Imágenes de páginas

from the Boat, in the lower level; so that now the The situation of the proposed rectangular well is millions of inhabitants, through successive ages. original weight of water, probably, with the loss such that it will be entirely convenient for it to be

WM. KĚNWORTHY. of a little leakage, will be restored into the move- substantially embanked around to any ex- Washington, 24th May, 1822. able section; and the descending Boat will also tent that may be desirable. Hence its posibe placed in the required situation, ready to tion will be extremely favourable for secupursue its appointed route. ring it, in the most effectual manner against the

"THE DESERTED VILLAGE.” In the mean time, should an ascending Boat be injuries of intense frost. Hence too, instead of a The following account of the origin of Goldpresent,-immediately after the descending Boat great abundance of stone work of the most smith's beautiful poem is from the London Magahas been propelled out of the moveable section, difficult and costly description, even of hewn zine for February, 1822. let the ascending Boat be propelled into it; by stone, as is required in locks of the usual con- “The poem of the Deserted Village took its which means an equal weight of water will be struction, clamped and bound together in the most origin from the circumstances of General Rodisplaced, out of the said section, and caused substantial manner, and at a very heavy expense, bert Napper having purchased an extensive to flow downward, through the open gates into the amounting, according to situations and circum-tract of the country surrounding Lissoy, or Aulower level. When the gates shall now be shut, stances, from eight to ten ortwelve thousand dol-burn; in consequence of which many families, let care be taken to cause the ascending boatmen lars for every foot lift, it is presumed, that good here called cottiers, were removed to make to be on board, so that, their weight of water quarry stone, faithfully put together in a strong room for the intended improvements of what may also be expelled downward and shut out, to- and durable manner, would in the walls of a well

, was now to become the wide domain, warm gether with that of the Boat and its cargo. The be amply sufficient to answer every necessary pur- with the idea of changing the face of his new moveable section is then to be detached from the pose. It has, in fact, been estimated that at acquisition; and were forced " with fainting lower trunk, and after the boatmen shall have least one third, or probably one half of the mo- steps,” to go in search oftorrid tracts,” and “ disstepped off, upon the bank, by the time they shall ney that is usually expended, in the construction tant Climes.have reached the top of the Lift, by means of a of stone locks might with convenience be saved.- This fact alone might be sufficient to establadder or otherwise, the air-chest and its appen- Another circumstance highly favourable to the lish the seat of the poem; but there cannot dages, including the Boat and its cargo if any, adoption of the improvement under consideration remain a doubt in any unprejudiced mind, when will have attained, or, at least, be steadily pur- is, its vast superiority in point of expedition, when the following are added, viz:-That the characsuing their ascent, to their upper situation. It compared with that of common locks. Wherever ter of the village preacher, the above-named will then only remain to secure the safety fas- there should be such a declivity upon the route as Henry, (the brother of the poet) is copied from tenings, to connect the moveable section, with to require a number of these locks in succession, nature. He is described exactly as he lived ; the upper trunk, to open the

gates, and propel no boat could ascend while others should conti- and his “ modest mansion” as it existed. Burn; the Boat forward in pursuit of its destination.

nue to descend ; neither could any descend until or the name of the village-master, and the site In case of there being one or more ascend-others had ceased to ascend; whereas according of his school-house, and Catherine Girachty, a ing or descending boats, and no boat pursuing the to the said improvement their alternate ascent lonely widow; opposite direction, as no water would be displa- and descent would be perfectly convenient, and The wretched matron, forced, in age for bread, ced, the weight of the boat that was wanting, preferable in every respect: Thus, there would To strip

the brook, with mantling cresses spread; ter, that was not removed out, remaining in the the same time, and with equal facility, admitting and to this day the brook and ditches, near moveable section. Should any difficulty occur in the supply of water for the locks was so abund- the spot where her cabin stood, abound with

cresses ; still remain in the memory of the insuch cases on account of there being no boatmen ant as never to occasion the least detention. to step off or on, as a preponderating weight, the

Again, the savings that may rationally be anti- habitants, and Catherine's children still live in deficiency may be easily supplied by letting a suf- cipated in relation to the purchase of water-pow- the neighbourhood. The pool, the busy mill, ficient quantity of water into, or out of the move-er, and mill-property, would in many instances be the house where “ nut-brown draughts inspired," able section, for that purpose; or whenever there immense. The quantity of water required to fill are still visited as the poetic scene; and the "hay. should be a redundancy of water in the air-chest, large locks, more especially for an extensive trade, thorn bush” growing in an open space in front of it would be preferable, to pump out the required according to the usual method of locking up and the house, which I knew to have three trunks, portion from thence, instead of letting other wa-locking down, is so enormous, that nearly the is now reduced to one; the other two having ter escape. Or should it be desirable, on any

whole of a common mill stream would be neces-been cut, from time to time, by persons carryother account, to vary the operation, a crane and sary, or however, to such an extent, that upon ing pieces of it away to be made into toys, &c. weight ; a block and pulley; two or more racks some routes many valuable establishments would in honour of the bard, and of the celebrity of his and pinions, or some other mechanical apparatus

be literally ruined, and many more very materi- poem. All these contribute to the same proof; may be adapted.

ally injured. Under these circumstances the dif- and the “decent church,” which I attended for

ferent mill owners, to a man, would be certain to upwards of eighteen years, and which “ tops the Where the declivity shall prove so great as to be upon the alert, in swelling their respective neighbouring hill,is exactly described as seen require two or more lifts to be constructed near charges for damages to the utmost amount possi-from Lissoy, the residence of the preacher. to each other, particular care should be taken to ble ; whereas, in consequence of the very redu

I should have observed, that Elizabeth Dearrange their several positions to the best advanced quantity of water to which the real necessity lap, who was a parishioner of mine, and died at tage ; and, more especially, in such a manner, of the case may now be limited not exceeding a the age of about ninety, often told me she was that between every two lifts there may be an in- supply of a very few square inches, at most, it the first who put a book into Goldsmith's hand; terinediate section of canal, sufficiently long, wide would rarely if ever be felt by the millers, and by which she meant, that she taught him his letand deep to receive, at least, one ascending and one would at the same time, be abundantly sufficient ters; she was allied to him, and taught a little descending boat, at the same time, and to let for the purpose. From the incalculable advanta- school.” them pass each other with facility, otherwise, a ges that all such property holders would be cerseries of interruptions and delays that ought to be lain to derive in consequence of their having a avoided would be certain to follow.

water conveyance, immediately from their mills The following advertisement respecting LinHaving given a distinct explanation of the manner to market, the value of their property would be seed imported into Scotland, is taken from of ascending one lift, it is evident that to “Hoat a very much enhanced. Every individual amongst the “Caledonian Mercury" of Feb. 16, 1822, boat over any summit-level, with its cargo on them would be deeply interested in promoting the printed at Edinburgh. It behoves the exportboard," as before stated, it will only be necessa- route of the proposed canal being located as near ers of the article from the United States, to atry to repeat the same operation, time after time, to them as possible. They would be deeply inter- tend to the hints contained in it. as often as shall be required to reach the top of the ested not only in furnishing, the few square inch

LINSEED. last and highest elevation, and after having pas- es of water that would be required, entirely NOTICE TO DEALERS AND BUYERS. sed across, to its other extremity, to descend lift clear of expense, but might invite an acceptance

THE COMMISSIONERS and TRUSTEES after lift, according to the manner of descent be- of the land and materials that would be want- for MANUFACTURES, &c. in SCOTLAND, fore described, to the lowest and last level at the ing, and become liberal subscribers for the hereby intimate, that if any person shall either bottom of the high ground over which a water stock that would be necessary for carrying IMPORT, or sell, or expose to sale, any Linseed conveyance, may, in this manner, with facility, promptly

into effect an object of the

most general that is bad, or damnified, or not thoroughly cleanbe accomplished

and extensive utility. An object, that in addi-ed; or shall mix different parcels of Linseed toBeside the immense saving of water that ap-tion to the certain and rich harvest, both of pro- gether; or if he shall sell it under a false denopears to be perfectly practicable in pursuance of fit and honor, which it is capable of securing to mination, either as to its age, or the country this plan, the advantages, to canal companies, in the original undertakers, must, from its very na- where it grew; all such seed, or the price thereother respects are of the utmost importance.- ture, be increasingly beneficial to millions after of is liable by law to be forfeited, and the pro


prietor or Vender is also liable in a heavy pe-year 1823 ; so far as to allow the goods to be pur


chased of our own Manufacturers, and to allow A father wished to dissuade his daughter from The only Linseed which, by a law of the State, intermediate time sufficient for the manufacture any thoughts on matrimony. She who marries is permitted to be exported from Riga, as sow- of them. It is predicted that we never shall does well said he, but she who does not marry ing seed, is that produced in the immediate pre-again have a Soldier (and hardly a Sailor) cloth- does better.' My father,' she meekly replied, ceding harvest, which must be exported in Casks, eå in the Manufactures of any other Country 'I am content to do well ; let those do better whe branded with the year of its growth. It is re-than this. So be it. This is a sort of encourage- can.'--Walpoliana. commended to the Flax Growers, therefore, to ment which will be of some service, not to Buy no Seed, unless they are quite satisfied that, overgrown and already pampered Capitalists, but it is new, sound, and unmixed, as such only can to the industrious Artizans who live by the labour of be depended on for producing a good crop. their hands.-Repos. Every Seller of Linseed or Hempseed in Scot

ORIGIN OF SOME OF OUR VEGETAland, is by Law obliged, under a penalty of not


BLES AND FRUITS. less than 50 Shillings per hogshead, to deliver

Harris's excavating machine was tried at Ba Turnips and carrots are thought indigenous along with it, to the Buyer, a Certificate, sub

tavia, New York, on the 1st inst. A child four roots of France ; our Cauliflowers come from scribed by him, mentioning the Quantity, the Price, the Port from whence the Seed was im- years old could raise with ease from 3 to 10 hun- Cyprus ; our Artichokes from Sicily ; Lettuce dred weight.-Plough Boy.

from Cos ; Shallots, or Eschallots from Asculon ; ported, the name of the Country where it grew,

the Cherry and Filbert, are from Pontus; the and the YEAR OF Its Growth.-And the Buy

Citron from Media ; the Chestnut from Castana, ers ought invariably to exact and keep those It is much to be feared that the Crop of Wheat in Asia Minor; the Peach and Walnut, from PerCertificates; because if they should afterwards will be very light this harvest. We learn that in sia; the Plum from Syria ; the Pomegranate from find that they have been imposed upon in the Washington, Frederick and Montgomery coun- Cyprus ; the Quince from Sidon ; the Olive and description of the Seed, they may thus the more ties, all famed for the growth of wheat, there will Fig from Greece, as are the best Apples and easily prove the fraud, and obtain legal redress. scarcely be any crop at all, and on the Eastern Pears, though also found wild in France, and even

It is to be observed, that those who have rea- Shore, the fields that have been opened by the here ; the Apricot is from Armenia. son to believe they have got mixed Seed, or old frost, are now wasting under the effects of fly and! Thus it is that by the genius and industry of Seed instead of New, are entitled to have the sedging. The average crop in Maryland cannot man, races of plants, like those of animals, are servants of the dealers, as well as other per- be more than half a crop from present appearan- transplanted from their indigenous soils, to dissons, examined upon oath as to those facts. ces, and the fear is that it will be much less even tant regions of our globe, where they flourish It is understood that an extraordinary practice than that.-Easton Gazette.

and bring forth fruit to supply the most wholeprevails with respect to American Linseed; (and

some nourishment of life, and add to his commay sometimes be applied perhaps to other seed.)

forts. It is this: The barrels are branded, not with the

JOHN SCOTT, year of the growth of the Seed, but with the year CHEMIST, late of Edinburgh, by his WILL, of its sale. Buyers therefore cannot, from the made in the Year 1816, bequeathed the sum of

THE FARMER, branding, know any thing of the age of the Seed, four thousand dollars in the funded three per but must look to the written certificates of men cent. Stock of the United States, to the Corpoof character, as the proper evidence of that im- ration of the city of Philadelphia, to the intent

BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, MAY 31, 1822. portant fact.

" that the interest and dividends to become reIn case of Linseed being damaged in the conceivable thereon, should be laid out in Premi

PRICE CURRENT-CORRECTED WEEKLY. veyance by sea, the importer may have it pro- ums to be distributed among ingenious men and Flour from the wagons, $6 621-Wharf do. tected from seizure, provided that, immediately women, who make useful inventions, but no such $6 50-Wheat white, 143 to 144 cts.-Red, do. on landing it, he produces an affidavit by the premium to exceed Twenty Dollars: and that 140 to 142. cts.-Corn, the market not so well master of the vessel, as to its having been dama- there with shall be given a Copper Medal with supplied this week as usual--the price expected ged in the conveyance, and tender security to this inscription—"TO THE MOST Deserving." to improve-sales have been made, white, 75 cts. the undersigned that it shall be crushed into oil The Select and Common Councils of the city of -Yellow, 70 to 72–Rye, 65 to 70 cts. Oats, 40 or exported.

Philadelphia, have intrusted “the Philadelphia to 45—Bran per bushel, 15 to 17 cts.-Shorts, do. The Surveyors are instructed to seize all bad, Society for promoting Agriculture,” with the 20 to 22 cts.- Plaster of Paris per ton, $3 50 or damnified, or mixed Linseed, for whatever distribution of the aforesaid premiums and me-Soal Leather per lb. 25 to 27 cts.--Skirting, do. purpose imported, and to sue for the forfeiture dals, and a Committee of that Society have been 30 to 23 cts.— Upper whole side, $3 to 4 25--Canand penalties, in terms of the Acts 13th George appointed to attend thereto. The subscribers dies mould per lb. 15 to 17 cts.- Dipped, do. 13 te I. and 24th George II. And, after a seizure, no named as that committee, give notice that they 14 cts.-Spermaceti, 35 cts.-Beef fresh per lb. application or offer of security will be at all re- will receive applications for the first premiums 8 to 12 cts.—Pork, 6 to 9 cts.-- Veal, perlb. 6 to 10 garded by the Trustees, but the Surveyor will and medals to be awarded by them, on or be- cts.-Mutton per lb. 6 to 8 cts.-Lard per lb. 12 then sue for the forfeiture of the Seed. fore the first day of June next.

cts.-Butter per lb. 31 to 37 cts-Chesse per lb. BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES,

The second award will take place on the first 12 cts.-Eggs, per dozen, 12}cts.-Hickory wood WILLIAM ARBUTHNOT,

day of January, 1823. Applications to be made $4 50 to $5–Oak, do. $3 to 3 50—Pine, do $2 25 Secretary. one month before that day.

to $3.-Tar, North Carolina, $2 25—Rosin, $2 The Law requires that all Linseed or Hemp Certificates of the originality and utility of the 25-White pine boards per M. $10 to $30–Bees' seed, whether of foreign or home growth, must inventions, must accompany the applications, wax, per lb. 37 } to 40 cts.-Salt, Liverpool coarse be sold by the Linlithgow barley measure streak- which may be directed to the Committee of per bushel 50 to 55 cts.-Turks Island, 65 to 70ed; and such measure must be first marked and the Philadelphia Society for promoting Agricul- (St. Ubes, per bushel, 53 to 55. stamped by the Dean of Guild of some Royal ture, on Scott's legacy," and forwarded free of

MARYLAND TOBACCO. Fine bright quality conBurgh, with the usual mark of such burgh; and expense, through the post Office.

tinues in demand, and sells at high prices, rang. also with these words, Linlithgow Barley Descriptions of the inventions, must be given ing as before quoted, from $18 to $32—Common measure."

in clear language, and correctly written, accom- Tobacco very dull. Through the politeness of panied by drawings in perspective and detail, Mr. MAKALL, Inspector, we have received se

where necessary to illustrate them. Where the veral samples of a very excellent quality, which GOOD NEWS FOR MANUFACTURERS. invention is a composition of matter, specimens we shall exhibit this day at the Maryland Cattle

There is one provision in the Military Appro- of ingredients and of the composition of mat- Show for the examination of Planters.
priation-bill, introduced at the suggestion, in the ter sufficient in quantity for the purpose of expe-
first instance of Mr. Eustis, which we understand riment, and to preserve in the Cabinet of the So-
will be of much importance to a meritorious class ciety, will be expected.

Printed every Friday at $4 per annum, for John of People; we mean the Manufacturers of It'ool-|


S. SKINNER, Editor, by Josepa ROBINSON, at the ens, who have little more capital than their


North West corner of Market and Belvidere. looms, They cannot contract for large supplies :


streets, Baltimore, where every description of nor can they suddenly comply with large orders.


Book and Job printing is executed with neatness An appropriation has therefore been introduced

NICHOLAS BIDDLE, and despatch-Orders from a distance for Bindinto the Bill, of seventy-five thousan dollars, for

REUBEN HAINES, ing, with proper directions, promptly attended the purchase of Woolens for the Army, for the Philadelphia, May 16th.


No. 11.-VOL. 4.


The boiler is fixed in brick work, calculated to ble noise. When, therefore, the water becomes so

afford the greatest degree of heat, with the warm as not to condense the steam, this noise SECOND AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION smallest waste of fuel. Without pretending to ceases, and then the quantity of fuel may be diOF THE MARYLAND SOCIETY.

give directions as to the particular construction minished. The public will have great reason to be well of such a furnace, I would merely remark, what Water being a non-conductor of heat, heat satisfied with the second exhibition of fine ani- the Physiologists have told us, namely, that heat cannot be made to descend in it. The tube theremals, good implements, and skilful ploughing being produced by the combined

operation of the fore conducting the steam from the boiler, should which took place under the arrangements of this fuel and of the air feeding the fire, that portion open into the lowest part of the box, so that the Society, on the two last days of May; and of only of the air, which passes in contact with the steam may enter the liquid at the bottom. It which we will present the official account as soon burning fuel, contributes to the production of the then causes the water to boil in the wooden box as it can be furnished.

heat, and that, therefore, if the fire place should as fire does when applied to the bottom of an In the mean time, under a resolution offered by be larger than the heap of burning fuel, a cer- iron pot. The particles of water at the bottom, Mr. Virgil Maxcy and unanimously adopted by tain portion of air will insinuate itself without next to the end of the pipe, are first heated and of the Society, we publish an address that was de- going through the fire, and of course not being course rarified, and thus becoming specifically the livered to the Members by their President, Mr. decomposed, will contribute nothing to the heat. lightest, they ascend to the top. Their place is Robert Smith, who has on this occasion display- To the water in the boiler is given all the heat then taken by other colder particles, and these in ed great research and treated some important necessary to generate the required steam. The their turn are heated and consequently rise, and subjects with his usual ability.

steam is conveyed into the boxes by copper pipes so in succession until the whole be heated.ADDRESS,

attached to the upper part of the boiler, and is Should the steam be applied to the water at the

introduced between the bottom of each box and top, the water at the bottom could not thereby be GENTLEMEN,

a false bottom consisting of several sheets of cop-heated, because the hot rarified water being speThe addresses, which, from time to time, I

per perforated with holes. Into this chamber cifically the lightest, could not descend. have had the honor of submitting to the consid- four inches high, formed by the two bottoms, the Mr. Curwen, an accomplished agriculturist cration of the Society, have been made in the steam is conveyed, and passing through the holes of Great Britain, has for many years been in the humble expectation that other members, better of the false bottom, diffuses itself throughout practice of steaming the food of his numerous qualified to communicate useful instruction, the whole contents of the box, and thus effectual-stock. And has been laudably employed in enwould have considered the example not unwor- ly cooks the great mass of feed therein contain-deavouring to make his countrymen sensible of thy of imitation. An unreserved communication ed. of our respective practices, and a free inter- means of a common stop cock is turned into the withstanding his acknowledged good sense, and

When sufficiently boiled the steam by the advantages of the steaming apparatus. Notchange of ideas thereon, could not fail to lead to other box. At one end of each box, and near the great respectability of his character, he has the most beneficial results. Although by those the bottom, is a spigot and faucet, by means of not yet been as successful as might have been principles of deference, which regulate the ordi- which are drawn the condensed 'steam and expected. Besides, the disposition which farnary intercourse of gentlemen, we are not per- the liquid matter, which had oozed out of, mers in general have to look at every proposed mitted to talk of ourselves or of our deeds, yet and had been extracted from, the cooked materi-improvement as a visionary innovation; they in in the affairs of agriculture such a license is, with als. This decoction is of a deep chocolate co- this instance considered the mechanism of the the greatest propriety, allowed. It is under this lour and highly flavoured. It may be given to apparatus of Mr. Curwen too complex, and the indulgence, I shall, on the present occasion, the calves, or it may be returned to and mixed cost of it too high. As to its construction I have take the liberty of bringing into view some few ar- with the steamed food. It, however, may not be no knowledge ; but as to its cost we have learnrangements which have recently been made at amiss to remark, that when a liquid feed is pre-ed from a late publication that it was about 160 my Dairy Farm, Orange, two miles from the city pared the false bottom is not used.

guineas. of Baltimore. The narrative of facts will be in

In the corner of the steam house next to the Mr. Wm. Bear, of the city of Baltimore, the conterspersed with explanations ; such, indeed, as pump, there is a hogshead of water in which is in- structor of my apparatus, has stated to me that to most gentlemen will appear but common-serted a leaden tube, the other end of which is he can build such as mine at a cost from 60 to place observations ; but as they possibly may immersed in the water of the boiler and nearly 200 dollars. A Boiler of the lowest price, conhave a tendency to afford useful hints to some of to the bottom of it. The admission of the re- taining 30 gallons, would be sufficient to cook our practical farmers, it is deemed proper to in- quisite supply of water from this reservoir into food for the stock of most farms in our country. troduce them.

the boiler is regulated by a stop cock. And the The capacity of my boiler is 100 gallons. It has Experience, which teaches the most useful cold water, being specifically heavier than the enabled my people for sometime to cook every lessons, has taught us, that, in all the various warm, will necessarily take its place at the bot-day, for more than 100 head of stock, nourishwalks of agriculture, farm-yard manure is indis- tom, whilst the hot water will remain at the top. ing food, consisting of cut hay, or straw, or pensably necessary; that a due supply of this essen-By means of a stop cock it can at any time he corn tops and blades, or corn husks mixed with tial ingredient is not attainable but by means of a ascertained when there is not a sufficiency of wa- meal produced from the corn and cob ground sufficient number of live stock, and that such a ter in the boiler. This simple plan is preferred together, or with other meal and a due prostock cannot be kept on a farm unless its pro- to the self supplying valve, which is apt to get portion of water. When this food is intended ducts be adequate to their sustenance. The out of order. "At the top of the boiler there is for cows in milk, as much water is used as will great desideratum, then, with a view to manure, a safety valve for the escape of all redundant serve to give it the liquid consistence of what is nd of course to the improvement of our estates, steam, the electrick force of which would other called a wash ; but wlien it is prepared for dry is to adopt such a course of practice, as may be wise endanger the whole establishment.

cattle or for

so much water only is apthe most likely to enable the farmer to maintain Water, when boiling, has attained the highest plied as is used in the common feed of chopped ihe greatest number of stock upon a given quan- degree of heat of which it is susceptible. Be-rye and cut straw. lity of hay, straw, corn-fodder, and other proven-yond this point it cannot be heated. All the ad- Clover hay, corn tops, blades and husks when

ditional heat, from any increase of fuel, combines steamed, have been found greatly to contribute Economy in the feeding of stock is an object of with the water and passes off with it in the form in the winter scason to the improvement of the the highest importance, interesting alike to the of steam.

quality of the milk in so much as, in a great publick and to the individual. The great waste Although the limitation to the heat of water degree, to impart to the butter the yellow colour of hay, straw, corn fodder, chaff and other offal, h.. been ascertained, the limitation to the heat and delicate favour, it would have received apparent on every estate under the prevailing of steam has not yet been discovered. The mi- from the same articles in their green state. It practice of our country, has suggested to me the nimum, however, of the expansive force of this is, however, proper to preinise that to produce mapediency of having at my dairy farm, a steam- electrick fluidis at the boiling point of water, and these pleasing effects, the clover hay and the nig apparatus. This I have recently established this is, I believe, the maximum of the force re- corn fodder must be vell cured. When cut 1on a plan so simple and so cheap, that any per-quired in the operation of cooking potatoes, tur- straw has been used, these advantages, although is in any part of our country may have a similar nips, ruta baga, mangle wurtzel, or any feed for very perceptible, have not, from the dryness of the ne, greater or smaller, according to the extent dry cattle. But when a liquid feed is to be boiled straw, been so strongly communicated to the butof his farm and to the proposed number of his for cows in milk, there must be additional fuel to ter. If the steamed food should not be intendock. It consists of an iron boiler and two wood-counteract the effects of the great mass of cold cd for cows in milk, or for cattle for the - boxes. The boiler contains 100 gallons. One of water, and to be continued until the water ceases butchers, or for working oxen, or horses, but for nie boxes is 8 feet, the other five feet long, both to condense the steam in the pipe. The steam, stock going at large, there is no necessity to

ieet wide and 3 feet deep. The boiler is globular coming into contact with the cold water, being mix with it any meal whatever. And from the wid was made by screwing together the brims of suddenly condensed, a vacuum is necessarily experience I have had, I have no hesitation in #0 salt-pans. There is also attached to it a'formed in the end of the pipe. Intothis vacuum pronouncing that not only straw and corn fodis head for any extra-cooking.

tbe water and steam both rush with a considera-'der, but the very corn stalks, instead of “wastbemarle.

ing their sweets in the desert air,” may, if well, made of strong planks, fourteen inches wide crop, and the improvement of the land, from cured and preserved, be converted into nourish- and twelve inches deep, and so fixed as to re- fallows made in July and August, over those made ing food for the maintenance of stock throughout ceive all their dung, and urine. These several in September and October. I will state the facts the whole winter season.

drains have a sufficient declivity to carry all as I observed them; hoping that it may elicit Imperfect as is our knowledge with respect to fluid matter to their southern terminations, something of more importance from others. the science of nutrition, yet the fact is well where they intersect similar drains which con- In fallowing for wheat in July 1812, upon a known, that cooking renders food more agreea- vey all this liquid manure into a cistern fifty farm then under lease, I was desired by the tenble, more wholesome, and more nourishing. feet long, six feet wide, and six feet deep. ant to leave a piece of land near his barn to Water is not a simple element, but a compound This cistern is so placed and constructed as to stack his straw on. In ploughing the land a secapable of being decomposed; and it appears receive not only the urine of the stables but al- cond time, he allowed me to fallow the spot not from a series of experiments made by Count so all the liquid matter of the farm yard. In it ploughed before. It broke in fine tilth, and was Rumford, that water mixed with a given quan- there is a pump by means of which its contents apparently as well prepared as that twice tity of vegetable food and made into soup, will are pumped into a large hogshead fixed on a ploughed." From its vicinity to the barn it was satisfy the hunger, and will support the health pair of wheels drawn by oxen. To the end of perhaps more fertile than the adjoining lands, and the strength of a man, when with the same this hogshead is attached a box pierced with The crop was much better on the early fallow allowance of vegetable food by itself, and with holes into which this liquid manure flows than on the late, and the growth of weeds after the same quantity of water in a crude state, through a spigot and faucet, and is then sprink- harvest much more luxuriant. such person would absolutely starve. And Mr. led over the ground as the oxen move forward. On repeated observations since, on clover, as Curwen, in a late publication, has stated that, Before these drains had been made, the sta-well as on common grass fallows, I have observed in the feeding of stock, six stone of steamed bles, notwithstanding the greatest exertions of that land ploughed in July and the early part of turnips will go as far as nine stone of turnips two pains-taking men, were so wet and dirty, August, changed many shades darker after not steamed. Vegetable matter being partially that the cattle could not be kept free from filth. ploughing, than land adjoining fallowed in Sepdecomposed by the process of boiling, the digestive But since they have been made, the stables have stember and October, which if it ever changed organs have less to do in converting it into nu- been dry and clean, so as to be comfortable to at all, the change was imperceptible. I have triment. And it is a fact that the cows at Orange the cows, and agreeable {to the milkers. But observed the crop to be greater, to ripen earlieat every meal most voraciously, although they this is not all. One man has now so little difficulty er, less liable to accidents from rust, &c.—The are fed five times per day, and at every time in cleaning the stables that he has time enough growth of weeds after it to be more luxuriant, each cow has half a bushel of steamed food. for the currying of all the cows in the most and the land having the appearance of an increas

The richness of the milk, the flavour, and careful manner. At the time of laying these ed fertility, succeeding early fallows in compayellow colour of the butter afford the most con- drains, I was somewhat apprehensive, that they rison with late, the preparation in all things being vincing evidence of the excellency of cooked would prove to be too deep; but experience has the same. What could have changed the colour food. And this is confirmed by experiments made shewn, that they have the recommendations of of the clay turned by the early fallows, previous from time to time, in suspending and resuming convenience as well as of cleanliness, Were to being mixed with the soil by a second ploughthe steamed preparations. Besides, under this they but five or six inches deep the cattle would ing? It was not in contact with the vegetable, system every particle of the hay, of the straw, often stand with their hind feet in them, and in matter turned by the plough. The observations and of the coarsest offal is consumed. There is such case the advantages of the drains would be were made where it had been covered many inch no waste. Every thing is eaten with avidity. but partially obtained.

es. The sun alone could have produced no such It would hence appear that the steaming appa

In the middle of the farm-yard is a large trough effect. I supposed the change to be produced ratus, converting, as it does, all vegetable mat- supplied with water, for the stock, from a hy- from the quantity of gas generated in the decomter whatever, coarse as weli as fine, into the drant. This water is conveyed in pipes under position of vegetable matter turned under, which greatest quantity of nutriment, affords the uni- ground from the milk house. A line of these rising through the clay, had impregnated the ted benefits of nutrition, and of economy. And pipes I am about laying so as to have a hydrant whole mass of it, and had fertilized it to the surin this country, where so little green food is at the upper end of every drain, to furnish water face. That in July and August the days being raised for the maintenance of cattle in winter, for the washing of the stables. All the water long and hot, the nights warm, vegetation tenthe steaming of straw and corn fodder combines employed in this operation, carrying with it der and succulent, the decomposition was rapid, incalculable advantages. Besides it should ever the dirt of the stables, will flow down the drains and the quantity of this fertilizing gas very great be kept in mind that, in the feeding of animals, the into the cistern to the no inconsiderable increase On the contrary, in September and October, the provender ought to have bulk as well as nutriment. of its invaluable contents.

days being much shorter, the nights longer and Acertain distention of the stomach is requisite.

The urine in the cistern contains not only its cool, vegetation hard and woody, and all cirBy the steaming apparatus every species of own constituent fertilizing properties, but it is cumstances unfavourable for a rapid decompocoarse vegetable offal may be converted into also highly impregnated with certain portions of sition, the air was disengaged in smaller quannourishing food, and all the ordinary provender the dung with which it had been mixed, and tities, and gradually wasted without producing inay be made more nourishing

These facili- among which it had flowed. The beneficial ef- a perceptible effect. From these observations í ties will, of course, enable the farmer to main- fects of this species of manure are practically have been induced to adopt the following opinions. tain an additional number of live stock. And this known to all farmers. And Sir Humphrey Daincrease of stock will necessarily contribute to vey and other chymists have assured us, that nure exist more in the gas that is generated in

1st. That the fertilizing properties of ma the increase of manure, the Primum Mobile urine contains in a state of solution the essential its decomposition, than in the body, or quantum in husbandry. But it is not enough to possess elements of vegetables. The highly celebrated of the manure itself. cattle that will furnish in abundance this all- author of the Code of Agriculture has, moreover, 2d. That half rotted manures are more acimportant ingredient. It is moreover, necessary stated that Mr. Harvey of Glasgow by using tive in their effects than those completely rotted. to bestow the utmost attention to its preserva-cow urine has cut grass six times in a season,

And 3d. That manure rises by means of this tion and to its application. With respect to sta- and that the average of each cutting was fifteen air generated from it, and does not sink as has ble-dung, I shall, for the present, content my- inches in length.

been supposed. Respectfully yours, self by barely suggesting that my experience In conclusion, I would take the liberty of ad

TH: J. RANDOLPH. strongly inclines me to the opinion that, howe- ding that such gentlemen, as may be disposed to ver long, it ought to be ploughed into the ground make a trial of the advantages of the steaming To PETER Minor, Esq. without any previous stirring, and as soon as apparatus, or of drains in their cow stables, are

Sec’y Agricultural Society, of Albemarle. practicable after it shall have been taken from respectfully invited to visit my farm, Orange, so the farm yard. Be this, however, as it may; my as to have an opportunity of viewing and exintention at present is not to discuss this subject, amining in person all the details of the arrange

THE “CHAMPION"-LONDON. qut to exhibit to the society a statement of a ments there made. From their own view, few arrangements recentl, made for the preser- and from a careful examination of my manager vation and application of the liquid manure and people, they cannot fail to obtain the most

RENT OF LAND. yielded by the stables and Barn yard at Orange. satisfactory information as to their practical effects. The yard is situated to the south of the Barn ;

RENT OF LAND is the difference or the value of on its east and west sides are built cow-stables,

the difference of the produce per acre of the which extend almost the whole length of the Proceedings of the Agricultural Society of Al-worst land in cultivation, and of the better quayari. In these stables, well ventilated, are se

lity; when the same amount of capital has been veral ranges of cattle standing in separate stalls ON FALLOWS AND MANURES. expended, and the same quantity of labour and each secured by a chain and halter. At the Sir, From my first commencing as a farmer, I have has been bestowed upon cach, in the same space tails of caci range of cows, there is a drain, been struck with the great increase of the wheat 'of time.




But in order to shorten the present essay, as plying the wants of the community, either for mained uncultivated, there would always be peo. well as for the more easy explanation of the na- use among its members, or for exportation, ple willing to bring it into culture for the ordinature of rent, the subject has been divided into would be manufactured; while those who were ry rate of profit, as fast as the increase of the two parts, designated by the titles--1. Real farmers would erect farm buildings, and pro-population required it. No rent could therefore RENT. 2. ARTIFICIAL RENT.

ceed to cultivate the land. In this state of so- be paid. If there were no restrictive laws, lands of a ciety (and it will be seen to hold good in every This may be called the First Stage. Certain quality only would be cultivated, and the other state of society) there could be BUT ONE difference in the value of their produce per acre, RATE OF PROFIT, on all ordinary employments when all the land of first rate quality had bien

The SECOND STAGE may be said to commence as mentioned in the first paragraph, would be of capital and labour, for if any one branch of brought into cultivation, but when, from the conwhat is here called REAL RENT.

industry were found to be more profitable than tinued increase of the people, the whole of its But in England, laws forbidding the importa- another, some of those who followed the less pro-produce was not suificient fully to satisfy the de uon of corn have raised its price, and forced fitable branch would, in coure of time, leave it, mand: recourse must then be had to land of a worse and worse land into cultivation, and have and embark their capital in the more profita- worse or second quality. also greatly increased the difference in the value ble branch. This has always been, and must conof the produce between the worst land thus tinue to be, the course pursued; the most pro- When, in consequenoe of an increase of people,

Let us 'inquire how this is brought about. forced into culture, and lands of better quality ; fitable concerns inducing people to embark in all the corn produced from land of the first rate and as the whole difference is taken as rent, the them, the less profitable always inducing people quality has been consumed, without fully satisfytamer has to pay a higher rent on all but the to quit them. But any one branch of industry can ing the demand, scarcity will ensue and the price worst sort of land than he would pay but for the only be more profitable than other branches, of corn, following the general law, will rise. restrictive laws: this higher rent, as being while the produce of that particular branch is But as the expense of capital and labour on the caused by the law, is called ARTIFICIAL RENT. insufficient to supply the demand, and conse- best land will still remain as it was, the profits of

quently to raise the price of the article produced the farmer will increase as the price rises, and 1. Is the fair equivalent to the landlord for the above its proper level. So, on the contrary, one will be raised temporarily above the rate of profit use of the land.

branch of industry can only be less profitable on the ordinary employment of capital; and as 2. It would not be raised, and it would not be than others, while the produce of that particu- all the land of first rate quality has been brought lowered, at the option of the parties concerned. lar branch is more than sufficient to supply the into cnlture, no means exist by which the price

3. Its' amount is regulated by circumstances demand, and consequently, to depress the price can be lowered ; and the increased profit will bebeyond their control. These circumstances are of the article produced below its proper level. long to the farmer, as long as he continues to be denominated principles.

In the first case, the price will rise in conse- the owner, as well as the cultivator of land. I 4. It makes no part of the price of corn. quence of the scarcity, in the last case, it will

It has been stated, that, in the first stage, none ARTIFICIAL RENT.

fall in consequence of the glut. But as capital but land of the first rate quality would be culti1. Is a tax upon the consumer, levied upon

leaves that branch which produces the level vated, and the cause is obvious. If from an acre the food he eats. Its amount is equal to the dif-profit, it goes to that which produces the most of land of the first rate quality twenty-five ference to which restrictive-laws raise the price profit, the quantity of the articles produced will bushels could be produced, and if from an acre of corn, and the price at which it would be sold, be lessened in the one branch and increased in producing twenty-five bushels, nothing beyond were the trade in corn wholly free.

the other branch ; and so will :he price of those the common rate of profit could be obtained, it 2. Corn is therefore, as effectually taxed by articles be reduced in the one branch, and in- follows, that if the same amount of capital, and means of restrictive laws, as it would be were creased in the other, and so will the profit be in the same quantity of labour would only produce 2 stamp affixed to every loaf of bread, as it is creased in the one and reduced in the other; and twenty-five bushels from land of the second rate to a quack medicine.*

thus the profit of every branch of industry will be quality, there would be a loss in cultivating it of 3. Laws which forbid the importation of corn, equalized. It follows then, that there can be live bushels per acrema diminution from the comunder a certain price, into a country where the but one rate of PROFIT on all the ordinary em-mon rate of profit, and hence an effectual bar to population is increasing, tend continually to in- ployments of capital and labour.

the cultivation of land of the second quality. And crease the amount of rent paid per acre, and

To this rate of profit the cultivator of land this bar would continue not only while any land of beget the necessity for other laws, raising the must conform. His rate of profit will be the the first quality remained uncultivated, but until price still higher, and, ultimately, the total ex- same as that of the manufacturer, one law the increased demand had raised the price of all clusion of foreign corn.

necessarily governing, the whole and equalizing the corn produced on the best land, as high as to 4. These laws do not, in the long run, benefit the profit of all.

afford the common rate of profit, on land of the the farmer, on the contrary, they tend towards In the case of the supposed community, it is second rate quality, from which twenty bushels is ruin.

clear that none but lands of the first rate quality only were produced by the same amount of capi. The reasonings in this essay, although equal-would be cultivated; the widest choice possible tal, and the same quantity of labour, as produced ly applicable to other kinds of farm produce, would exist, and the farmer would of course twenty-five bushels from land of the first rate will be restricted to that of corn only, this be- choose the best land, and from the cultivation of

quality. ing all that is requisite for elucidation. this land he would obtain the common rate of

When, however, the price has been raised so For the purpose, too, of greater convenience profit

, and no more, and for this rate of profit heas to enable the possessor of land of the second in explaining the nature of what is here called would be willing to continue to cultivate the soil, quality to obtain the common rate of profit from placed upon an extensive portion of land of differ- capital to better account by employing it in trade, it. This would not, however, reduce the price of ent degrees of fertility, but hitherto uncultiva- manufacture, or commerce.

corn, since no more land of the second quality ed. That this community consists of persons, So long as corn enough for the consumption of could be kept permanently in cultivation, than mho, by means of their capital and industry, are the community, could be raised from land of the was just sufficient to supply the increased decapable of supplying themselves with food, and first quality, the farmer must continue to culti- mand. It would be possible, however, in this nost of the comforts and even elegancies of ci- vate the land himself. He would not let it, since stage, as it had previously been in the preceding Filized life. Some are handicrafts, and some no one would pay rent for it. Let it, however, stage, to produce more corn than could be conure farmers. Now, if this community were, as be supposed, that some one could be found to sumed: but as this, unless it could be exported they must necessarily do to establish a govern- take it at an annual rent, the consequence would with the common rate

of profit, would reduce the ment-and if they were to vest the whole of the be, that as the produce of the land yielded only rate of profit to the grower below the common land in the government, to be sold for the pur- the usual profit of trade, whatever he paid he rate of profit, no more would be grown than was pose of producing a revenue to the state, it would must pay out of the profit, and consequently his absolutely necessary to supply the demand. be in precisely the same situation as some of the profit would be reduced below the ordinary rate When, by the increase of the population, the newly settled states in the North American of profit by the whole amount he paid in rent, demand for corn had increased, and the price had Republic are actually in. Those of the commu- and he would thus voluntarily and unnecessarily been raised so as to enable those

who held land of nity who are mechanics and traders would build have consented to make his capital the least pro- the second quality to obtain the common rate of towns, where, whatever was necessary for sup- ductive of any in the community. The suppo-profit froin its cultivation, the whole of the dif

sition is therefore absurd. So long as land of the ference of the produce between land of the first In the case of a tax, the money goes to the first rate quality, and in eligible situations, reExchequer. In the case of the corn laws it goes at once into the pockets of the landowners. The f It is not pretended that it would be mathe- I It may be presumed, that there could be no whole community being injured for their advan-matically exactbut that there will be a continu- importation of corn until after all the lard of first lige solely. Jal approximation.

frate quality was in tillage.

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