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out to the turning row, at least three distinct been covered up, never to be recovered—at least journey of half a mile with every single ear one operations and three times travelling over the sur-20 per cent. of the whole crop of ears are lying other bushel, to get it to the same place ; you face of your field ; and if you set down the com- on, or partially in the ground, suffering from might with almost as good a grace tell me tha ing empty and going out loaded with each arm-levery vicissitude of weather, and if the field has the transportation of the last bushel would in full of blades,

and tops, you should fairly set been grassy, which is very apt to be the case, if the take me as many handlings, and as much pains, ladown these carrying operations each at two trav-ground is in good heart, much of the work ex- bour, and time, as the removal of the first bushel els over the field. Therefore by the time you hibits more the appearance of the rooting of hogs as to tell me that the number of handlings of your have got your blades and tops deposited on the than of the operations of farming. This is no ex- crop in the new mode, bears any comparison ti turning rows ready for your carts, your hands aggerated picture, in a district of country that the multiplied handlings, and vexatious, catchins bave actually handled the blades three times, and has been long under my eye.

straws operations of the old mode. the tops twice ; and have walked seven times over The seeding over, how'stands the comparison ?!. A man cannot husk quite as many barrels pe" the surface of your field.

In the new method your corn is now all ready to day off the stock, as from an old fashioned com Now for the other method at every blow of the be husked, and carried to the corn house, the heap; but after a little custom the difference is cutter and he will not make one more for the fodder to be ricked up on the same turning, en- not as much as would be supposed; the gathering *hole field, than did the top cutters,) the whole larging their size by putting three of the corn and hauling in will throw the old mode behind of the noble plant yields to his power, hill after ricks together, and making them safe for winter, the new-and as to loss in husking, it bears no Lill falls into his arms, and if a right angle turn is from which they are taken to the feeding yard, a comparison to the loss in and on the ground, by made with every arm full, the cutters of each two load or two each evening as wanted, after the knocking down and covering up, while plougheighth rows have only the width of seven

rows to work of the day is over. This fodder is not only ing in wheat. It would be great carelessness to Carry them out of the straight line of march.-excellent, but very rich and nutritious food-con- leave corn unhusked, but if left, it is not lost, as The carriage of each of the other two correspond- taining not only all the blades and the top; but, the horses and cattle will get it. As to ploughing rows to the shocks, is less and less out of the the corn shuck and stock cured with their juices ing out the corn stumps, it must certainly be a straight line, till you get to the two centre rows, in them; and of three times the value of those very unnecessary and ill judged practice : why which have no deviation. Thus by the time the saved in the old mode, which have remained out not plough your wheat in exactly the same beds, Geld has been felled, level with the earth, and till both are weather beaten and dry. If you as you would, if the corn had not been taken placed in shocks of 16 hills each, ready for the must have a fodder house thatched, this is easily off, and then the first two furrows are lanred carts, you have performed but two operations ; done by, making this disposition of as much of up as well as you please, and the corn, roots a:d both done at one single handling, and the field the fodder as is necessary, instead of ricking it stumps more completely covered up, than they has not been travelled over once and a half, taking all up where the corn is husked. This work is could possibly be in the old mode. The wide into the calculation every inch of back and forth performed with husking, ricking, loading corn, turning row will be good ground for a part of movement. Here is one handling and one and an and lofting--four operations,

your flax crop. half travels over your field to place the whole. What is left to do in the old mode? the field has In the new mode, Arthur Young's opinion, that plant, fruit and all, ready for the cart, opposed to been already by this mode travelled seven times corn was the most desirable fallow crop to prekve handlings, and seven journeys over the field over; go over it again, and gather the corn; again cede wheat, becomes true; the crops are distinct 10 cure and collect only the blades and tops, the with the carts, and handle the corn again to throw and the operations are well separated, and elcorn, shuck, and stock are still untouched—and into them; and let the hauling he what it may, fected in a farmerlike manner; both your provenI am within the truth when I say, that the same wet or muck, go in the wheels and heavy oxen der ricks and manure heaps are handsomely inhands will cut off the whole plant and shock up must, and trample and tear up your hopes of a creased, and your corn crop wound up in a shorthe produce of a field in half the time, that they wheat crop-after the corn has been got to the er time. In the old mode the combination of the can pull, cut, tie in bundles, and carry out the fodder house or husking yard, it is then, to be crops is injurious to both—much of the corn is

lades and tops of the same field. And of course husked, loaded into the carts, and lofted, and the covered up or left lying on the ground, and husks biv half the number of days that it will take to husks or shucks put away, Two operations on out with rotten and defective ends; the wheat crop ave your tops and blades, can the hauling in the the surface of the field, and four from the fodder is miserably put in, and often much injured by getkew method begin earlier, than in the old—and house yard to the corn house, making six, and ting in the corn, and you are stock getting, or catchwith this advantage in the start, and the shorter your corn stocks are still in the field. These ac- ing dry straws, all the best weather after Christhaul; the operations of saving and clearing the cording to F. are to be got in, though they are now mas, when you ought to be much more profitably held of the whole plant, and ricking up on the dry and half their value is gone; again travel employed. "Do not condemn a fashion because it is middle turning, can be effected and completed by over the field to cut them down ; again to pick new to you. I verily believe this method of sahe same day of September that you could finish them up and to collect into heaps ; again the carts/ving a corn crop, a valuable improvement, and voir blades and tops, without injury to your teams must go into, and over your promise of a wheat have therefore thought it worthy a detailed deand without a minute of night work. In the old crop. Three operations to get the stocks off and fence. By getting rid of a great number of sray most of your blades must at least be tied up in.

petty and time consuming operations, it enables witer night, if not carried out.

Now let us endeavour fairly to collect the ac- the farmer to condense into a month or 6 weeks You are now ready by either mode to seed count and strike the balance ; seven journeys and the work, that is often scattered through the leat ; in the old, the corn is still in your way, five handlings after the blades and tops, to pull, greater part of 5 or 6 months, viz. the blade es en if it stands up straight, and three years out cut, cure, bundle, and get them to the turning and top saving of September, the corn setting up of four, it will be blown down, and your wheat rows; then loading and hauling home, thatching and picking up of October, the corn gathering and zill go in slovenly and unfarmerlike. In the new fodder house and stowing blades, three more hauling in of November and December, and the way you have a clear field before you, and if ne-operations. Gathering corn, loading and carting stock getting of January and February. puissary can start harrows before your seed home, husking, loading carts, lofting corn, and I would wish to state the whole case fairly ; I dloughs ; an excellent method, by which the sur- stowing away shúcks ; six more distinct opera-Jhave myself but a single doubt with regard to the are is levelled, the crust softened, and every tions, and two field journeys cutting off stocks, whole operation, viz. whether the ear will bear pain lavs where the seedsman threw it ; if the picking up stocks, loading and hauling in stocks, commencing the cutting of suficiently early to Eld is grassy, this harrowing clears the way for three more field journeys and three operations, take the fodder in iis most valuable state. To te ploughs and accelerates the putting in. Your making twelve travels over the face of the whole aid in dispelling this doubt, F. himself seems *i eat goes in with ease and comfort, and equal field, and seventeen distinct operations and hand- indeed to bring testimony, by his relation of the . a nicely prepared naked fallow. In the old lings.

northern practice. It may also be fairly brought mode, at least two years out of four, your wheat In the new mode, cutting off and shocking up, into view, that if you commence fodder saving 1.15 been put in with much trouble and bothera- loading and carting to middle turning, ricking, in the most careful manner in the old way, e.rs

on-as well as you could, to be sure—but not at husking, ricking fodder after husking, loading ly enough to ensure getting all pulled ai'cit all to your mind, and you have been in a constant carts with corn, and lofting; two and a half jour-before the last saved suffers from drvi: k," e wald, for the month of October ; now with the neys overthe field, and eight operations perform- ears will shrivel anủ shrink more or less on all eters up, then with the pickers up, now with led with seven handlings, for the cutting and shock-the stocks first stripped. If Mr. Brush's statedie poor ploughman who is sweating and doing ing take but one handling. Here we have two ments are solid, with regard to the superior mality

best, for covering up the cars of corn, then and a half journeys and eight operations, opposed of the grain, harvested as soon as it is well out of ir not lapping his first furrows, now for hauling to twelve journeys and seventeen distinct opera- the milk, (and I have no out of the fa · as to * p in bunches, then, for his plough's jumping tions. If I wanted to carry two bushels of ears of w, every thing lesira'... seems to concurin re. ? and missing ever so much.

corn half a mile, and had one bushel in a bag, commenting the new method of saving and w'nilAt the end of the job, the corn stocks lay across which I could sling on my shoulder, and make one ing up rinpy of Indian corn. When the b'a les 1.1 athwart in every direction, much com has turn with ; and was obliged to make a separate and tops are in that stage, that the farmer calls ripe,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.

the grain is known to be well out of the milk,freverse the sights and in like manner mark the bed was sown with grain and clover, in the same and may then be cured in a high state of perfection spot which they strike directly over or under the way as the rest, but without any dressing whate

To come at a correct estimate as to the unless it shall receive injury from the quantity oi tirst mark; then divide the distance between the er. juice or sap, which still remains in the cob, and wo marks, and regulate the instrument by turn-above application, I meant to have had the promay produce a white mould among the grains.ing, the thumb-nut n, until the sights strike the duce of each bed weighed separate ; but owing to It is the difficulty of making the large pithy cob, niddle mark. As it is difficult to see through the the depredations of small birds on the crops, I in the centre of each ear of southern corn, cure small hole when the sights are reversed, it may was prevented doing so. I am, however, quite without giving this mouldiness to the grain, that be well to have them both of the same height, satisfied, that no benefit whatever was derived forms the only serious obstacle to this labour sa- with a small notch on the top for the purpose of from any of the applications ; for, at no period ving plan, which also so handsomely increases adjustment. A small pin at 0, the top of which of the growth of the crops, did any of them disthe bulk of provender, as well as manure; and should be in a line with the centres of the sights, cover superior luxuriance to the bed sown withfor myself, I would sooner put off commencing will be of some use in managing the instrument. Tout any manure; and I am equally satisfied, that the operation of fodder-saving for a week, than

In using this level, it is well to have a light salt compost, and ali the rest of the salts expegive up the method.

staff

, 55 or 6 feet high, with an arm a little more rimented upon, are useless upon my land. I POTOWMACK. than half as long as the rule CD, fixed at right I have not altogether come to this conclusion from

angles near the top of the staff; the foot of the he above experiments with the salt compost, as staff should be sharpened to stick in the ground, I have used it in considerable quantities, by ha

and the level when in use may be suspended at ving it spread upon my land at the rate of from Essex, April 8ih, 1822. the end of the arm by the ring at A, which will six to twenty hundred an acre; if intended for J. S. SKINNER, Esq.

give the instrument greater steadiness and re- wheat, it was put on a month before sowing the Dear Sir,--As the method of cultivating hilly lieve the person using it from the fatigue of hold- land; if for turnips, six weeks before sowing. I land, by horizontal ploughing, is now coming in- ing it up. Select some spot, on the side of the have also had salt compost put to stable manure to very general use ; and as its efficacy is often hill which you propose to regulate, a few paces a month before putting it into turnip and potato counteracted by the inaccurate manner in which it from the foot of the hill, and commanding as ex- drills, and from none of these methods of using is executed, and the awkward expedients adopted tensive a view as possible of the ground; set up the salt have I experienced either good or harm, for levelling the furrows, I have taken the liberty to the instrument, and while you look through the except in the instances of its being mixed with offer for publication in your paper, the annexed sights, turning the horizontal rule gently around, the manure; the turnips manured with which drawing and description of a very cheap and sim- so as to sweep the whole length of the 'hill-side, made a very poor figure for a considerable time, ple level. I proposed it a short time since to a fiet an assistant with a number of stakes, mark off and had not the season turned out unusually wet, neighbouring farmer, who has tried it with per- by your direction the line traced by the sights of and kept mild to so late a period, the crop, I fect success.

the level: when the curvature of the hill is very ir- think, would have been iniserably bad; but, owregular it will be proper to chop with a hoe the ing to these favourable circumstances, it ultimateparts of the line between the stakes. Then with ly became nearly as good as the rest of the field; a plough, open a furrow along the line thus tra- but the potatoes manured with the salt and manure ced out : lay off a furrow in like manner about were only about two thirds the quantity, and much mid-way of the hill, and another near the top ; smaller in size than those produced in other which will be a sufficient number of level lines, drills, where stable manure only was used. unless the ground is very uneven.

You then pro

Before closing my letter, I will mention a cirCAO

ceed to add furrows or rows on each side of the cumstance with respect to the application of nilevel lines, until the nearest parts of the furrows tre to wheat in the spring. Wheat so dressed meet, and the parts of the ground remaining un- will, in a short time, become of a darker green broken are to be finished with short rows. than other parts of the field ; but this colour Most respectfully,

gradually disappears, and no increased growth Your obedient servant,

arises from the nitre. I am not philosopher J. M. GARNETT, Jr. enough to account for this dark colour in wheat, 0

upon which nitre has been spread; but I am not

able to bring my mind to think it can possibly Extracts from the last file of the London Far- arise from increased vigour, but the contrary: my

mer's Journal, received at the office of the Ame- reason for thinking so is, from having observed rican Farmer.

that the blades of wheat growing from grain that EXPERIMENTS ON SALINE MANURES. sulphate of copper, being in the early stages of

has been steeped in lime water, or a solution of Sır,-In The Farmers' Journal of the 7th of wheat sown without any such preparation; and it!

Jan. 30, 1822. its growth of a darker green colour than from August, 1820, a letter was published on the sub- is well known, that the vegetative powers of grain ject of nitre as a top dressing for wheat. We a

are weaker in proportion to the time it remains in may infer from the reading of the letter, that'such steeps as the above. I remain, Sir, your the writer of it was satisfied in his own mind,

very

obedient humble servant, that the crop was greatly increased by the ap

R. G. plication of the nitre; but he does not produce to your readers any convincing evidence that this

was actually the case. Without expecting any ON FEEDING SHEEP WITH MANGEL AB and CD are two rules, or light strips of wood practical good to result from the use of nitre as a

WURTZEL. of any convenient lengths, say two feet and fif- manure, i determined to try its effect as such,

Kilmarsh, Feb. 18, 1822. teen inches respectively ; crossed and let into and at the same time try other similar substances. Sir,-With a full conviction that the columns each other at right angles, at 0, the shorter one Upon beds each a yard square, I last spring sow- of your Journal will, for some time to come, be being horizontal. At A, there is a loop and ring ed a row each of Talavera wheat, barley, and filled with matter infinitely better, and far inore to suspend the instrument; at B attached by oats: some of the beds were spread over with ni-important and interesting, than it is in my power another ring is a lead weight of a few ounces : at tre, in fine powder, in difierent quantities; the to offer, I certainly shall be as concise as pose and f, are fixed the sights, E and F, the one smallest quantity 84 lbs. and the largest 336 lbs. sible in my rejoinder to what has fallen from next the eye has a small round hole in the centre, an acre. Other beds were spread over with ni- your correspondent P. in reply to my last letter. the farther one has a large circular hole with trate of potash, potash, and nitrate of lime, in Indeed, I should not have troubled you at all, cross threads; mm, is a silk or small wire similar proportions to the nitre. Upon other but for the circumstance, that he insinuates a stretched tight and wrapt once around the thumb beds I had salt (as sold at the Salt Works for doubt as to the propriety of my addressing nut n, by turning which, you can restore the lev- manure) spread at the rate of from 5 cwt. to him, because forsooth I did not understand him. el, whenever the rule CD gets slightly out of the 27 cwt. an acre. The salt was put on the beds Now really, I do think it very hard, that I should true horizontal line the sights may be placed on six weeks before they were sown; the other be thought singular in asking the explanation of the side of the horizontal rule. To regulate the salts were put on the beds when the grain was a system which, upon a cursory view, seems instrument when it is inaccurate, stand 15 or 2 p in distinct rows. Soon as a growth of weeds highly valuable, but, which, upon investigation, yards from a wall, look through the sights and inad taken place, I had the intervals between the I cannot reconcile. Perhaps I shall now incur jet the spot which they strike be marked, then grain hoed, and sown with clover seed. One the imputation of unfairness, if I ask P. what

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is the utility of giving to the public statements is, at 7 feet high, it was 34 feet and half an inch, Composition for Fences and Weather Boarding, of such a nature, that 19 out of 20 who read If now standing, how much has it increased in 43

&c. them, must pause, and exclaim, " 'Tis strange! years?] It does not appear to be hollow, but by “Melt twelve ounces of rosin in an iron pot: 'tis wondrous strange !" As, however, he has the trifling increase I conclude it not sound. add three gallons of train oil, and three or four thought it proper to repeat his original assertion, “The Fairlop oak in Epping Forest, seeming

rolls of brimstone; and when the rosin and brimwith only an alteration in the number of the sound in 1754, and the Earl of Thanet's hollow stone are melted and become thin, add as much sheep put aside for the experiment, which he oak in Whinfield Park, in Westmoreland, in 1765, want, first ground fine in some of the oil,) as will now states to be five instead of eight, I shall merely observe, that though I do not doubt Pi's were both $1 feet 9 inches.

give the whole as deep a shade as you desire ; word for a moment, there ought to have been an

“The handsomest oak I ever saw, was in the then lay it on with a brush, as hot and as thin as accordance in the two reports; for, if I may be Earl of Powis's noble park by Ludlow, in 1757, you can : some days after the first coat is dried, allowed to argue analogically, what respect do we though it was but 16 feet 3 inches ; but it ran quite give it another. It will preserve planks for ages, find paid to that witness who varies his evidence straight and clear of arms, I believe near 60 feet and keep the weather from driving through brickwith twice giving it? I feel that I have not the high, and had a fine large head.”

[There were work.” most remote wish to hurl P.'s opinions into dis- two oaks of this description standing on Lord Carepute unnecessarily, and for the sake of argu- rysfort's estate at Elton (Hunts), near 40 years ment; but give me systems which carry convic- ago ; but whether standing yet, we do not know. TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. tion upon their fronts; not superficial ones, which Three men touching hands could not compass are calculated to mislead, and to impress the thein.] The writer then adds the girth of some ON TIMBER-CUTTING. minds of those landlords who read them (and trees of other sorts, not needful here to set down

Kingston, Tennessee, March 1st, 1822.

MR. EDITORwho think with a certain gallant General, that and then proceeds :increased production would remedy our present Perhaps an account of the annual increase of

Since the attention of your readers has been distress,) with the idea that the absence of our some trees will not be foreign to the purpose. It

drawn by several notices in the Farmer to the prejudices, and the presence of common sense, is difficult to discover the age of old trees, as very

proper season of the year to cut timber for rails combined with good management, is only want- few planters kept registers of their plantations.

or other purposes, I have examined timber that ed. I know that there are many of the gentle

has been cut down in the month of May ten years men just alluded to, who would pronounce, upon

“ I have a memorandum of a former rector of ago, and the bark taken off it for tanning. I the first glance of P's report, that we might at- Havingham, wherein it is written, that in 1610 have examined rails cut and put on fences at ford to seil mutton at 3d. per Ib., if we would on-lhe planted two chesnuts by his church porch.- the same time, and find all these, that any bark ly adopt his mode of feeding; without consider-The largest of these was, in 1778, 14 feet 8} in-lis, or was on, are entirely rotten; and from aping the utter impossibility of bringing it into any ches in circumference, or an increase of 1763 in-pearances the timber that was barked and more thing like general, or even limited practice, to ches in 168 years. Supposing the tree to have exposed to the weather for years, if now split be useful. "I have now only to add my thanks been 94 inches when planted, it increased an inch would last more than ten years more. The seato P. for the account of his mode of cultivating yearly. I have a deed between an ancestor of son is now approaching which will put it in the mangel wurtzel, and to subscribe myself, Sir, mine, as Lord of the Manor of Stratton, and his power of all wishing to make the experiment to your very obedient servant,

copyhold tenant, upon his inclosing some waste, do it; and I hope it will not pass over without a WM. THORPE. wherein the abuttal is upon the road leading from number of them being made. As respects the

Havingham to Norwich. The date is 1580 [at cutting of timber, if it is hewed immediately, I

which time the oaks in question were probably do not think it material ; but if not immediately GROWTH OF TIMBER TREES. planted,) and the largest oak on that bank, at 4 done, the months of May and June are, from all In the first volume of the Bath papers (p. 77. 23. feet, was in 1778, 16 feet 35 inches, or 1953 inch- the examinations I can make, the best time, as ad.) there is an interesting letter on the age, bulk, es in 198 years, Now, from the increase of the then the bark can be easily taken off. The Naand increase of timber trees, with the measure- two last named trees, and the Bently oak, I con- vy Board will, I hope, make and record their expement of some that are remarkable in different clude that the Tortworth chesnut in Lord Ducie's riments; the very saving of the oak bark, will be parts of the kingdom. Probably, the instances are garden in Gloucestershire, which in 1759, at 6 worth at

per year, were all the timber cut familiar to many of our readers, but they cannot fail feet high, was 46 feet 6 inches, is not less than at this time. I am told pine timber is, if any thing, of being matter of novelty to others; and we give 1100 years old; perhaps it may be much older.—more benefitted by it than oak. I would sussome of the most remarkable particulars in the Suppose it increased annually an inch and a half gest the examination, if in the spring of the year, hope of being able hereafter to throw additional the first century, an inch the second, # the third the heat of the atmosphere does not attract the light upon the most interesting part of the inqui- f an inch the fourth, and 1-3 the fifth, and 30 moisture from the body of the tree to the bark, ry, namely, the progressive increase of timber inches each century for the next 500 years, as and that the cold weather forces the moisture trees, and the probable age of those which are of thus:

or sap, back into the body of the tree again ; and very large growth. To this end, if any of the The first century, 14 inch

that in winter the most moisture is then really in trees are yet standing, and known in the neigh

125 inches. the tree, and farthest from the surface. 2d ditto .. 1 inch

100 bourhood, of any of our correspondents, we shall

inch

Yours, &c. be much obliged to those who will take accurate

SAMCEL MARTIN, 4th ditto. 1 inch mersures of them, and transmit the account to the 5th ditto

1-3 inch

33 1-3 Office of The Farmer's Journal. Extracts from a Letter from R. MARSHAM, Esq 500 years . . 32 feet (nearly) . . 383 1-3 10 THOMAS BEEVOR, Esg of Hethel, near Vor

FOUNDER IN HORSES. wich, dated Stratton, Ociober 1, 1799. The second 500 years, at 30 inches

Paris, Bourbon Co. K’y. " In compliance with your request, I here senil

each century

DEAR SIRyou the measure of some of the largest trees ta- The eleventh century, suppose 24 2-3

After a journey devoid of interest, owing to ken by myself, in several rambles about the king- inches

24 2-3 the lateness of the season, I have arrived in dr.' The largest oak I have seen, is that by

Kentucky, and being desirous of communicating Coristhorp near Weatherby, in Yorkshire, of

12 | 558 in. a cure for “ Foundering,” recently known; I which the ingenious Dr. Hunter gives a plate in

make one effort to conduce to the value of your his edition of Evelyn's Silva. The Doctor calls

Circumference in 1759 46 6 in. present work, the American Farmer. tuis tree 48 feet in circumference, at 3 feet from the ground; and I found it, in 1768, at 4 feet, 40' the great chesnut in King John's time; and sup- to inflammatory rheumatisms; I apprehend he does “There is a tradition, that this tree was called foundering, “ chills and founder,” and compares it

One of the writers in your Farmer” calls feet 6 inches; and at 5 feet, 36 feet 6 inches; and posing it grew in the above proportion, it was 6 itet, 32 feet 1 inch. To save repetition, 5 feet 500 years old when he came to the throne, and, evidently proceeds from surfeit. A horse rode una

not understand the disease in all its stages;-it is the height I always measure at, as easier to see eleven yards in circumference.” The level of the string, and also being clear of the

til heated and fatigued, and fed too plentifully swellings of the roots.

The writer adds some other facts to make it while warm and hungry,—and swallowing his “In 1759, the oak in Holk forest, near Bentley, probable that the growth of large timber trees is food too greedily, that he may lie down and rest was at 7 feet high, 34 feet in circumference. not more rapid than is shewn above: it would his wearied limbs ;-and the stahle being wet or There is a large excrescence at 5 and 6 feet, that very much help to confirm his reasoning, if we damp, and the horse in a copious sweat, are reawould render the measure unfair. In 1778, this tree couid dow receive accurate measurements of the sons the best that can be given, for the formation bad increased only balf an inch in 19 years. (That trees in question.

of the disease.

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3d ditto ...:

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TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.

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Instead of rising up refreshed, the poor ani- sand ; following this precept, we must take a employed. Restore them, by protecting duties mal is stiff and useless. If he had got leave to higher stand, and rest the prosperity of our agri- on foreign manufactures, to their flourishing concool perfectly, and been fed sparingly, he would culture upon firmer ground, than the failure of dition, and they will again be the good customers nave escaped this sore complaint.

harvests in Europe. Sound and enlightened poli- they were during the war; the price of land will The cure is a lump of alum the size of a wal- cv prompts, and the embarrassed state of their at the same time rise in the same proportion. nut, reduced to powder and dissolved in warm finances, urges all the governments of Europe But on this subject, I beg leave, to refer you to water; the horse must be drenched with this li- most imperiously to encourage agriculture within two most luminous essays, which Mr. M. Carey quid, which in a short time will throw him into their own dominions by all the means in their of this city has written upon the subject. They profuse perspiration, and he will be able to pur-power; the regulations and laws of England, are entitled : sue his journey the next day, and if not badly France, Spain, and Portugal, bear witness to that; The New Olive Branch, and foundered in a few hours.

Holland it is true remains open to us, but as she An Appeal to Common Sense and Common JusYou will keep it out of sight that this commu- can be supplied on lower terms from the Baltic, tice, or irrefragable facts opposed to plausible nication comes from a woman, as I wish to es- the Elbe and the Rhine, we can never expect to theories.

find an extensive market in her ports. "Under They are he very best things I have ever read up“World's dread laugh, which scarce these circumstances, and they are but too true, we on this very interesting subject; they contain the

“The firm philosopher can scorn. have but a slender chance for the disposal of our soundest doctrines, because they do not deal in Yet it is a fact that I always prized fine horses, bread stuffs in Europe.

theories, but stubborn facts, which leave no doubt and endeavoured by every means in my power, to The same causes will produce the same effects upon the mind. Every farmer, nay every citizen alleviate their pain.

in South America. During the war our supplies of the union, ought to have these two pamphlets Pray do not put yourself to the expense of were wanted, and found accordingly a market; but in his book case, and read them over and over sending seed you have to purchase. I hope you peace being restored, for want of an enemy in the again. received the last seed I sent you enclosed in a field, these markets are likely to fail us too, ex- If you want an illustration of my doctrines, I letter from Missouri, particularly the “ Priarie cept in those particular districts, whose climates say, look at England; she consumes within herSensitive plant" seed.

are unfavourable to the production of wheat; self every grain her soil produces and every head P. S. The valuable remedy for the founder but even in respect to this we have the rivaiship of cattle it feeds; she does it because she has, was communicated by Col. B. Chambers, who of those parts of South America to fear which besides other unproductive classes, a numerous experienced its good effect on his own horses, and are favourable to the growth of wheat, and as manufacturing population ; she benefits by it, beothers.

their population is great, and the soil fertile in cause instead of exporting raw materials, she ex

the extreme, they may in a short time become ports manufactures ; in other words, she exports The authoress of the above is amongst our most very formidable rivals. Until they oppose us in 'not only her raw materials but also her breadvalued and useful correspondents, worth a milli- these markets with all the energy of which they stuffs in the shape of manufactured goods, by on of indolent men, who neither write nor think are capable, we shall have a sufficient surplus for which operation their value has been three, five any thing useful to society-and yet who call the supply of all the markets which remain open and ten times enhanced. This is the great secret themselves the Lords of the creation-acting the to us, meanwhile we can clearly perceive that the of her prosperity;* now as the same causes alwhile the part of sluggish drones-fruges con- chances of a regular and steadý trade in bread, ways produce the same effects, and as the United sumere nati.--[Edit. Am. Far. stuffs are rather against us.

States are more favoured in point of climate and Eut with this prospect before our eyes, it certainly fertility of soil, and possess therefore a greater

behoves us to look about for a new market, and if capability for the developement of manufacturing TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.

possible for a more extensive and more steady one industry (by reason of their producing the most

than any of those we are likely to lose. It is strange, important of the raw materials within themselves) Philadelphia, 18th Apiril, 1822. but it is not less true, that we have it in our pow- it would be wonderful indeed if the adoption of a

er to create that market within our own country, The letter of Mr. Isaac Briggs, which is in- but deprecate the means to do it. Now I wish

* NOTE BY THE EDITOR, serted in your very valuable paper of 12ch inst. sincerely that Mr. B. would be good enough to has given me much pleasure, and I wish sin- calculate in what ratio the manufacturing popu- (Who will not however be drawn personally into discussionscerely that the hints this gentleman has thrown lation would increase in the United States, if

he leaves that to correspondents.} out, miglit be acted upon; at same time I am sor- manufactories were sufficiently protected ? what The prosperity of England !!! In what does ry to see that he does not allow the very benefi- the consumption of the manufacturing population it consist.? none can question the ingenuity of her cial influence of domestic manufe ctories on Agri- in bread stuffs, beer, whiskey, potatoes, cheese, manufaciurers, the genius of her artisans, the enculture, the full weight to which they are unques- meat, garden stuffs, milk, &c.-all farm produce,--terprise of her commerciai men, the inbred and tionably entitled. He glances at then, as well as wou'à amount to further to what amount cotton, honorable loyalty of her people ; but where is her at commerce, but the qualifying expression of wool, flax, hemp, hides, &c. would be worked up frosperity? Is it enjoyed by the mass of the peo“while a just proportion is preserved," makes me by them, and as all these raw materials come ple employed in any of the branches of trade, art, think that his mind is not fully impressed with the from the farm yard, they ought by all means en-for industry ?

The Editor has this very day resuperlatively beneficial influence they have on ter irto the calculation. I am hold to assert, ceived a letter from one of the most substantial and agriculture. If he hadt ken a more comprehen- without attempting a nice calculation, that the intelligent Farmers in England, from which the sive and enlarged view of the subject, he would annual sum total, would in less than ten years, be following extract may be taken, as illustrative of at once have perceived that he has not done them icn times greater than the aggregate sum of our her firosperity. full justice, and as he is a very nice calculator, I present annual exports of domestic and foreign “I hope no circumstance will intervene to pream sure the country at large would be much bene-l goods together, by reason that we should then be vent Mr. sailing by the Hannibal, Captain fitted, if he would enter more fully upon this exporters instead of importers of manufactures. IVatkinson, which is positively fixed for the 1811 highly interesting subject.

And if we can create such a market within our-inst. to leave this port for New York, and I hope I agree with Mr. B. that agriculture is our prin-selves, a market of which we shall be sure in war from the information I have here, there is a chance cipal concern, and so it will and ought always to as well as in peace, where is the policy to defer of his reaching Baltimore before your Agricultxbe; but I believe at same time that our situation the measures, leading to its formation, for a single ral meeting. I assure you nothing would have with respect to the export of our bread stuffs, is moment ?

given me greater pleasure than to have accom'ano longer the same, and this very material point The farmers will no doubt remember that during nied my brother-in-law, but I find so many things he seems to have entirely overlooked. During the last short war with England, in which period of importance requiring my presence at home, the war in Europe, we had certainly a choice of our manufactories flourished, they were enabled that I must relinquish the journey for the present; markets for our breau stuffs, and the prices were to sell their produce at high prices, although the but I shall most anxiously avait his return to de proportionably high ; but the moment peace, tran- export, as far as relates to bread stuffs, was anni- termine as to my future plans, for I assure you ! quillity, order and security were restored, these hilated; but they seem to have forgotten that thosee no prospect of tillage farming answering the markets would unavoidably have failed us one af- flourishing condition of our manufacturing popu- spirited agriculturist in this country ; rents, tylhet ter another, if it had not been for the total failure lation gave rise to that high market, nor do they and tu xes are 89 excessive, that it is impossible of the harvest in the whole of south western Eu- perceive that these selfsame people, who were man can remunerate himself with the low prices, rope. To this adventitious circumstance alone, then such excellent customers, are now mostly and government appears determined not to proit is owing that the ports of Europe were open for idle, or only half employed, and that many other tect ine Farmer. In short, the National debt

will us, but surely our agriculture ought not to depend trades, depending on the manufacturing popula- no doubt ruin this.country, and the sooner the Farupon such afflicting casualties. We are com-tion, are in a languishing state, and cannot indul.in mer quithdrarus his capital from business, 1:2 manded to build our houses upon rock, not upon themselves as they certainly would do, if fully more he will save of it.

Sir,

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system similar to hors, should not produce th: ir use of coffee and sugar, and who is now to pre-country, we shall want prodigious quantities of sane beneficial effect in our country!

it them to use cotton and tobacco? Is Englal madder, woad, indigo, and other dye stuns, as The great and undeniable politico economic, rohibit our cotton ? No! she is sadly in way well as rape and linseed oil; we shall also want truth, which I am desirous to recommend to us them to nourish her manufactories. Is she i'aw silk; all this may be raised in the country, most serious attention of gentlemen is, that the : ohibit our tobacco? No! no! she would lose and another wide field opens to agricultural inimpulse given to agriculture by doniestic mant. one of the best feathers out of her cap, as tobacco dustry. factories, is not only much more poweriul that says a tremendous excise duty, of which she can Mr. Editor! if you think these few hasty recommerce can, or ever will be able to give to it, not afford to lose a single shilling. As to our ex- marks worthy of a place in your paper, you will but that it is at the same time more steady, more port trade, our merchants have but a very limited oblige me by an early insertion. lasting and more benefcial to the country at large. nun,ber of domestic articles to tempt fortune with

I am Sir, I do not mean to depreciate commerce, being ful- and to exercise their skill and activity upon, but

Yours, &c. !y it ressed with its importance and beneficial if we had extensive manufactories, a subdivision

FRANCIS VALCK. intuence on the prosperity of the country, but I beneficial to all would take place, as it is the case John S. SKINNER, Esq. contenu that it does not rank above manutacturies; in England ; some would persevere in the old besiues, est modus in rebus, not every branch of track, others, by giving their attention to the incommerce is equally beneficial to the country, ternal trade, or the circulation of the above nam

FREDERICK COUNTY CATTLE SHOW sonje branches of it may even be detrimental. ed articles, would retreat from the arena and leave

AND FAIR. Lu us look a little closer at this matter! Is it, i the first class in the sole, quiet and undisturbed

At a meeting of the committee of arrangement, ask, benencial to export raw materials and to re- possession of it; others again would altogether

on behalf of the Frederick County Agricultuin, ort them again in a manutactured state ? Inl withdraw their capital from commercial pursuits

ral Society, that case we give the labour of 3, 4, 5, yea, of ten and invest it in manufactories, and by this second It was resolved, To distribute premiums, men, or the Labour of one, according to the quali- secession of a part of our mercantile body, those amounting to $102, at the Cattle show and Fair, to ty and finish 01 the manutacture we import the who stick to the old beaten ground would be still be held on Thursday and Friday the 25d and answer must therefore be that, although beneti- more benefited.

24th of May next, at the Monococy Bridge HoCliat in a certain degree, it is by no means the lhe false and pitiful policy, by which our manu-tel, two miles below Frederick-Town, on the most benet.cial method to increase our private facturies have been oppressed and partly ruined, Baltimore turnpike road, in the following manWealth and national power; moreover if you in- comes now home ; it they had been

duly encour-ner; to wit: port manutactures to a larger amount than that of ageu, the seven years which have elapsed since

For the best Stallion

$15 ditto Brood Mare

10 the raw materials exported, the balance must be the return of peace, would have improved and

ditto paia in specie, and you deprive yourself of your matured them, and we should be enabled to cope

Bull 18 months old

15

ditto Bull less than do. gold and silver, as it happens at the present mo- with the manufacturers of the old world in the

ditto Cow

10 ment. Again let me ask, is it benefical to export lucrative trade they are going to enjoy with the

ditto Heifer manufactures and to import raw materials which rich provinces of South America. How merrily

ditto Ram full bred merino our own country does not produce, such as cochi- mughi our raw materials, larded with beef, pork,

ditto Common do.

5 neal and other dye stufts, &c. In this se you ex- bread, &c. find their way to South America, in

ditto

Pair of ewes post ili the shape of manufactures not only the ihe shape of North American manufactures, but

ditto Boar raw materials of your own growth, but also the as we have no such thing, nor any thing else to bread, meat, milk, cheese, beer, &c. by which ofter to the nations of the south in exchange for

ditto Sow

ditto your manufacturing population has been ted— their produce, we are condemned to be lookers

Litter of pigs, not less

than seven in number per contra, you import raw materials which nou-on, whilst others taste the sweets of this Eldora

5 rish and intuse new life into your manutactories, do to their hearts delight! This is very mortify

and not less than 3

months nor more than and the balance you get in gold and silver; the ing, but true!

6 months old answer therefore to this questio. must be; Certain The cotton planters are apt to think that, if the

ditto

10 ly this is the best method to set about the busi- importation of manufactures should be checked,

Yoke of working oxen

Ordered, That all the stock to be offered for ness. Now if this happened to be the character a countervailing duty would be laid on cotton of our general trade, the trade carried on with wool in England. This is a groundless appre- premiums, must be on the ground, and reported China might be beneficial, as it would give vent hension. The manufactories of England are her in writing to the secretary, at or before 9 o'clock, to our supplies of silver, whilst the goods import- main prop, particularly under the existing cir- on the first day of Show. ed from China would furnish us the means of cumstances, which are silently, but most effectu

Ordered, That all stock, offered for premium,

must have been raised in or intended for the immaking exchanges with some of the European and ally preparing a complete revolution in the agSouth American nations ; but, situated as we are, riculture and landed property of the country, provement of the stock in this county.

The committee regret they cannot offer at no man will pretend to say that the China trade, and as she has the rivalship of the prosperous although beneficial to the few that are engaged in and growing manufactories of France to fear, she this time premiums for implements of Agriculit, is beneficial to the country at large, seeing dare not burthen the raw material any more; in ture; they however confidently invite the exhi

bition, with a view to the inspection of the pubthat it inundates us with Chinese silks and Can- short, so long as there are manufactories to a ton crapes, which are but a sorry equivalent for great extent in England, she must have our cot- lic, and for sale.

Ordered, That a sale of stock and Agricultuthat silver, of which we stand so much in need ton, und if she taxesii heavily, the French and Gerfor the sake of a healthy circulating medium. mans will under sell her.* . But England strains ral implements will take place on Friday, the It may be objected that this plan is inimical to every nerve to produce the whole supply she second day of the Cattle show and Fair, at 10

o'clock. commerce, and that its channel will be narrow- wants of this raw material, in her East indian

WILLIAM E. WILLIAMS, ed, it con estic manutactories are encouraged; possessions; if so, let the cotton planters divest

Chairman. but this objection is without foundation, although themselves of their grou, dless apprehensions, let it cannot be denied that the importation of foreign them look about for a new market! if the marmanufactures would decrease; on the contrary, ket they have found in France since the restora

FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER. the greater internal circulation of the raw ma- tion of peace is beneficial to them, would not a Mr. SKINNER, terials, of indigo, cochineal, and other dye stufis, market at home be more beneficial as it is not li I hope your note on a short piece on millet, of the half manufactured articles, such as cotton, able to be interrupted by war, and as it would published in the Farmer, April 19th, will induce woolfen, faxen, and hempen yarns, and lastly of and could some years hence consume their whole those who publish their experiments, to desthe manufactures themselves for home consump- annual crop? This state of things deserves scri- cribe the kind t':ey cultivate. tion and exportation, will employ our merchants ous consideration! It is now in the nick of time

I presume Dr. Coleman's is not the kind I have more fully and more beneficially than the export to do something for our manulactories, else the sown; he says it ought to be planted in rows, and import trade, as it is now carried on. The disappointment might be more senous than in the four feet apart, and the plants from 12 to 15 injort trade in manufactures will gradually de- case of South America.

inches in the drills, and that it requires as much crase, but I see no reason why the export trade One word more respecting agriculture, and I work as corn ; its produce 21 bushels seed to di cotton and tobacco should decrease; there is have done. It the manufactories fiourish in the the acre ; but he says nothing about hay or fodan absolute want or demand for these articles in

der. In the Farmer of March 16, 1821, a wriEurope, we shall therefore have the same sale, * The iminense freights puid to neutrais du-ter says, Dr. Coleman's produce of seed per whether we manutacture our own cotton, woollen, 2.5 the war, tu jich cotton jrum Amelu istunu, acre, was not half equai to many crops he had anu silk googs, or wot; bonaparte could neither ure unother prug that she cannoi do without our seen, and that iron 24 to 4 tons of loveder dissuade nor frighten the people of Europe out of cotton.

are produced on a tolerable good soil-but he

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