« AnteriorContinuar »
and land of the second rate qualities, might and comply with the demand of his landlord, his! From these experiments it appears that by thirsoon would be taken as rent. Thus we see how rent profit would be reduced far below the ordinarylty grains of Natron, a pound of the new flour, originates. In the case supposed, the difference rate: and, as capital, according to the general which as loaf bread would not otherwise be eatabetween the produce of the two sorts of land rule, leaves the less profitable occupations, and ble, will make about a pound and an half of very being five bushels ; five bushels, or an equivalent goes to the more profitable; so, in this case, it (pleasant tasted wholesome loaf bread ;-haring in money, would be the amount of the rent of the would in time be drawn from the cultivation of then, Mr. Editor, come to this result, I think it first rate quality of land, while land of the second the land thus overburdened with rent, and this my duty, and it is my apology for obtruding this rate quality would pay no rent at all, but would would compel the landlord to take his fair equiva- on your notice to intreat the serious attention of be cultivated by the proprietor during the second lent, the difference of the produce of his land the heads of families to this very important substage, as land of first rate quality was culti-above the worst in cultivation, and no more. It ject, and if by my humble means, a portion of huyated by the proprietor during the first stage. Jis unnecessary to prove, that the tenant would man misery, however small, should be alleviated,
The THIRD STAGE would commence when all not, for any considerable space of time, be allow- it will be a source of pleasing reflection, and a the land of second rate quality had been cultivat-led to hold the land for less than its value. Thus, rich recompence to ed, and population continuing to increase, scarcity it is proved, that real rent is regulated as to its
Sir, your most obedient, had been again produced, and the price of corn amount, by causes not under the control of land
Humble servant, had been so increased as to make it profitable for lords and tenants.
P. S. K. those who held lands of the third rate quality,
| P. S.-On eating No. 3, as bread and butter for from which only fifteen bushels per acre could be
breakfast, it was found to be very superior ir os. From the Lancaster Gazette, (England,) No-taste to the bread made wholly of old flour. described in respect to land of second rate quality
vember 30, 1816.
ON THE FLOUR FROM WHEAT CORN would be again taken. If, from land of the first rate quality, 25 bushod of the first pate quality 95 bush ! THAT HAS GERMINATED.
GROWTH OF FRUIT TREES. els could be produced, 20 bushels from land of thel
| FROM THE NORWICH (CONNECTICUT,) COURIER. second rate quality, and 15 bushels from land of Having baked some new flour which took twice! Lobserved an
? l observed an article in your paper a short time W be the usual time, and it being, when done, a hard since relative to the white-washing of fruit trees. the third rate quality, all the difference would be the usual time, and it being, when done, a hard sincere
v would thick crust, elevated like a roof over a glutinous and have witnessed with pleasure the attention taken as rent, and land of the first quality would thick crust, elevated like a roof over a glutinous and have wir pay 10 bushels, and land of the second quality 5 saccharine paste, the specific gravity of which naid.
d avality 5 saccharine paste, the specific gravity of which paid to it. There are some other attentions
ile land of the third was greater than water, and the increase of which I am convinced by actual experiment. (in bus quality must be cultivated by the owner for the weight ouly one-fourth, 24 ibs. flour producing addition to whit
-fourth, 24 ibs. flour producing addition to white-washing,) will facilitate the
only 30 lbs, of bread, wheras of good flour, on an growth of fruit trees considerably. In the spring common profit of trade.
rent is hroduced by an average of four batches ; 104Ibs, flour has pro- of the year, at, or before the time in which the
dduced 139 lbs. 8 oz. of bread, being an increase of trees open their buds, (although later will anincrease of the population producing scarcity, and auced 139 lbs. 8 oz. of bread, being an increase of trees open their bud со
ľ rise in the price of about one third. I began to enqui". if no means swer,) scrape away with a hoe all the grass or
land to could be found to remedy this great and alarming vegetable rubbish for one or two feet from the corn, so as to enable the holders of worse land to could be found to remedy this great and alarming reretable
profit from their cul-evil; I was soon informed that Natron, the Sub trunk of the tree, at the root in such a manner
land having the most carbonate of Soda of the modern nomenclature, as to open the soil to receive the benefit of the rent, the least fertile land paying no rent at all ;l had been recommended. As I knew the Subcar- dews and rains. If the old earth be barren,
bonate of Soda to be an exceilent corrector of the scrape out the top and put in manure of any kind; and thus equalizing the profit of all.
Real rent, where there are no restrictive laws, acid that is very commonly prevalent in the hu-should there is the value of the difference of the produce per man stomach, and that it would act beneficially, the better
and of land and was in no case unwholesome in the propor-worms, which infest the roots of most kinds of me amount of capi-tions and manner intended to be used; I lost no fruit, particularly the peach, plum, apricot, nec
been ex. time in forwarding the following experiments : tal and the same quantity of labour have been ex-time in forwarding the following experin
tarine, &c. (and which is one great cause of their pended on each in the same space of time which! 1st-Take New Flour, two pounds :
untimely decay.) Soapsuds and all wash from was to be proved. Real rent makes no part of the
Subcarbonate of Soda, two drachms. the house are very excellent to pour around the price of corn. This might be inferred from what
2d-Take new Flour, two pounds ;
roots of the fruit trees, if the grass be dug away has already been stated, but it may be adviseable
Subcarbonate of Soda, one drachm. so that the wash have a free passage. Many perto make this important circumstance as clear as
3d-Take New Flour, three pounds ;
sons will see the utility of this method of treatpossible.
Old do. one pound ;
ment, by examining trees that stand in a situa
Subcarbonate of Soda, two drachms. tion to receive the wash of the house. As an exIt cannot be supposed, that when land of differ
4th-Take New Flour, three pounds ; ent qualities was cultivated, the holders of the
ample of the efficacy of such treatment, I give better qualities for which rent could be obtained,
Old do. one pound;
you a statement of a few plum trees, now in my would, for any considerable period, continue to
Ground Rice, half a pound ;
possession ; these trees come up near two other
Subcarbonate of Soda, two drachms.Iplum trees, on a piece of ground with a North cultivate those lands themselves. The love of ease and distinction would induce them to let the 5th--Take New Flour', two pounds ;
Easterly aspect, where soap suds and other waland to others, and to live themselves without toit,
Old do. one pound and half;
ter had been in the habit of being poured-they
Subcarbonate of Soda, one drachm. are not sprouts but came from the stone. upon the rent. But whether they let the land to
The Subcarbonate of Soda was dissolved in the 1 tree i year old, 6 feet in height, others, or cultivated it themselves, the price bushel of all the coin produced would be regulat- water in which the flour was to be mixed, and
n which the flour was to be mixed, and i do
1 do. 8 do. 2 inches do. ed by the price at which it could be sold by the Yeast added in the usual way.
1 do. 2 do. green 6 do. 6 do. last year, those who cultivated the worst land, allowing
| 1 do, 2 do. do. 7 do. 3 do, do. them to retain the common rate of profit. If it). Nos. 1 and 2, were pleasant tasted bread, simi-l i do 9 de do
id cease to cultivate it.jlar to brown bread ; it was friable, very buoyant | 1 do. 2 do. do. 9 do. 2 do, and 14 Thus, there could be but one price for all the in water, and filled like a spo
ut one price for all thelin water, and filled like a sponge ; it gained near-Jinches in diameter, at 4 inches from the ground. corn produced, and that price would still be paid, y one third, but No.2 was better bread than No. The four last T roncality were let tóli; and this is well worth attending to, since it som, May 3d.
ietors them- proves that with this flour half the quantity of Many have told of the rapid growth of fruit selves. Real rent, therefore, makes no part of Soda produced the best effect, a circumstanceltrees in on
14 of Soda produced the best effect, a circumstance trees in Ohio and other parts of the Western the price of corn; which was to be proved.
"Ithat is of importance in an economical point of Country, but I have never seen any thing to ex
that is of importance in an economica Real rent is regulated as to its amount by view.
cel this last mentioned tree, there, during a resi causes beyond the control of the landlord and
wl No. 3. was better bread than Nos. 1 and 2, and Idence of several years, and which plainly shews
No. 3. was better bread than Nos. 1 and 2, and dence of so tenant. It has been shown, that if the best land and it was but little inferior to the bread procur-Ithat wi
andland it was but little inferior to the bread procur-that with proper attention, fruit will grow as roduced 95 bushels. the next best 20. and the ed from our old flour, when the Alkali was not well here as in any country. worst only 15, that 5 bushels would be the amount used.
| My other trees that I have poured suds around, of rent on the one, and 10 on the other; but if the No. 4. was heavier than the preceding, but was have grown remarkably, but not in so extravalandlord were to demand 6 bushels, instead of 5 baked in a tin pan.
gant a manner as the plums. I am sensible that, on the one, and 12 bushels instead of 10 won the N. 5. was also baked in a tin; it was as good were trees treated in the manner above descric other, his demand would not probably be com- bread as that made wholly with the old four ;lbed they would cor
ne to matu plied with; but if, from the inconvenience of re- but it was not very easy to distinguish Nos. 3, 4,!be more fruitful
was not very easy to distinguish Nos. 3, 4, be more fruitful, and last much longer than if moval or any other cause, the farmer was to and 5, from each other.
|left to themselves, because those so left, no sooner
trees are no
begin to thrive, than worms, flies and other in- were again top-dressed with hot-lime, sown with who sows early. I repeat, however, that for provsects infest them to such a degree (the turf and potato-oats, rye-grass, and clover seeds; and to ing the truth of my plan, nothing else is required grass sheltering them securely) that in a short my great satisfaction, the ground that was top-than a trial. time they become sickly, and soon after de-dressed with hot-lime, and sown with cast turnip,
I am, Sir, cay; which inspire many with a belief that trees and ploughed down without dung, was found ir
Your most obedient servant. will not fiourish in this country, and much is laid harvest to afford a superior crop to that which was
AN UPPER WARD FARMER. to the climate and bad seasons, when the fault well dunged in the potato and turnip; and even 5th August, 1815. principally lies in the cultivator.
the following year the land first-mentioned yieldShould this method be attended to as effectual-led a better crop of clover and rye-grass. Being
From the National Advocate. ly as I believe the white-washing to have been.-successful in this instance, I have repeatedly tri
HYDROPHOBIA. I am persuaded that, in a very few years fruit willed the same experiment since, and always with Mr. Middleton, our Minister at Russia, has be as plentiful in this vicinity as in any other.-equal success. The advantages resulting from this transmitted a memoir on Hydrophobia to Dr. The labour is but trifling, and if persons only try mode of farming are obvious. Where dung is Mitchell, written by Dr. Marochetti, a Russian a few by way of experiment, I believe they will high priced, it proves that ploughing down turnip physician, and given at length in the Commercial be convinced of the utility of it.
Jin fallow-land, top-dressed with hot-lime, will Advertiser, by which the indications of this terThere is another thing which ought to be at- answer the end better than even though dung had rible disease are pointed out, and the cure made tended to in the pruning of trees, that facilitates been employed.
|known. He states, that the appearance of tumors of the healing of the wounds caused by the opera- Encouraged by this successful experiment, unequal size appearing under the tongue, always tion, viz. a plaster made of common sand, fresh though resident in a high district of country, I and uniformly mark the existence of hydrophobic cattle manure and slacked lime, of equal parts, last summer fallowed a field for the cultivation of virus, which can be easily ascertained by the touch. wet and mixed to the consistency of common wheat, upon nearly the same principles. I gave When any one is bitten by a dog, it is recommortar and applied to the wound, as soon as made ; it three furrows, and in the end of July, without mended that he should subject his tongue to exit may be put on from a quarter to half an inch top-dressing with lime, sowed it broad-cast with amination for six weeks, and if no tumors then apthick with a trowel or shingle--this totally ob-Iturnip sees, at the rate of 6s. 3d. per acre, roll-pear, it may safely be concluded that no poison structs the air from the wound, and is a promo-ing it in as before. In September, and when the has been communicated by the bite.But if durter of the growth of the new bark.
turnips grew thick and luxuriant, but before they ing any part of this period, tumors should show AGRICOLA. had neeped, I gave the field a half-dunging upon themselves, the Doctor recommends that they
the turnip shaws and ploughed the whole down. should be instantly cauterised, or opened by a sharp
I may here observe, that when the shaws are so lancet. A greenish matter will proceed from these ON PLOUGHING DOWN TURNIPS FOR strong as to gorge the plough, they ought to be incisions, which the p
Tips For strong as to gorge the plough, they ought to be incisions, which the patient is directed to spit out, MANURE.
cut down with the scythe and spread upon the and then wash his month with a strong decoction
field before the dung is laid upon it; the advan- of the tops and flowers of the Genista Lateo tincTo the Editor of the Glasgow Chronicle.
Itage of this is, that both the root and shaw are toria, (yellow broom.) The virus is thus destroySir, -It may be thought presumptive in me to completely covered with the soil, which prevents ed in its germ ; and details of numerous cases write upon agriculture, when so much has been a new vegetation taking place among the young are given where this treatment has been attended said and written upon that subject already, by per-wheat. After the turnips had been thus plough- with the happiest results. sons whose ability is much greater than whated down I top-dressed the field with lime, and im- On this interesting subject there is the following I can pretend to. The subject, however, is ex-mediately thereafter, availing myself of a dry notice in the Gazette de Sante (Gazette of health) tensive; and it may be shortly remarked, that time, I sowed the field with wheat at the rate of a medical journal published in Paris, by which it writers upon agriculture in general dwell more fourteen pecks per acre: to my great satisfaction, appears that the important discovery referred to upon theory than upon practice. Theory indeed as well as to the astonishment of all my neigh- in the memorial of Dr. Marochetti, was made as is good in its place; but surely the practi-bours, the field of wheat thus prepared is at this far back as 1813. The subject is highly deservcal part is to be preferred, by recommending no- moment equal to the best of the Lothians. The ing the attention of the medical profession in this thing but what is simple, easily understood, and soil upon which these experiments have been tri- country. capable of being reduced into practice by the en is somewhat loamy, though I doubt not but that “Mr. Marochetti, Surgeon at the Hospital at plainest farmer. A person may be a very good they would succeed equally upon a lighter soil, Moscow, being in the Ukraine, in 1913, was refarmer, though he may not have such knowledge and indeed, where luxuriant turnip shaws can be quested to give assistance to fifteen persons who as to give a philosophical account of the growth raised, joined with lime, either with or without had received the bite of a mad dog. A deputaof plants. Indeed philosophical pretenders are of-top-dressing, as the state of the land may require. tion of aged men waited upon him, and intreated ten the worst farmers. Without further pream- It is thus, in short, proved, that a farmer may he would administer belp to the unfortunate perble, therefore, I shall proceed as shortly as possi-raise good crops of corn and hay, by following the sons, through a peasant, who during several ble to detail some experiments, which I lately mode suggested, without any dunging at all ; and, years had acquired great reputation for curing tried on a farm occupied by me, in the Upper with a half dung at 6s. 3d. as the price of eight'hydrophobia.' Mr. Marochetti consented upon Ward of Lanarkshire. The thing, I believe, has pounds of white turnip seed, he may raise wheat certain conditions. The country Doctor then adnot been tried before, at least to my knowledge. of a superior quality. It must be remarked, how-ministered to fourteen of the persons confided to I am certain, however, it never has in this partsever, that the great point in summer fallowing is him in a peculiar way. The fifteenth, a young girl of the country.
Ito plough and harrow when the field is thorough- of sixteen, was treated in the ordinary manner, In the year 1806, I had prepared, in the usually dry ; and in no instance to plough wet when it for the purpose of proving the effect of both way, a large field for potatoes and turnips, can be avoided, a circumstance which was parti- modes of treatment. "To each of the fourteen he dunged well in ridges, and planted and sown.cularly attended to on the occasion above men-gave daily one pound and an half of the decocFinding that I had not a suflicient quantity of|tioned. In these instances also, the field was tion of the buds of yellow broom flowers, and he farm dung to finish the whole field, it occurred prepared by getting the first furrow before win- examined twice a day under the tongue, the place to me in the end of July of that year, that ister, which, if the farmer can accomplish it, is of where according to his statement, little swellings would, by way of experiment, top-dress the re-Igreat importance in this, as well as in every case. are formed. containing the virus of madness. mainder of it with lot lime, and sow broad-cast Fallowing, it is well known, prepares the ground\_These swellings rose the third or ninth day. with the white turnip seed tolerably thick. This both for lime and dung co-operating immediately. and were seen by Mr. Marochetti.-Very soon having been done, immediately after it was rolled! No scheme is ever proposed, which does not after they appeared, they were touched by a in. My reason for preferring this species of seed, meet with opposition : the soil and situation, and sharp red hot needle, after which the patient garWics, that it was the cheapest, and produced the other circumstances may be here stated; but my gled' the part with the decoction of broom. The largest shaw.–The turnip came away exceeding-Topinion is, that whenever luxuriant turnip shaws result of this treatment was, that the fourteen ly well ; and became pretty luxuriant ; but, be- can be raised, my plan will be found to succeed. patients were cured in six weeks, whilst the fore they neeped, availing myself of dry weather, I only wish it may have a fair trial. With regardy young girl, treated differently, died on the seventh. I ploughed them down in autumn. This plough, to the time when this or any other process in farm day in convulsions of madness. Three years after, ing answered for the seed furrow; and before theling ought to be gone about, much, of course, will Mr. Marochetti paid a visit to the fourteen perwinter set in, I water-furrowed the land, and clear-loepend upon the season. I have remarkedt, for sons and they were all doing well. The same ed the end of the ridges with a spade to prevent instance, that in some early and in others late sow-l physician being at Padolla in 1818. had a new opstagnation. Part of what was potato and turnip,ling is most adı antageous. Even in this way alportunity of confirming this interesting discovery, was also ploughed before winter: the remainder sluggard who neglects to saw, till in the usual - The happy result of this mode of treatment early in the spring ; and water-furrowed in the case it is beyond the proper season, may have was the same with reference to 26 persons, who same way. At seed time both parts of the field better crops than his more industrious neighbour had been all bitten by a mad dog."
FROM A NEW YORK PAPER.
| The calculation on Orleans is the same except than 16 lbs. from one dairy, either to the I send for insertion, the following tables of the allowance for loss in weight, which is 6 per Fulton or Washington market--the candidates, English words derived from other languages, cent.
as might have been expected, were very numer. which was formed some years ago upon careful SEA ISLANDS AND UPLANDS. ous, at an early hour. Many of them were enexamination of Johnson's folio Dictionary.
titled to great commendation for the excellence SCIENS. s America. Liverpool. America. Liverpool
7100 of the quality of this very important necessary of Pence. Cents.
Pence Table of English words derived from other lan-1 Cents.
life, as well as for the neat manner in which 8 - - - - 6 2.16 241 - - - - 16 1.2 guages. 8* - -
their respective specimens had been made up.6
- 1.4 245 - - - - 16 3.4 Latin - - - 6732 | Irish
Where so many justly deserved credit, it was dif
16 7.86 French . . 4812 Runic
ficult to decide to whom the premiums should be - - 41 83 - - - - 6 10.16 25 - - - - 17 | Saxon - - - - 1565 Flemish
given. After due consideration, however, the in6 13.16 254
17 1.8 Greek - . . 1148 Erse
spectors adjudged them to the following persons : 6 15.16 254
17 1.4 Dutch - - 691 Syriac - - - 3 oi
7 2.16 25 Italian 211 Scottish ..
7 1.4 26 - - - - 17
34 Mrs. Commodore Morris, Morrisenea, Ist
3.4 German 106 Irish and Erse
28! Premium, a silver pitcher,
- $15 Welch 59 | Turkish -
7 9.16 264
“Mrs. Edward Leveridge, Newton, L. I. 2d" Danish 75 Irish and Scotch
7 13.16 263
Premium, a silver milk pitcher,
1.4 Mrs. Ray, Westchester, 3d premium a silIslandic - 50 Persian
18 1.2L ver cup, Swedish 34 | Frisic
8 1.4 274
WASHINGTON MARKET. Gothic - - 31 Persic
78 Mr. Cornelius Terhune, Hackensack, 1st Hebrew - 16 Uncertain
8 1.2 28
Premium, a silver pitcher, Teutonic -
18 Mr. Josiah Austin, Seconicus, 2d Premium, Arabic 13) Total, - 15,784
19 1.4 a silver milk pitcher, The incongruity which I find in this enumera
19 38 Mr. Thomas Brown, West-Chester, 3d Pretion of dirivative words, is the misapprehension of
9 3.16 29
19 5.8 mium, a silver cup, the author of the dictionary or the compiler of
9 6.16 294
19 7.81 this little table-thus he makes
9 1.2 1294 The Saxon, German, and Teutonic, to be all dif
9 11.16 293
1.8TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. ferent languages;
9 13.16 30
0 1.4 The Flemish and Dutch;
10 1.16 301
SKIM COULTER PLOUGH. The Swedish, Gothic, and Teutonic;
- 10 3.16 30,
Oxford, Philadelphia Co. Penn. ? The Irish, Erse, Scottish, Irish and Scotch ;
- 10 5.16 303 -
May 24, 1822. The Persic and Persian.
10 1.2 31
20 7.8 MR. EDITOR, Some of these as they are here classed are
Sir-In your paper of the 17th you request inreally the same language. The Persic and Per
10 3.4 314
1.4 formation respecting the skim coulter used in sian are no otherwise different than the usual
10 15.16 313
3.8 England. The skim is a blade of iron attached to provincialisms of every country; there is some 153
11 2.16 32
the common coulter, and standing at right angles difference between the modern German language 16
with the broad side, a little below the surface of of learned men, and the vernacular tongue; and 164
11 7.16 32 - . . 3.4
the ground when the plough is at work; or just so that spoken in Saxony is considered more pure (16)
11 10.16 32
much as to pare off about 11 inches of the top of than in Swabia, or Bavaria; but it is still the same 163
11 3.4 33
the ground before the share moves it. Its length language: the same is true of the Irish and Erse, 17'.
11 15.16 331
should be about nine or ten inches or the breadth which is in every respect the same language, the 174
- 12 2.1633}
of the furrow slice. It is narrow and is almost only difference existing in the use of different 171
brought to a point at the farthest end, but is made synonyms in phraseology, instead of the same ex- 173
12 7.16 34
wider as it joins the coulter, and should be turned act expressions on ordinary occasions; a circum-118
12 9.16 341 stance common to the provincial dialects in every 187
up into a curved wing, in order to turn over or - 12 3.4 341
1.8 shove into the furrow, every thing that it cuts up, living language, and much distinguished in the 181
12 14.16 347
1.4|which is covered over by the earth raised by the Italian, which is considered to be spoken in great- 18.7
1.2 share. It is most in use in the counties of Kent, er or less purity in different parts of the same 19
13 1.4 353
5.8 Surrey, Essex, Herts, and all those surrounding country.
3.4 the metropolis. Its advantage is that it cuts up - - 13 9.16 353
|before the share, all grass, clover roots, weeds TABLE OF CALCULATIONS,
13 11.16 36
and rubbish, and turns them into the bottoms of Shewing the rate at which Cottons may be pur
13 14.16 364
3.8 the furrow, where they are more completely
14 361 chased in America, in order to be landed in Liv
1.2|buried than if the furrow had been turned over at
14. 1.4 367 erpool at a certain price; the principle on
5.8 one slice. The grass is never seen afterwards to
14 3.8 37 which they are made being founded upon actu
Igrow betwixt the seams of the furrows; and hav
14 1.2 371 al results. It has been ascertained from experi
ing the grass roots cut and separated from the
14 5.8 374 ence in trade, that the charges on purchasing
earth before the furrow is turned, the harrowing 14 3.4 37
1.4 and shipping Cottons in America, generally
is much easier, and the grain gets better covered.
7.8 38 amount to 12 per cent on Sea Islands and
3.8 The skim coulter requires steady ploughmen and 1.8 381
1.2 Uplands, and 15 ) per cent on Orleans.
1:2 a slow motion of the plough, and does best with
1.4 384 Charleston Courier.
3.4 oxen. It answers best with wheel ploughs, which
1.2 383 EXAMPLES.
may be regulated to plough a certain depth, with
15 8.8 139 Sea Islands and Uplands cost 125 cents.
out depending so much on the skill of the holder:
15 3.4 392 Add, loss in wt. 3 per cent.
1.8 and this may be the reason why it has not travel
15 7.8 391 Petty charges,
1.4 led out of the southern counties, where the old
16 1.8 139 - - insurance and
5.8 fashioned wheel plough, drawn by four or five
16 1.4 40 - interest, 41
horses, universally prevails, into the northern and
16 3.8 Commissions, 5
eastern where the light swing plough with two
horses is in use. I have seen the skim tried upon 12}-equal to 1 9-16ths. FROM THE NEW YORK COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER. /swing ploughs and given up; for these depending
more upon the carefulness of the holder, a little Making, 14 1:16th cents.
variation in the depth of ploughing will throw the Equal to 7 9-16th pence.
skim out of work; and I am doubtful whether an Freight, 1
This being the day, on which it had been de- American ploughman would make them answer at Duty, 6 per ct. O 8-16ths.
termined by the Agricultural Society, that pre- all, driving their horses as they usually do at the
miums should be adjudged to those persons, who rate of 3 or 4 miles an hour, and turning over a Total, 1-16th pence cost in Liverpool. should bring the best butter in quantities not less furrow of 12 inches. It appears to me that it
would answer well in this country for ploughing these are the people upon whom this prosperity moderate fortunes have been thrown into poverty: old seed land for corn in the spring, when there has poured with a full moon tide,--the prosperity whilst those who were already wealthy, availed is often a good deal of rubbish on the surface; derived from her numerous manufacturing popu-themselves of the opportunity of further enriching and also for putting down any kind of stubble in lation, by means of which the country is enabled themselves by taking advantage of the general disthe fall. It answers well for ploughing in long to “export its bread stuffs in the shape of manu-tress. The effects thus produced joined with those manure, as it shoves it into the bottom of the fur-factured goods.” Bread stuffs indeed this species which are the consequences of the manufacturing row before the earth raised by the share falls of export must be exclusively, or potatoe stuffs, system, has so increased the inequality in the upon it, by which it is covered more completely for the poor wretches have been for a long time fortunes and conditions of the people, as to have than when ploughed under in the ordinary way. upon short allowance, and have been under the changed almost entirely their social economy, The skim coulter would not answer with shallow necessity of filling their stomachs with subsistence and destroyed that regular gradation of ranks, by ploughing, nor with a broad furrow slice, such as is of the very cheapest kind. A very small portion which one class of people was so closely connectgenerally the work of American ploughmen. In of the cattle Mr. V. talks of can have gone, in ed with another, and which was peculiar to, and Kent, where it is done in the completest manner the way he mentions, out of the kingdom in any always admired in, the structure of the British by the old turn wrest plough, which has a shifting of the staple fabricks. These have found their society. The paper system has spread venality inouldboard, and turns the furrows all one way, way into more privileged stomachs, and into and selfishness over the whole land, and there is the furrow is seldom more than 8 inches wide, whatever substances they may have been distil-scarcely aught even the most sacred of things and from 6 to 8 deep, by which the grass and led and amalgamated, or in which ever way they but what is the subject of barter and traffic. weeds are buried too deep to vegetate again and may have been exported, it has not been in the Even government itself is under the influence of grow as they often do through a thin furrow. shape of woollens, muslins, hosiery or iron. an aristocracy of wealth, and its agent in corrupENGLISH PROSPERITY.
Having found out the class of persons enjoying tion that rules every where.
(the prosperity derived from the numerous manu In golden chains, the willing world she draws, I observe in your note on a passage of your cor-facturing population, we will next see in what it And her's the Gospel is, and her's the laws. respondent Mr. Valck's letter, No. 8, page 62. consists. It consists of an enormous mass of Mounts the tribunal, lifts her scarlet head, you express some surprise at his talking of En-wealth in the possession, comparatively, of but
And sees pale virtue punished in her stead. glish prosperity, and ask in what it consists? few individuals, saved from the vast profits made
Lo! at the wheels of her triumphal car, This may well be a perplexing question to per-out of the labour of this numerous population;
Old England's genius rough with many a scar sons on this side of thewater, for it has been who by the aid of the great improvements, which
Dragg'd in the dust : his arms hang idly round, puzzling enough to people at home, amongst mechanical skill and invention have made for the
His flag inverted trails along the ground. whom it remains still problematical whether saving of labour, have been enabled to perform
Our youth all liveried o'er with foreign gold, the nation be in an advancing, stationary, or for their employers, three, four, and in some
Before her dance; behind her crawl the old. declining state. But though Mr. V. has disco- cases, ten times the work which they could do
See thronging millions to her pagod run, vered the secret of this prosperity, yet as to before these improvements were made; and
And offer parent, country, wife, or son. what it consists of—as to what are its effects from circumstances inevitably attendant upon the
Hear her black trumpet o'er the land proclaim, - whether it is a general national prosperity, or system, have been reduced to perform this addi
That not to be corrupted, is the shame. only enjoyed by some particular favoured class or tional work for a lower rate of compensation, or classes of people, we are altogether left to con- what is not sufficient to command the same quan
Americans, who are anxious for the permajecture. The secret, or the secret cause of the tity of subsistence, as when their labour was less nence of their free institutions; who prefer a sober prosperity of England according to Mr. V. lies in beneficial to their employers. Thus all the ad-simplicity of manners amongst their people, to her being able to export “not only her raw mate-vantages which has resulted from multiplying the great external shew and outward appearance of rials, but also all her bread stuffs in the shape op productive powers of labour, by the employment national wealth, should be cautious how they asmanufactured goods” by means of her “nume- of new and superior machinery, have been retain- sist in giving a forced encouragement to large rous manufacturing population,” which enables ed exclusively by the master manufacturers and manufacturing establishments, or even to a very her to consume “all the grain her soil produces, capitalists, and not the least has been permitted extended commerce, but more especially to the and every head of cattle it feeds." You ask “if to fall to the share of the operative workmen, but paper monied, and funding system of Europe. this prosperity is enjoyed by the mass of the peo-Iwho on the contrary are in a worse condition than|And whilst they are struck with the delusive apo ple employed in any of the branches of trade, art, they were before these improvements began. And pearance of prosperity-of evanescent prosperity, or industry?” No; certainly not by the mass. this is not confined to the manufacturing laborers, which they always produce, let them reverse For with those who are unacquainted with the only, but is applicable to every branch of industry the picture, and contemplate the misery and condition of the working manufacturers of Eng-lin England. For the whole, or by far the greater wretchedness on the other side. land, it is difficult to conceive that there can be part of that surplus of produce which has been
I am sir, a people in any country under heaven, whose raised by the increased skill and industry of her
Your obedient servant, labours are so incessant, and conducted with such working people, has always been applied either
THOS. SMITH. dexterity and skill, who are so sparingly com- to increase the numbers or augment the luxurious pensated as they are ;-or who suffer so many pri-enjoyments of those, who, from their situation in
The Editor of the American Farmer, will convations, and exhibit such a spectacle of squalid society, are enabled to exercise a complete con
fer a favour upon a subscriber of one of the low wretchedness. The prosperity then, does not con- trol over the labours of all the rest. ist in the comfort and happiness enjoyed by the Thus the wealth of England which looks so cour
hilo counties, by obtaining information on the subject of mass of working artizans and manufacturing peo-dazzling at a distance, and which many others
ve transplanting the different species of evergreens, ple. We may enquire next whether the farmers besides Mr. V. denominate prosperity, is an ex-"!
viz. cedars, hollys, &c. he wishes to know preand agriculturists enjoy any of this prosperity, incess of affluence, arising from an inequitable dis- cisely,
is cisely what seasons of the year, are best for conseqnenoe of the manufacturers eating up all tribution of the produce of the land and labour of transp!
n of the produce of the land and labour of transplanting them. their grain and beef? The thousands of petitions the country. And notwithstanding it has enabled Peoruary, 20, 18**. filled with the numerous complaints of this class of the state in its external relations to assume a people, with which the tables of both houses of powerful and imposing aspect, it is nevertheless
The gentleman who superintends the planting the legislature have been loaded for several years an enormous evil, which grievously afflicts the
Pel of the public square about the Capital at Washback, and which have been annually increasing, country, and which in the end must produce an in- ingto
in Jington (with whom we have not the benefit of an will answer this question. Then the class of land- ternal decay. It is an evil which has arose princi-lag
i acquaintance) is qualified to give this information; hellers? They indeed have enjoyed their share pally out of the manufacturing system, the direct we
ectiwe judge so from the invariable success which of prosperity, but the fate of the tenants and culti-tendency of which is to pauperize and enslave all
ajilappears to have attended his tasteful operations vators of their property will be theirs next : andlthe lower population, ano to make hundreds Door on the grounds above mentioned. even now it is fast overtaking them. For unoc-wretched, and dependant, for one to live in ease
Elit. Am. Far. cupied farms produce no rent, and cultivate and affluence. But what has accelerated the prothem, themselves they cannot; for with their gress of this evil, and done more than any thing
FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER. lands many of them already heavily mortgaged, else to increase and bring it to its height, is the they have neither money to stock them, nor paper and monied system of England ; a system,
Nerv Burn, N. Ca. Narch 15th, 1992 skill to raise more produce than will repay the the progress of which however ruinous its final MUD SCOOP-SWEET POTATO CROP, &c. €jenses of their cultivation. There remains but tendency, it is perhaps impossible now to arrest. another class or two; the master manufacturer, By the frequent and sudden changes which it ha Good fences, enclosing a rich soil, bearing heathe great capitalists, the fundholders, and the occasioned in the value of the nominal currency,y crops of grain and grass, for raising, sustainmerchants. Excepting perhaps the latter, all thousands of industrious and reputable people opling and fattening, an improved herd of domestic
animals-with appropriate and substantial build- Extract of a letter to the Editor of the "Ame- same persons, sold for $25. Through the poings, and implements of husbandry, constitute rican Farmer,” dated Albany, (N. Y.) 318t|liteness of inspector MACHALL, we have been furthe pride, the glory, and the emoluments of May, 1822.
nished with samples from each of the hhds. farming.
T“ BURDEN, the plough maker, has invented a which we shall take pleasure in exhibiting to any As an auxiliary to a rich soil, the basis of all tax dresser, which he thinks will be superior to person who may wish to see them. profitable farming, is herewith sent you, a des- Dey's or Bundy's. He intends to have one com-| Fine spangled tobacco, $16 to 18—fine red do. cription of a machine to collect mud from mill plcted next week, for which the irons are now $12 to 16-good do. $8 to 10%Inferior, $5 to 7– ponds, creeks, &c. with which to fertilize land. casting. It is expected to do the work superior Common tobacco crop, $3 to 4 50—no demand. It is a cheap and a simple machine, and can be to the others, and with more expedition, while Seconds, $1 to 6. made by almost any body. Two pieces of the expense of a machine will not be over $100.) VIRGINIA TOBACCO-10hhds. Richmond, sold
As soon as I have seen it in operation, which I at $650 and $8 50.
il The subscriber offers for sale the FARM, SISTORIA
man of genius. He has recently constructed
whereon he resides, called MORVEN, situate ten feet buckets, which are highly extolled by
Won Elkridge, sixteen miles from Baltimore. It those who use them: he has also made great im-19
contains about 636 acres, the most of which is Iprovements in the machinery of horse ferry P.
prime plaster land-a considerable part in good square timber 25 or 30 feet long are laid upon the boats »
cultivation, and nearly the whole in good heart, water at a parallel distance from each other of
The soil is well suited to tobacco, corn, wheat, 8 or 10 feet. At each end of which a platform
and other grain, as also grazing, to which indeed of plank is nailed on. At midway of this float, TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.
Jit is uncommonly well adapted. It has about 25
acres of first rate meadow land, lying on a stream is erected a braced gallows, from the centre of the top piece of which, hangs a chain, or rope, John S. SKINNER, Esq.
called Elkhorn running through it, and which is holding in suspension a lever, or beam, at one I wish you to procure me through the medium of now
the medium of now chiefly down in timothy. The farm also end of which is attached a large iron shovel, and the American Farmer some of the seed of a to-binas a considerable distance on a branch of the at the other end a cross piece to hold with bacco once sowed in Maryland. (but which I fear is Patuxent, and is bordered to that extent by rich the hands to enable the labourer to work it.Inow extinct.) called long-leaved thick iointed meadow land, which although subiect to overflow The machine is staked to its situation—the la-bull-face.
- A SUBSCRIBER. could easily be rendered valuable grazins bourer stands on one of the platforms-takes
ground. The character of this farm is well hold of the cross piece at the end of the beam,
known in its neighbourhood, and the proprietor with both his hands-raises that end-and sinks
THE FARMER. thinks he may confidently say it ranks among the the end having the shovel to it, into the mud be
best on the Ridge, at least as regards the natural low; then bears down the end which he has a
qualities of its soil, and susceptibility of improve.
BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, JUNE 7, 1822. hold on, which raises the end with the shovel
ment-be also feels warranted in stating, that its and the mud is deposited on the other platform.
actual condition (the effect of a course of severERRATA.
al years improvement,) will be found such as Thus he will proceed until a load is collected,
to Owing to an oversight when reading the proof would render immediate and handsome returns to when the machine is pushed ashore and unload
Isheet of the American Farmer of last week, thela farmer of capital. ed with a shovel. The quantity of mud that may word a thousand” in the 14th line of the second THE DWELLING HOUSE is large and comfortabe obtained in this way-by a single labourer-in
Icolumn of the 79th page escaped notice; it ought|ble, and in good condition, having within a few a day, will vary with circumstances. I have ob
to read thus: “from eight to ten or twelve hun-years received extensive repairs, and an addition tained, where the mud was about 3 feet under dred dollars for every foot list.”
at considerable expense-most of the outhouses water, 25 and 30 single horse cart loads. By manuring, I obtained the last season eleven
are also in good condition, and these include a barrels and four bushels corn from the same land, PRICE CURRENT_CORRECTED WEEKLY.
dairy, with a fine spring of water, good quarters that without the manure produced but two bar- Flour from the wagons, $6 75 to $6 87—1
for the labourers, corn and meat houses, ice
house, &c. On the premises is a spacious garrels. The profit of farming consists in obtaining Wharf do. cash sales $6 50%Wheat white, 1451
S den with a variety of the best fruit, and two apa large quantity of produce from a small quantity of to 147 cts.-Red, do. 140 cts-Corn. Yellow. 7310 of land. I also obtained 350 bushels of sweet potato to 74_White. 80 cts.-Rye, 65 to 70 cts. -Oats pie cichards, one of them just coming into bear. slips from an acre of newly cleared unmanured land; 40 to 45 cts. --Bran per bushel, 15 to 17 cts.--21]
eving. In point of prospect this inland situation is
thought to be inferior but to very few; and, in resbushel. The labour to make them consisted in ton, $3 50—Shad, No. 1, $7_No. 2. $5 75 to 86P
pect to healthiness, it is with confidence pronounced forming the ridges, and in cutting and planting -No. 1, do trimmed $8-Herrings, No.1, $3-egy
equal to any in a district of country, proverbial in the vines of the potato. They are valuable food No. 2, do. $2 50~Whiskey 33 to 34 cents
that particular. The water is excellent, and springs for fattening hogs, making as good pork as corn. Soal Leather per lb. 25 to 27 cts. Skirting, do, Jab
abound in every field. The sweet potato, cut into thin slices, dried, 30 to 33 cts._Upper whole side, $3 to 4 25_Can- The farm would be sold with or without the parched, and ground, makes good coffee. Whenldles mould per lb. 15 to 17 cts.-Dipped. do. 13 to growing crops, and possession given when wantbaked, it is an esculent, and is a treat for an epi-114 cts. Spermaceti, 35 cts.-Beef fresh per 11 je
ed; a liberal credit would be allowed upon a large cure. In this climate, after they have been hous-18 to 124 cts.-Pork. 6 to 9 cts.-Veal, per lb, 6 to 10 portion of the purchase money. The title is ined for two months they become a soft, sweet, rich|cts.-Mutton per lb. 6 to 8 cts.-Lard per lb. 1210
19 disputable. substance, and make excellent puddings. In rich|cts.-Butter per lb. 31 to 374 cts-Cheese per lb.l. Appii
* Application to be made to the subscriber on land they will grow to the size of a man's thigh. 19 cts
thigh. 12 cts.-Eggs, per dozen, 12 cts.-Hickory wood the premises. There are 6 or 8 varieties—all good. I think $4 50 to $5-Oak, do. 83 to 3 50-Pine, do $2 25
JOHN G. PROUD. them far preferable as substantial food, to the to $3.-Par, North Carolina, $2 25–Rosin, $2! Elk Ridge, near the Church, 31st May. famous Irish potato. They may be boiled, baked, 25-White pine boards per M.$10 to $30-Bees'! For further information relative to this Farm. roasted, steamed, and fried; and are a good sub-wax, per lb. 371 to 40 cts.-Salt, Liverpool coarse the proprietor has permission to refer to Nicholas stitute for bread, with flesh, fish, or fowl. Boil-Ipei bushel 50 to 55 cts.-Turks Island, 65 to 70–G. Ridgeley, Esq. Baltimore. ed, and then mixed with flour or meal they makelSt. Obes, per bushel, 53 to 55. excellent bread, if a plenty of good fresh butter! MARYLAND TOBACCO.-2hhds, of a very supeis laid on, while hot. In fine, the lovers of goodrior fine bright yellow, raised in Frederick coun- Printed every Friday at $4 per annum, for Joun eating will find them a very desirable item in sty by GILBERT and EPHRAIM Davis, father and S. SKINNER, Editor, by Joseph RoBINSON, at the their catalogue of food.
son, sold for $35, being the highest price paid for North West corner of Market and BelviderePlease to give in your paper some account of any tobacco the present season. We hope the streets, Baltimore, where every description of the best constructed kiln to burn rock into lime. state of foreign markets may as fully compensatel
Book and Job printing is executed with neatness Respectfully, &c.
jour enterprizing merchants as their competition and despatch-Orders from a distance for Bind3. S. SKINNER, Esq.
has in the present case, rewarded the industry of ing, with proper directions, promptly attended GEO, WILSON, Jour planters. One hogshead also raised by the to.