther in efforts to rear live hedges, which in the Pens before 9, A. M. according to the num- 10th, and the trial of Working Oxen, and the


Ploughing Match, and the sale of Animals and Provided, however, that nothing herein contained{posed canal may benefit Baltimore to the disadManufactures, will be on the 11th of October. shall be construed to authorise such societies to vantage of Philadelphia, it is too grovelling to be XIV.

occupy or include within their limits as afore- seriously entertained : whatever is for the advanAll Fat Animals must be weigned before enter- said, the estate of any person or persons, without tage of Pennsylvania, must be beneficial to Philaing the Pens at the expense of their owners. the consent of the owners thereof, or to occupy delphia ; and as a multiplicity of markets must be XV.

any public highway in such manner as to obstruct of importance to the state, it will be the fault of the public travel therein.

Philadelphia, if it shall not derive a fair proporAnimals to be sold at Public Auction on the 20 day, (agreeably to notice in the Hand Bill for

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That for the tion of advantage and honour from every imPremiums,) must be entered, and a description of purpose of enabling the societies aforesaid, to provement on the borders of the state. In mathe same given the Secretary on the 10th, to ena- of their respective officers for the preservation of New York did not pause, because a large por

give greater efficiency to the rules and regulations king the great canal, the enlightened statesmen ble them to enter the proper Pens, on the morn- of good order, on the particular oecasions of their tion of the western trade would be likely to pass ing of the 11th; the sale whereof, will commence in regular order, at 11 o'clock, precisely. An of the said societies respectively, shall be and here the prosperity of the whole state in view, as well

public cattle shows and exhibitions, the Trustees from the canal down the Susquehanna ; they had Auctioneer will attend to the sale, free of charge by are authorised to nominate and appoirit a suf- as the welfare of their great maritime port, but to the owners, who must be responsible for the scient number of suitable persons, who shall be in- they did not check the one with the fallacious exthe conditions of the sale. The sale of Manu- habitants of the county, to act as marshals, who shall pectation of serving the other; any such policy is factures will commence in the Hall, at twelve their duty, and shall have the same authority in be sworn to the faithful and impartial discharge of as contemptible as it is false.

With respect to canal navigation in our own o'clock. Proprieters of Goods will have a list prepared to hand to the Auctioneer; they are

relation to the preservation of the public peace, state, as much is doing as is perhaps practicable also expected to collect their own monies ; it be

and to the service and execution of criminal pro- in the outset. All that is said in Maryland about ing fully understood, that the Auctioneer is only

cess, and which may be directed to them accor- the vast consequence of the Susquehanna, is so to bid off the same, free of any expense; and the dingly, within the towns respectively, in which much urged in favor of exertion in Pennsylvania; sale will commence with the first entry, and pro- stables by law now have ; and they shall exercise the interior of the state, is far greater than is

such shows and exhibitions may be held, as Con- the increase of population and improvement in ceed on regularly.

their said cfice from twelve o'clock at noon of the supposed even by well-informed persons: the XVI.

day preceding the day of the commencement of mere fact that we are in earnest attending to Any Members of the Society who have not re- such shows and exhibitions, until twelve o'clock the union canal, has given a spirit to enterprise, ceived their. Certificates, will find a person at- at noon, of the day succeeding the termination and attracted population to vacant lands. It is in tending for that purpose, at their Office in the thereof, and no longer.

the natural course of things, that settlers from Agricultural Hall, who will deliver them, on (Aff:roved by the Governor, February 9th, 1821.] the cast and noth should come into Pennsylvapayment of Five Dollars, the sum agreed upon

nia: the migration of such persons to New York, instead of all annual assessments. The same

has greatly contributed to its prosperity, and a person will also, on application in season, furnish

From ihe Aurora.

similar result must follow in this state. It is abTickets for their Dinner, at Dudley's Tavern.

surd, therefore, to imagine, that, any improveXVII.


ments made by Baltimore can seriously affect The Hall will be opened between the hours of The attention, directed to canal navigation, in Philadelphia—the resources of Pennsylvania are half past 2 and half past 4 o'clock, on the 10th, various parts of the United States, at the present equal to the supply of both ports, if each will be exclusively for the Ladies and those Gentlemen moment, is highly honorable, and promises great content without a monopoly: who accompany them, for the purpose of seeing advantages, to the country at large. The glory, But above all, the formation of canals will have the Manufactured Articles. A person will be ap- which is merited, by setting the great example, so great an influence upon the minds, manners and pointed to wait upon the Ladies through the in this particular, belongs to the state of New affections of Americans, by as it were concentrarooms, during the hours prescribed.

York; it is true that Pennsylvania was the first ting them or attracting them to each other, that GORHAM PARSONS,)

to make an attempt, and that Massachusetts was he must be a sorry politician indced, who can deJOHN PRINCE,

Committee of the first to complete, an artificial water common.scend to a calculation about local pecuniary adP. C. BROOKS, Arrangements.

nication ; but New York has a just claim to re-Vantages or losses. Our territory is extensive S. G. PERKINS,

nown, as the successful accomplisher of a work, even to unwieldiness-its extent is unfriendly to a which, in boldness of design and rapidity of cxe- similarity of principles and habits ; so that he

cution would do honor to the most enlightened who gives the smallest aid to strengthen, by apAN ACT

and powerful nation. It is asserted in the New proximation the ties of political and social affiniIn addition to an act for the encouragement of Hampshire Gazette, that no less than five new ty, will contribute to the happiness and duration AGRICULTURE and MANUFACTURES.

canals are now in contemplation in the New Eng- of the republic. Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House land states ; and if our eastern neighbors direct of Representatives, in General Court assembled, their energies to such works, as zealously as they and by the authority of the same, That the seve- have devoted them to manufactures, there can be ral Agricultural Societies incorporated, and no doubt but similar success will be their reward. which hereafter may be incorporated within this The state of Ohio has engaged Mr. James Turnips may be raised with advantage : they afCommonwealth, shall be, and hereby are authori- Geddes, one of the most skilful engineers of New ford not only sauce for the family, but much food sed and empowered by their Trustees, or other York, to make the requisite surveys and esti- for cattle and sheep. The garden will yield a supoficers, by them designated for the purpose, tomates for the Ohio canal—a work which would ply for early sauce, and new land the best for the define and fix bounds and limits of sufficient ex- connect the Ohio with the lakes: Mr. Geddes is table ir winter. But it is principally for the purtent for the erection of their cattle pens and yards, to receive a salary of $1500 a year, and his ex- pose of providing sustenance for cattle and for and for convenient passage ways to and about the penses are besides to be defrayed. When we sheep that their cultivation is recommended. same, on the days of their annual cattle shows consider that so stupendous a work is contempla Of this vegetable there are various kinds, but the and exhibitions; and also for their ploughing ted by so young a state as Ohio, we blush at the Swedish turnip (Ruta Baga) is preferable. It is matches, and trials of working oxen; within tardiness of Pennsylvania, and are disgusted at mest productive, most nutricious and easiest to be which bounds and limits, no persons shall be per- the eforts of those, who for factious purposes, preserved for the future use of cattle. mitted to enter or pass, unless in conformity with still grumble at the efforts that are now making They will grow in almost any soil when well the rules and regulations of the Trustees or other to retrieve the character of the state.

prepared; but in a light soil, consisting of sand officers of said societies respectively. And if any The people of Baltimore appear to be sensible and loom, they may be raised in the greatest perperson shall enter or pass within the bounds and of the vast importance of the trade of the Sus- fection. They will flourish in a rich heavy soil, limits thus fixed and defined as aforesaid, contra- quehanna, and accordingly propose to make a and the crop will be abundant, but too rank to be Ty to the rules and regulations of the Trustees er canal sixty miles in length, in order to overcome sweet. other officers of said societies, as aforesaid, after the obstacles which the falls in that river oppose In the preparation of the ground, manure, sowbe shall have been notifed thereof, he shall to a fire navigation. Far from desiring to damp ing and culture, and the harvesting and preservaforfeit and pay a sum, not less than one dollar nor their arder by depreciating the importance of the tion of turnips, a method should be observed nearmore than five dollars, to be recovered before any Susquehama, we do not hesitate to say, that high-ly similar to that of raising carrots. Instice of the Peace of the same county, in anly as they estimate the trade of that river, it is As the stems and leaves of turnips are much artion of the case, at the suit of the Treasurer of still more valuable than they suppose. As to the larger than those of carrots, the rows should be said society, to the use of the society aforesaid : consideration, that the completion of the pro- more distant-at least three feet apart, and the


plants in the rows twelve or fourteen inches from them cvery year with my Indian corn, and the through the centre five feet wide, carried off, each other. This distance is necessary for their same labour that raises the corn, cultivates the slowly, the water from the spring and winter growth and to admit the horse plough without in- pumpkins ; and I obtain from five or ten cart-loads Acods of the neighbouring high-grounds. I bejuring the plants. Half a pound of seed is suffi- irom the acre. They will grow on any land that is gan at first, with ten acres, and the next year the cient to sow an acre. Before the seed is sown, it capable of yielding corn. "Pumpkins,” says Mr. whole was under the plough-it was struck out it is adviseable to put it into a vessel with water Rose, are usually raised by our farmers among into lands of from cne to two rods wide, as was and skim off the light defective seeds which rise their corn: but, although useful that way, I am found convenient, on account of roots, mounds, on the surface, The residue may then be rolled persuaded that there are but few crops that will &c. and in a direction to the ditch; the lands in lime or plaster and then sowed. The best time better pay the farmer's care, than pumpkins rais- were back-furrowed, as it is called, and the wafor sowing seed is from the tenth to the thirteenthed by themselves. And it is useful for a farmer to ter furrows were cleared out by one or two extra of June.

have as great a variety of forage and provender as bouts as the tract was narrow, the ditch being More than eight hundred bushels of turnips have he conveniently can. Without pumpkins and abun- incumbered with roots, and its sides unequal, i been raised to the acre ; but four or five hundred dant root crops, he will feed his cattle to great dis- was found necessary to plough directly across, by may be considered as an average crop on good land advantage."

which it was nearly filled up. The first heavy well cultivated. The produce of such an acro Beans are a vegetable that every farmer should rain its contents were of the consistence of morwill afford much food for cattle and shcer-it will raise. They will grow well in a deep moist soil, and tar, and a stop was put to all operations. To be more than the hay which several acres afford. flourish on clay ground. I have found no citiculty have cleared it out with shovels would have been The leaves and stems of the Swedish turnip en in raising them on land that was unfavourable to the a heavy and expensive job; a plough was tried one acre will be equal to a ton of hay; but as these growth of corn. But is the land is very richly ma- with very little advantage. A maple sapling, cannot be preserved long in a sound state, they nured, they often run too much to vines to yield a that had been taken up with all its close and horishould be given to the cattle when green-in that large crop Of this fact I am convinced by repeat- zontal roots, extending four feet, was cut 6 feet state they will eat them greedily. The turnips ed experiments made in different years on varions long, hitched to a strong team, and with a man should be given to the cattle and sleep the last of kinds of soil. I caused several hills in a row to be mounted on it, was drawn several times through winter and during the spring before the grass supplied with as much mamurre as what I put on the middle of the ditch, completely scooping out grows in the pasture ; at that season catile not on- Indian corn, the vines in these hills were thrce a passage for the water, throwing the mud on ly need succulent food, but the turnips are then in times as large as in the adjoining ones, but the each side, and filling up the inequalities; the ontheir best state: for Cobbett observes these turnips quantity of beans they vielded was not half so largely manual labour necessary, was to clear out the are not fully ripe and fit for use till February. as from the same number of hills which had only mouths of the water-furrows with a shovel, which

The cultivation of turnips not only yields a pro- half that quantity of manure. Where a crop of was soon performed in the subsequent operafit to the farmer, but they meliorate the soil on beans is raised they communicate a blackness to tions, the maple was frequently resorted to, with which they grow by the swelling of their roots, the soil resembling vegetable mould or leany scil. similar success. When suficiently dry the lands and prepare it for succeeding crops. No person” The fact is they receive much nourishment from were harrowed, in the same direction they were says the Encyclopedia, “cver deserved better of the surrounding atmosphere, and appear to im- ploughed, and then ridged with a large Dutch a country, than he who first cultivated turnips in part à portion of it to the land. Their roots plough and two yeke of oxen, these ridges were the field. No plant is better fitted for the climate strike deep into the earth and meliorate and pre-made by turning one furrow nearly upon another, of Britain, no plant prospers better in the coldest pare the ground on which they grow for succeed- the space being perhaps ten inches, into which part of it, and no plant contributes more to fertility. ing crops.

the manure was put, and were about five feet In a word, there has not for two centuries been in- They should be planted about the same time as apart. In the centre of the ridges potatoes were troduced into Britain, a more valuable improve- Indian corn ; and in hills from two and a half to planted in hills, from three to four feet apart-in ment."

three feet apart. They should be hoed twice, and cultivating, they were ploughed between the As contributing to the supply of food for cattle, that when they are dry. Hoeing them when they ridges only, with a yoke of oxen, or two mules cabbage is an article that may be profitably raised are wet either with dew or rain as injurious, and tandem, and the earth to form the hills, taken in the field. By setting the plants three feet dis- usually produces a rust fatal to the crop, lf af- out of the furrows, so that the ridges remained tant from each other on a line in rows running eachter the second hoeing, weeds should come up, it entire, and the crop secure from too much wet, way, so much of the labour may be done with a will be necessary to remove them, or they will which otherwise would have destroyed it. As it horse plough, so as to leave but little for the hoe. materially injure the beans.

is not the intention of this communication to state The quantity of food, that can be raised on an acre As an article for culinary purposes they are va- the particulars of this crop, I shall only observe, thus cultivated is very great, and will afford much luable, not only when green, but after they are that it was an average one, with the uplands in nourishment to cattle in autumn and early in win- ripe; the white bean, when properly dried is a good the neighbourhood—had the manure been more ter, when grass fails and they require support from and wholesome sauce at all seasons of the year. The suitable for potatoes it probably would have exthe barn. Nor is the labour great that is necessary demand for them is considerable, and they com-ceeded; but in-applying the manure, which was for the culture of this vegetable ; but to obtain a mand a fair price in the market. From long expe-la compost of bones and hoofs from the soap and good crop, the ground should be previously plough- rience I have found them useful as food for sheep late glue boilers, fermented with leeched ashes and ed several times and well manured. Farmers, if in winter and early in spring.–CINCINNATUS. sandy loam. 1. was governed partly by necessity, they would make the experiment, would find this

and having in view, the preparation of the two method of procuring subsistence for thcir stock

first substances for the

permanent less expensive and more profitable, than that of From the Massachusette Agricultural Journal, that was to follow, they being of too fiery a na1.urchusing more land for pasturing and mowing.

Vol. 4, NO. 2.

ture to be laid down fresh with grass-seeds. The The extending the limits of our farms, and the WET UNPRODUCTIVE MEADOW RE- next season, the lands as first laid out, were again neglecting the cultivation of what we possess, is ai)


back--furrowed, ridgea, and the same process error that cannot too often be reproved. This er- By S. W. POMEROY, Esq. Vice Presilent of the pursued as before, with less labour, the same ror has been so long cherished, that it has acquir- Massachusetts Agricultural Society. kind of manure, and the crop rather better; and o the force of habit. And every successful meth- In compliance with the request of the Board as soon as it was off, the lands were ploughed in od of raising more food fro.n iess land has a t2n- of Trustees I will endeavour to detail the man- the same manner as before, for the purpose of cicney to correct the evil, and render the farmer agement, in reclaiming a tract of 20 acres of laying it down; but they were not sufficiently conmore content with his farm.

Woodcock-meadow, or swail, upon my farm ;-vex to take off the water entirely, and very uneThe cultivation et the pumpkin is an object wor- the contrast between its present and former ap- qual. Repeated ploughing and harrowing might thy the attention of every provident husbandman. pearance having attracted some attention. The have produced the desired effect, but time would It not only furnishes means for increasing the va- soil is a light, black, vegetable mouid, mixed with have been wasting, and it became necessary to riety of dishes for our annual festivals and other fine white sand, upon thin, alternate strata of try the operation called turnpiking: A scraper, days, but contributes to the support of our cattle blue, yellow-veined clay, and the same kind of made of thin pine plank four feet long and two and swine. In autumn and the early part of win- fine sand. This sub-soil retained all the surface teet wide, shod with iron, with a couple of old ter they afford good food for swine, particularly water, and so level and wet was the whole tract, plough handles fixed by staples conveniently for so, when boiled, mashed and mixed with a small that the hay seldom paid the labour of harvest-la man to hold, and small chains connected with portion of Indian meal. And there are few things, ing; and except in dry summers its value for them from the centre, to which the chain from a of which cattle in general, are fonder, and on which pasture was trifling besides, one quarter was yoke of oxen were hitched. The scraper was they thrive better. For those that are fatting, and occupied by flag ponds and mounds, that produced then placed in the water furrow of the first land for milch cows, they are excellent--they give a nothing. No part except four acres of the upper in such a position as would take up as much earth fine colour and pleasant flavour to the milk. There end had been subdued, in any other way, than by as the oxen could draw and walk briskly. When are but few articles which I raise on the farm with cutting the bushes and floating ; the vestiges of a he came to the centre of the land, which may

Rittle labour that afford so much profit. I plant Istam for that purpose now remain- ditch now be called a broad ridge, the man raised the


of grass



seraper and followed on to the next, treating each horses having been reckoned at the importation additional charge that both the tanner and shoe ridge in the same manner till he had gone over prices, and labour at the rate of twelve shillings maker must make to enable them to pay the taxes fifteen or twenty, he then came about and re- a week for a man. Further, that in the estimate on the various articles used by them, as well as turned by the side of his former track, till he had of the produce that accompanied the above, the the interest on the amount of duty advanced by performed the same operation over the whole-in grain was charged at the importation prices, and them. The same observations apply to Deer. some parts a second scraping was necessary.- a value put upon the green crops; that 5s. 4d. a The malster and brewer, besides requiring a As the scraper was light the man held it up till stone for live stock was required to afford, and larger profit to enable them to pay their taxes, he came to the water-furrows, or such places as that with these prices there was only a trifling must also charge interest on the duty advanced he wanted to take the earth from, and the work balance left after paying the expenses. First, i by them. This is the more needful, as their risk was not harder than to hold a plough in new have to notice that from the annexed statement from bad debts is more than tripled in conserough ground. As there is no stopping, the oxen it appears that grain is at present 48 per cent. be- quence of the taxes increasing the price of their may perform as much in a day as they can har-low the importation, or what has been proved to article in that proportion. Surely the circumrow with a harrow of the same width of the scra- be the lowest remunerating prices. Taking 5s.stance of all who have not the means of brewing per. After the ridges had been harrowed level

, 4d. a stone as the lowest remunerating price for their own beer, paying at this time 300 per cent. and the water-furrows cleared out, the whole re-live stock, and 3s. as the present value, gives a duty in that article, ought to convince A.B.C. sembled a field of turnpike roads. To each-acre reduction of 437 per cent. on this article. Reck- that the taxes press much heavier than his calwere spread 200 bushels of dry leeched ashes, oning the former at two thirds, and the latter at culations have shewn. and 3 pecks of timothy seed, sown, harrowed, and one third of the produce of a farm, the above I am, Sir', your's respectfully, rolled--the sowing was from the 20th September shews that it averages 465 per cent. below what

ANDREW SCOTT. to the 1st November, and on most parts the seed has been proved to be needful, with the scale of vegetated before winter. It was my intention to expenses of 1821, to indemnify the farmer. Pro

FARMING EXPENSES. have kept a particular account of this enterprize, vided these data are correct, it is clear that, to Rent -

23,208 per cent. to total expen. but the work, owing to wet weather, and other save from loss, the whole of the outgoings upon Poor and Church causes, became so blended with other operations a farm must be reduced in the same proportion, Rates - - 4.641 per do. of do. of the farm, that it was found impracticable. I be that is, 46} per cent. The important inquiry Assessed Taxes & lieve, however, that the potato crops nearly paid then is, if it is possible, under the existing taxa- Insurance .771 per do. of do, the expense, the two first years; and I am convin- tion, to effect such a reduction. By referring to Tradesmen’s Bills 4.362 per do. of do. ced that the whole expense besides the value of the the annexed document it will be seen that seed, Keep of Horses 16.752 per do. of do. crops, including the extra expense, compared with and keep of horses, amount to about 27 per cent. Diminution in valaying down common upland, did not exceed ten These being the only charges that farmers gene- lue of do.

.837 per do. of do. dollars per acre. The crop of grass the following rally have received an abatement in, equal to the Labour

21.400 per do. of do. season owing to the plants being so very young, cent. to be brought to the reduction required. Manure, &c. fall in the price of produce, there remains 73 per Seed

10.091 per do. of do. was light-heads were formed but no seed produ

3.141 per do. of do. eed. "The hay resembled rowen, and was of of this, rent is 23 per cent.; and however hard Incidental Expenmore value than any crop the land would have it may be upon the landed interest (till the taxes

.857 per do. of do. borne had it been sown with the grass seed in the that effect them are taken off,) it is certain, if the Keep of family, pubspring, as is usual. The land for four successive present state of things continue, this charge will lic expences, &c. 13.960 per do. of do. years since, without a dressing of any manure has soon sustain the above tall

. This would bring one averaged two tons per acre-not estimated tons, half of the expenses to the scale required, to ad

100,000 as taken out of the field, but weighed out in the mit of corn being grown at present prices, but Average prices of Corn for the week ended winter and spring in the Boston market, being other half. With the exception of poor rates, 1 Feb. 15th.

the difficulty is in eifecting the reduction in the Jan. 26th, being the fourth of the six preceding put in a barn by itself, and an exact account kept admit that all the charges that coin pose it may of the sales. The last season the crop was light

Wheat £2 10 7 Import. price of do. £4 00

do. of do. er, but no water remaining even in the water-fur-be reduced, but that the reduction can be carried

2 13 0 rows, it has become a fine perennial meadow, and without first reducing taxatioa to the scale of so far as 463 per cent. I contend is impossible, Barley

do. of do. with slight top dressing once in two or three years 1792. How much reduction, under the present


do, of do.

do. of do. will forever be productive of the sweetest her


do. of do.

2 13 0 bage. The value of the land in the estimation of taxation, can be effected I cannot undertake to many, who were acquainted with its former state, say, but no one who has reflected on the opera

tion of the taxes in increasi..g the expense oi the is thought to be more than quadruple.

27 19 0 being 48 pr. ct.less. £15 6 0 farmer, labourer, and tradesman, will, I think, It may be proper to state, that I have not suffered the land to be fed with any kind of stock,

be sanguine enough to believe that more than 25
If then the charges

ON TARES. but have some seasons taken a second crop.

per cent. is practicable.
which constitute this half of the expenses can-

Pump-court, Temple, November 21, 1821. Brighton, 25th April, 1816.

not be reduced more than the above, there will Sir,—The mention of tares made in your last

be a loss of 21, per cent. on it, or 10 on the total paper, induces me to trouble you with a few obserExtracts from the lust file of the London Far- expenditure. To allow farming to be carried on, vations on that highly valuable tribe of plants to mer's Journal, received ut in office of the Ame- this luss must ultimately come off the landlord, which much less attention has been paid than rican Farmer.

and which will make a further reduction of his their importance in agriculture justly demands :

rent or 46 per cent., and which, added to the and inasmuch as every small stay which can retard STATEMENT OF THE EXPENSES OF 461 already reckoned upon, make a total of 93 the impoverishment of the fariner must be usefu!, FARMNG.

per cent., thereby leaving him only 7 per cent. I hope that I may be pardoned for intrudmg on the Walton-upon-7 'namis, 12th Feb, 1822. i need hardly add, that this is a consideration notice of your readers. SIR,

that ought to excite the most earnest attention of Of the vicia, properly so termed, there are maANNEXED to this is a statement founded upon every landed proprietor in the kingdom. The ny species, besides mere varieties : I am not acmy estimate of farming expenses, published in certain effect in my opinion of the present circu- quainted with more than two species which are your Journal of the 2nd April, 1821, showing lating inedrum (gold at the old standard of £3. 17s. strictly perennial; these are the vicia sepium, what per cent. the different charges are of the 10 d. an ounce) is to establish a low scale of or bush vetch, and viciu cracca, or tufted vetch. total expenditure. I also add a statement, show- prices ; and if under such a scale the taxes are the first of these produces so very early an hering what per cent. grain is below the importation not greatly resiuced, they must operate in destroy-page, so rich, so bulky, and so many crops in the prices. My object in giving these documents is ing not oniy the landed interest, but also the ais- year, (for it may be cut three or four times in the to point out, that excepting an abatement of rents ricultural capital of the kingdom. In concluding, year,) that it is very singular this plant should not is obtained of nearly 93 per cent. it is impossible I cannot forbear noticing a letter on the subject of have obtained a place in the cultivation of imwith the existing taxation for farming to be car- taxation, signed A. B. C., and published in your proving farmers: the obstacle, probably to its genried on to a profit with the present price of pro- Journal of the 4th inst. Although I do not feel eral introduction is, the circumstance, that its duce. Before proceeding farther it may be ne- myself competent to shew the full extent of the seed lies long in the ground, often till the following cessary to premise that the estimate referred to pressure of the taxes upon agriculture, yet I have year before it comes up, but it appears to me amply was given as a fair average of the expenses of no hesitation in saying, that the view that the io repay the delay. ferming in England, and was made upon a farm above letter gives is extremely imperfect. For The vicia crucci, or tufted vetch, does not spring tilbe-free, and wholly arable, seed and keep of instance, in the article shoes, he has omitted the early in the season, but it produces a profusion of

1 4 5 1 02 0 16 9 1 2 5 1 4 3

2 00 1 7 0 2 13 0



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