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No. 12.-VOL. 4.
AMERICAN FARMER-BALTIMORE, 14th June, 1822.

89 AGRICULTURE.

improrements, in the Agriculture and Rural tility to the soil, and repay he lusoandman Tor

Economy of our county—to add to the intelli- all his toils. The war-worn soldier, the veteran MONTGOMERY COUNTY AGRICULTU- gence of our community, to diffuse correct in- statesman, the ingenious artist, and the skilful RAL SOCIETY.

formation, to ameliorate the manners of its inhabi- mariner; seek this inexhaustible field of ration Rockville, May 15th, 1822. tants, and to chasten their moral character.al enjoyment, where occupation and exercise J. S. SKINNER, Esq.

The means we hope to use are, exertions, ex- sweeten fatigue, and repay them loy abundance, Sir: The following resolution was adopted by amples, stimulants, and the good will of society content and repose. 'Tis the only pursuit of this the Agricultural Society of Montgomery county,|-by cherishing good feelings, by mutual sacrifi- life, which has afforded to mankind an uninterMaryland, at its last semi-annual meeting on the ces, by perseverance and forbearance, much may rupted bond of friendship and brotherhood.-9th March, 1822.

be obtained in so good a cause. We have endea- Strife, envy, ambition ; those varying and domi"Resolved unanimously, That the thanks, of vored to induce our fair friends to cheer us with neering passions ; sooner or later sever us in all " this Society, be presented to Archibald Lee, their countenance, by embracing those subjects others. Tis the province of large cities to en* Esq. for his address, delivered at this meeting, for premiums, more peculiarly within their pro- gross the genius, and too frequently the honors of "and that he be requested to furnish a copy for vince; aware as we are, that all our enterprises a community; of them it has been aptly said,

publication, in the American Farmer,' and obtain increased value, when warmed by their “they absorb all the honors of producing and pos"the Rockville True American.?” approving smiles.

sessing greatness, yet they shed little lustre on Agreeably to the view of the Society in this Agriculture has been emphatically termed their less eminent inhabitants.” The pursuits of resolution expressed, I herewith enclose a copy of the most important, and useful of the arts;" a busy town, leave but little time, for the cultithe address, which if it meets your approbation as and indeed, it would appear to have held this vation of the finer and inestimable feelings, that ftilly as it does that of the members of this insti- rank, from the earliest periods of civilization.-demand the boundless space of nature to devetution generally, will be secure of a place in your The poet, the sage, the philosopher, have in all lope in. All there, is hurry and noise. Who is paper. I cannot here, sir, deny myself the plea- ages made it the theme of their warmest eulo-it, that has lived amid the engaging scenes of rusure of communicating the following resolution of gies. When we look through the long vista of ral life, insensible to their influence and their the society passed in August 1821, expressive of past ages, that have witnessed the rise, the fall, charms. The paramount association of man is the sense of the society, of the merit of the work and the resuscitation of republics and of em- full of rural images; his attachment is to a paryou are now engaged in, and which was ordered pires, we find mankind retaining their esteem, ticular spot, to early pursuits, to the sports of to be published.

for this pursuit. The Egyptians, the Hebrews, his boyhood, which revive favorite ideas long ** Resolved unanimously, That it is the opin- the Chinese, all bear testimony in its favor; passed, and conjure up the most fascinating and “ion of this Society that 'the American Far- amongst all it ranked the first. How beautifully endearing recollections, till he exclaims with the "mer,' Edited by J. Š.Skinner, Esq. is eminently interesting is the sublime and touching narrative poet, calculated to promote improvements in Agricul- of the steward of Pharoalı, rendered in holy writ. “ Hail ye blest haunts of my childhood," "ture, and rural economy, and that it merits the The Augustan age furnished no theme, so abun-! “ The lawns and the bowers that I loved!” patronage of every friend to such improve- dant for her fairest poets and orators, as that of

He who teaches his brother to add one spear 'ments."

Rural Economy. Wit, eloquence, declamation, of grass to feed the animal, or one grain of wheat Some delay has occurred in the transmission of found there, the richest scenery, and an un

to nourish the human race-who instils moral the copy of the address before mentioned. bounded field ; its charms, its utility, its influI am, Sir, ence upon society, were sung by the Grecian and precepts and brotherly love ; will live in the

hearts of mankind as their benefactor, during Very respectfully,

the Latin Bards, in their richest and sweetest his pilgrimage here; he will be enshrined in the Yours, &c. &c.

strains. How strikingly interesting, were those affections of those he leaves behind, and open a Z. MAGRUDER, Recording Secretary of the M. Ag. 'So. pitiate Ceres, as the goddess of harvests. -- path to a future life, lighted up by virtues that

never fade. Hymns and libations, processions with her image, through their fields of grain ; all endeavoured to laurels crown these heroes! Such ever-greens

Cincinnatus! Washington! What imperishable ADDRESS

invoke her smiles and her protection of their descend in all their vernal beauty to unborn milDelivered before the Agricultural Society of husbandry.

lions. To such conquerors, no necks bend, save Montgomery County, by MR. ARCHIBALD

Through that dark period, so aptly termed the those of ignorance, idleness and vice. IndependLEE, on the 8th March, 1822. It affords me much satisfaction, that I have an vigils in monastic retirement ; when Barbarism mankind are their heirs.

iron age; when science slumbered, or kept its ence, content, patriotism, are their bequests; and opportunity of congratulating you, my fellow citizens, upon the formation of a Society for the im- ved to cheer man with its smiles. When the ad-tellectual pleasures they afford. In agriculture, supplanted all the other arts, Agriculture survi

Many pursuits are ardently followed for the inprovement of Agriculture and Rural Economy in venturous Spaniard sat foot upon the soil of that we find a combination of truth and knowledge, this county. An institution, to whose utility al-paradise of the new world, it was already beauti- with the greatest practical advantages. “Dismost all the sister states bear the amplest testi- fied and enriched by Agriculture. The bright coveries in this science, extend from our time mony; and from which our county cannot fail to luminary, which dispensed its genial rays upon and country, to future ages; securing to distant derive substantial benefits, if it be patronised the Peruvian husbandman, was alike adored with generations, the means of subsistence, enjoyment with the usual liberality that characterises our Manco Capac and his gentle associate, whom and multiplication.” By engaging in the examifellow citizens.

their tradition taught them to believe, had de- nation of inorganic matter, and tracing its process After the able address of our friend, F. S. Key, scended from the Heavens to instruct them as a through its various stages, till it reaches its highEsq. my feeble efforts will avail you little, save favorite people, in this first and best of arts.- est destination, its subserviency to the purposes to revive the deep interest that eloquent advo- Among the Aborigines of this country, the most of man, our minds are enlarged: Nor are we licate excited in all his hearers. I have to regret, striking evidences of our common descent appear mited by the study of the inanimate part of the that this duty did not devolve on one more in the feasts they celebrate in honor of this art.creation. In this pursuit a portion of our afcompetent to its performance. Honored by your The Cherokees, by far the most enlightened fections is divided amongst our domestic animals; request that I should address you, it has become tribe of our red brethren, commemorate at sta- whose growth and increase, participate with our my duty. Permit me to solicit your kind indul- ted periods, by dances and religious ceremonies, children, in our tenderest cares and anxieties. Is gence, to such remarks as I have had time to pre- the return of their harvests. All history informs it not a striking evidence of man's superior despare for the occasion.

us, that man commences civilization only when tination, that the rest of the creation, animate, as The subjects of Agriculture and Rural Econo- he becomes a cultivator of the soil. Hunting, well as inanimate, grow unler his fostering hand, my, embrace such a variety, of the dearest in- herding, fishing, tend to harden and to barbarize and exclusively for his purposes ?-What then can terests of Society, by their immediate and rela- him. In these pursuits, he is unaccompanied by prove more grateful, than a knowledge of those tive influences; so much has been said, and so that companion, given by nature to soothe him causes to which we are indebted, for the origin, much has been written thereon, that I confess I under affliction, to soften his character, and to progress, and maturity, of the means of susteapproach it with humility and diffidence ; con- fit him for domestic happiness; by cherishing the nance, and to which all around own a similar debt. vinced as I am, that what has been acquired, best affections of the heart. Nor are the pledges of Ignorance in the possessor of the soil, of the manbears an almost infinitely small proportion, to the those affections ever around him to stimulate the ner in which it ought to be cultivated: is far less information still in store for the husbandman.

exercise of his intellectual and physical pow-excusable, than want of information in any other That is the noblest object for our rivalry, which

of the pursuits of this life: 'Tis an ingratitude to a enriches and enlarges, by the improvement of its For centuries past, the ablest scholars have bountiful Providence, who hath given us this means !

devoted their labors to explore the arcana of na- abundant means of life and increase, at the same The objects of this association, are to effect ture, in search of those treasures, that give fer- time that it is a neglect of our temporal interests.

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trs.

ans.

Need we call your attention to the instances sociate of those profound writers on policy, and all intimately connected. 'Tis true we can live so familiar to all of us, where impoverished soils, of those pioneers, to all the glory of this wonder- by the first, but the others are essential to the have, by careful husbandry, remunerated the ful and admirable constitution ; takes pride in pre- present order of society. Nature has blessed us proprietor, in comfort and independence ?-Con- siding over the destinies of a similar institution with a fine country and an abundant soil-all well trast the renovated farms within your knowledge, in his own county, to that, Mr. President, en-regulated farms will afford a large surplus, which with the barren wastes, that unfortunately spread trusted to your care—and whose paternal regards must be disposed of, or the labour of the cultivaover so much of our country, 'Tis not alone by will be as effectually evir.ced, in the perfor-tor is in that degree wasted. A great portion of increased wealth, that the industrious, and the en- mance of the simple duties attendant upon that the capital of individuals, unoccupied by land, terprising farmer is repaid. His stock of infor- office, as the splendid achievements of his will be engaged in one or the other of those purmation is enlarged ; and what is all important to high and imposing chief magistracy. These sim- suits. What crude articles we can manufacture the enjoyment of that wealth-health is insured. ple, these interesting pursuits, approximate us at home, and are not more useful to us, in the Some of the fatal effects of disease and death, to the source of all intelligence for who is it necessary barter we carry on with foreign naare, in all climates, attributable to slovenly hus- that can reap the blessings of a well regulated tions; it is evidently our policy to have prepared for bandry, and negiected grounds. Swamps un- farm, and neat household; of an amiable part- our uses at home. Commerce would certainly be drained, become the depositories of stagnant ner in life ; of dutiful and affectionate children and useless, and the means of carrying on the gowater, made fætid by putrid vegetable matter, servants; nay, of the very domestic animals that vernment would fail, not only in exigencies but whence the whole country around is filled with stock his farm; of his luxuriant harvests, of during a profound peace (save when wrung from miasma. The pure fountains so essential to our that peace of mind, that quiet, that beautiful the industry of our people,) did we not exchange comfort and health, are choked up by, wasted order and propriety that pervade all around him, our surplus commodities with other powers, either soils. The very access to our habitations, is and present the most enchanting landscape ; for their productions or their manufactures. We grown up with 'rank weeds; which in going without feeling his nature exalted, his intelli- have still unoccupied a large portion of the Atlanthrough the regular decomposition of matter, gence enlarged, his heart expanded with grati- tic states, and an inexhaustible territory to the surcharge the atmosphere with a variety of dis- tude to an all wise, and an all good Providence ? West. To force the population from tillage incases, that baffle the skill of the ablest physici- Reduce the subject to one of mere interest, and to manufactories, would be most unwise, both as

Your labour is rendered unavailing, your attend with me to the experience of an able, regards the health of those occupied, and the inhealth is destroyed, your capital is impaired, by and acute statesman. Whatever view our pre- terests of the land; as much so would it be, to slovenly husbandry. "Your fields are filled with judices may dispose us to entertain towards that drive our population from the land to the cities, briars and thistles; poverty, discontent, misery learned and intelligent magistrate; all agree in and upon the ocean. Manufactures will assured. and mortification, are the sure attendants on ig- meting out to him, the merit of deep political ly succeed, in a due proportion to the means norance and negligence; whilst abundance, information, and a thorough knowledge of man. engaged in them, and the fair demand of the health, cheerfulness and content, are united In a late address to the legislature of New York, country, for the articles manufactured. Any unto a propriety, a neatness, and an appearance Gov. Clinton speaks thus of these societies:- due attempt to give either of these three great of comfort, that gladden the eye, and compen- “The labours of agriculture, have, for the last and important interests a preponderance, must be sate the heart of the judicious husbandman for season, been crowned with abundance, and the productive of injurious consequences to society. No all his toils. institutions which have been founded for the en

exclusive privileges should be given; none should The disinclination to enter into agricultural so- couragement of this important pursuit, continue be asked, above all, there should be no jealousy cieties, would appear to exist in this quarter of to produce the most beneficial effects.' A great manifested; they will soon appear as tri-parties the Union, to a degree , unknown elsewhere. amelioration, within a few years, is observable to the great fundamental principles of our union, This supineness, this miserable apathy, and in the department of rural economy. The rapid and of our internal policy. A due degree of vigiindulgence of undue prejudices, on subjects so improvements of live stock, the judicious appli

lance should characterise each of them; but forintimately connected with our best interests, is cation of manures, the increased production of the bearance and good will must be the companions to say the least, a fatal proof of the entire igno- various kinds of grain, the invention and adop

of that vigilance. It is a consolation to us, that rance of the objects, as well as the advantagestion of excellent implements of husbandry, and our manufactories are so planned, as to prevent of these institutions. When we turn our atten- a growing attention to the promotion of horticul-much of that disease and premature decripition to our sister states, we find the most distin- ture, have unquestionably originated in a great tude, which is too prevalent in the great manuguished citizens not only taking part in, but most degree, from institutions which concentrate the facturing districts of Europe. That unwhole prominent in superintending, in patronising, in en- fruits of experience, which apply the discoveries some air which attends the concentration of their couraging by talents, weight of character, and con- of science, and inventions of art, and which ex-people, is here much corrected by judicious pretributions, societies gotten up for the improve-cite into activity, all the generous principles of cautions; and in a condensed population, such ment of agriculture and rural economy. These emulation, and all the latent powers of improve-las some of the Eastern states afford, it may wise, these patriotic, these eminently useful ciment."

become problematical, whether more strength is tizens—these enlightened statesmen, whose pub

not retained, by this mode of disposing of any lic stations, and services, have not only insured

This passage is in itself a volume for you to

excess they may have, than by allowing it to the gratitude of their own country, but have reflect upon. We must not say that our soils

emigrate to a distant quarter in search of agriculturaised her to a commanding rank amongst the are too poor, too much exhausted, that we haveral occupation : but in our state no such question nations of the earth; cherish agriculture through not the means possessed elsewhere. The coun

can arise; we unfortunately have much unoccuevery medium, well aware, as they are from a ty of Norfolk, in England, was forty years since

pied land, and are deplorably deficient in rural ecodeep insight into society, and thorough acquaint- far more reduced and more desolate than our

nomy. ance with the springs of action, of human nature, county is at this day ; yet to the enterprise of one that the moral intelligence of man, is to be im- man, and in the life time too of that most emi

This country, my friends, holils a high rank in proved more directly through the early princi- nently useful and valuable individual, does the improvements and inventions that experience ples of religion, of subordination, of enterprise England owe the vast importance of that county,

approves.

To Mr. Thomas Moore, the union is guided by practical pursuits ; of the various, yet now the granery of her Island. Would you know indebted for an excellent treatise on farming, in Inseparable relations, tied up in the husbandry the means he used ; Agricultural meetings, per- which the superior merits of deep ploughing are of the soil, and its t'win sister, Rural Economy, sonal exertions, encouragement of rural econo- set forth in language simple and impressive. Dathan through all the other resources that learn- my in all its branches, premiums to induce em- vis, Warfield, Brown, and several others have ining and ingenuity have devised. Is there in our ulation, but above all, as he has frequently de- vented, and furnished ploughs equal to any used at circle, an individual capable of rejecting the clared, the rapid amelioration of the tenants in this day. Stone-fences have been built upon as means cherished by the immortal Washington, their habits, manners, customs; their intelligence cheap and probably as durable a plan as any exto benefit his country? His attachments to this and high respectability.

tant. One individual has erected more than four pursuit are well known. Most justly did he Agricultural Societies collect information with miles of this valuable enclosure with his own seresteem it first in importance, first demanding greater facility, and they distribute as much in a vants. Hedging has received a trial in the varihis example. How could the soil he fought so day, as individuals could in months. They do ous sections of the county, and thrives sufficiently pobly to defend, prove useful; how could this what is equally important to society; they sepa- to justify its general use; we abound in excellent Splendid empire, and all her vast resources, her rate the good from the bad, and thus prevent materials for high-ways; our streams are capable laws, her peace, be secured, but by this pur- those experiments so injurious to practical men, with proper management, of supplying us with suit? And will it not be admitted by all, that by presenting in one view the experiments of all water for machineries, and for irrigation. Our the enterprise and intelligence of her citizens, sections in implements of husbandry, in house- meadow grounds are ample for all the purposes of when limited to their own farms and personal ex-hold manufactories, and in farming in all its re-lour farms, and may afford us a considerable surertions, tend to protract the growth and improve-llations.

plus for market. Our tobaccoes are unrivalled in ment of a country. Mr. Madison, the early as. Agriculture, commerce, and manufactures are quality; our grain districts supply excellent bread,

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and our fountains the purest and most salubrious general improvement can result to the communi-the surest method of promoting its strength and water. Our local situation is certainly command-ty.

its happiness, and has accordingly enlisted the ing, being upon the direct line between the seat of As it is necessary to improve our stock animals. zeal of the most enlightened patriots of every age. government and the western world. In fine, we we must give to that object a portion of patronage: It is rousing into active life the dormant enerpossess within ourselves all the means, if judi- but it should be minor to the improvement of an gies of the soil; giving spirit to the enterprise of ciously exerted and applied, to convert this coun- entire stock ; and the same idea 'tis believed ap- the citizens; turning to a more profitable account ty into a fertile, a picturesque, and a most desira- plies with equal force to crops. Some kinds of the labors of husbandry; creating new fibres in ble abode. Allow me before we part, to turn your vegetables may justify a limited cultivation for the body of the republic ; infusing into it a more attention to the subject of premiums, and to offer reasons that are apparent; yet the primary ob- wholesome circulation, and in its effects “alnost for your consideration, the ideas that have occur-ject should be the general tystem of farming and annihilating space :"thus by bringing neighbour red to me as important in their distribution. Up- of the farm : that farmer who can shew the best states into closer proximity; equalizing their on the judicious selection of the objects that are kept, and most highly improved stock of horses, mutual advantages, and restoring the balance to receive encouragement, will in a great degree, cows, sheep and hogs ; a well cultivated farm in which the partial dispensations of providence depend the success and the utility of this institu- all the crops that he raises ; great neatness, care may have rendered necessary to the wants and tion to the community.

and economy in his management of his soils; and the weakness of the less favored. The plough must be admitted on all hands, to the largest quantity of manures to invigorate, and To a young state these improvements are vitalbe the most important implement of husbandry: renovate his lands; will turn his labour to a ly interesting ; a spare population becomes vested it therefore claims your first attention. The har- greater profit in the general account than his with all the faculties which render a more nurow ranks next. In tenacious soils, the hoe was neighbor is likely to do, whose cares are absorbed merous one efficient and useful ; invention and wont to be preferred by those who cultivated to- in producing the fattest animal, or the best acre skill supply the force of numbers, and the same baccoes and indian corn; and in sandy soils it is of produce.

advantages are afforded on a large scale, which still highly esteemed; but for all the essential pur- Gardening and the dairy are important objects result from the application of all kinds of labor poses of a farm, experience proves that there are in the rural economy of a country. These being saving machinery, to the details of industry ; three necessary implements in tillage, viz : the more in the province of females, are too frequent- thus facilitating the work of civilization and replough, the shovel plough or cultivator, and the ly neglected. They are nevertheless essential finement, and giving to the tardy gait of years, harrow. These are all substitutes for the spade comforts, and often become sources of profit—the strides of centuries. and the rake, and still many degrees inferior. On Good fruits, vegetables, poultry, cheese, butter the preparation of the soil, the value of its pro- and milk, are by no means secondary considera- sented with

the most imposing pretensions. Sit

To the state of Maryland this subject is preduct mainly depends. Consequently those imple-tions in a well regulated family: cheeses in many uated in the very bosom of our great confederaments best adapted to that object, merit our pri- countries, a substitute for meats. It was formary consideration. As the spade and the rake merly made in this county, and we may hope it the north and the south, and from her fortunate

cy, she stands equally open to the commerce of enable us to prepare our gardens to the greatest will again be the product of our dairies. Cider is advantage, so the implements used upon our an article of profit, and a beverage in which we western waters, possessing a control over the pro

proximity to the most important points on the farms, that approach nearest to them, must of con- may vie with the north. With equal attention ducts of that region which no rivalry can arrest sequence prove most important to the farmer. our trees would be as long lived as those of any from her enjoyment; a control which at no disbeing perfect, we must all acknowledge; how tant in rural economy. We have a population great western trade; the guardian of the gates many degrees less perfect, our farming imple unavoidably idle, during our inclement winters through which the treasures of a boundless councontrasts the relative quantities produced by clothing that may be prepared to advantage in her shores the riches of an incalculable comthese several cultivators, the disparity in the pro- our houses. Habits of neatness and industry will merce. In addition to this, the bounteous hand of Its being inconceivably great. After the grain, accompany this pursuit ; our females will be used in giving us the staff of life; the plough, agreeably and usefully occupied in teaching their most magnificent bays in the world, upon whose

nature has spread through her confines one of the the harrow and the hoe, are then the fairest objects servants, and in performing themselves the lightfor premiums: next to the implements with which er duties of the wheel and the loom. There richest portions of her produce. The Susque

expanse, float securely to their market, the we prepare our soils, we rank the means required, still remain amongst our thrifty, notable, and hannah and the Potomac washing her remotest to put them in motion. In some countries, horses spruce dames, instances of househould manufac- borders, open to the industry of her citizens, the are altogether used-in some, mules are preferred, tures, that will in beauty, neatness and excellence in others oxen, are the favourite force applied to of fabric, rival those obtained from abroad. - ble fertilizing streams between, literally irrigate

prospect of exhaustless treasure, while innumerathe draft : and one of the most polished nations. Thus do we secure the double advantage of sa- every field, and afford an immeasureable supply in many districts depend upon the cow for this ving our capital, and enlarging our stock of inessential duty. With us, the horse, the ox, and telligence ; whilst we afford useful occupation to

to every demand for internal improvement. the mule are all made subservient to this great that portion of our population, and retain them

These advantages have not been overlooked or purpose. These then are the next fairest objects for the purposes of labour, called for by our mix- unappreciated by the citizens of our state, and for premiums. Next in order come all those ani- ed husbandry.

numerous efforts founded upon private as well as mals useful to feed or clothe man-as the sheep, I have already trespassed too long upon your

public patronage, to facilitate and improve the the hog, &c. The cow is after all perhaps the attention ; the deep interest created by the sub- means of internal transportation, attest the interest most important—she gives milk, butter, cheese, ject, which encreased as I progressed, must form it has excited ; and your committee rejoice to find meat; she is converted into all the purposes of my apology.

that this subject begins still more to engross the atdraft ; and in some countries her hide is used to

tention of every intelligent portion of the communiclothe man. In due order follows household man

ty. In this, our state does but respond to the ufactures ; with which I would be disposed to

REPORT

pervading sentiment of the nation. Since the unite the most useful and substantial of the do

late war, there is scarcely a part of the union mestic manufactures. It is certainly important to the House of Delegates of Maryland, by the which has not directed its attention and its means that the mode of bringing these various objects committee on Internal Improvement, to which to this question, and the result has been, an iminto fair competition, should receive our attention. was referred so much of the Executive Commu-provement in the general aspect of the United Without meaning to innovate upon usual, and I

nication as relates to that subject. December States in the course of a few years, which confear establisehd customs, I beg leave to add, that Session, 1821.

sidering the population and the wealth of the observation and experience point out the propriety The committee to whom was referred so much of country, and the extent of territory upon which of extending the field, to farms, to stocks of cat- the Governor's Message, as related to Internal these improvements have been spread, is pertle, and to the general practices and dianagement Improvement, respectfully beg leave to subnit haps unequalled in the history of free nations.of the farmer, in the various seasons of the year. the following report:

The state of Maryland has, from the period of The injurious consequences that flow from the ap- Your committee cannot but feel a deep convic-the revolution to the present time, evinced a most propriation of all your premiums, to individual tion of the importance of the subject which has commendable disposition to lend her aid to every animals, or to the partial cultivation of crops, been submitted to their consideration, when they undertaking which professed to encourage these tend to obstruct the current of improvements. It look over the vast field it presents to view, and objects, and although at times an injudicious calis evident that our means, our attention and our reflect upon the intimate connexion it has with culation may have thwarted her success or disintelligence being devoted to a single object, oc, the prosperity of the Commonwealth. To im- appointed her hopes, still she has derived many casion the neglect of the residue. Ambition and prove the internal resources of a nation has al- and most permanent advantages from the well pride may be fostered, but no general good, no ways been considered, by the wisest statesmen, timed appropriation of her resources.

At the present juncture much is required of her. :tention, they would beg leave to make some re- only method of improvement therefore which The competition of formidable rivals, although, marks in reference toit.

could be suggested, would be the construction as your committee believe, it cannot subvert her The commission which was authorised by the of canals through all that part of the country in strength, may, for a long time retard the full and resolutions of last session, to unite in an exami- which the river presents the greatest body of obprofitable exercise of it; and it therefore be- nation of the river with a similar commission stacles; an undertaking which could only be comes a matter of the most urgent solicitude, from Virginia, have been delayed by the tardi- achieved with the wealth of an empire. that we should be in a situation to keep pace with ness of the latter state, in the commencement of Your committee are naturally led from these the zealous enterprise of our sister states, who this work. Although the Virginia commission- speculations to a contemplation of the resourare at this moment contending with us for the ers have been named by the executive of that ces of the state in another quarter. The river prize of future power and importance in the com- state, obstacles unknown to your committee, oc- Susquehannah has been brought upon the public merce of the west. Though that struggle be curred to prevent the execution of the design en- view with a renewed interest, and the means of maintained with all the perseverance which self trusted to them, until the lateness of the season improving it have been already submitted to this interest can supply, and the effective force which rendered it impracticable to proceed to any, sa- committee, upon which they have had the hoa nervous and a wealthy population can bestow, tisfactory examination of the state of the river. nour to make a distinct report. They had the Maryland must nevertheless, by a discreet and It is presumed however that all parties will be satisfaction to find their report promptly adopted, intelligent expenditure of her means, aided, as ready to progress in the contemplated enterprise and the bill which accompamed it speedily passshe is, by a more than countervailing beneficence as soon as the approaching year may become ed into a law. This river stands in a very difof providence, forever hold a successful mastery most favourable to their purposes; and as the ob- ferent predicament from that of which we have in the strife.

jects for which this commission was created, are of just spoken. It appears to be now satisfactorily Your committee conceive that this subject is very interesting importance to both states, your ascertained, that every work which is calculated urged upon the attention of the state by other con- committee would recommend a continuance of to improve the bed of the river, and render it siderations. The present generation seem to be the resolutions, and in order to apprize the exe- more practicable to the purposes of navigation, more imperiously called on for the adoption of a cutive of Virginia of the feeling of the state up- must ultimately offer a rich remuneration to the system of policy in regard to this question, than on this subject, your committee would respect- state, in an increased supply of produce. The any other that has preceded them, and perhaps fully suggest the adoption of the additional reso- Susquehannah, unlike the Potomac, has, until it more than their successors ever may be. The lution accompanying this report.

approaches within a short distance of the tide, a tranquilized state of Europe; the establishment

As to the improvement of the navigation of the moderate fall, and rolls over a wide and compaof what appears to be a more settled order of Potomac, your committee would say a few words.' ratively smooth bed; is more regular in the se things; the general competition in every branch This noble river, from its peculiar course, hold- and fali of its water, and in every respect is of trade, appear more decisively at this time, than ing its way exclusively through the contines of more propitious to navigation. Within törty or at any former period, to throw the several states the state ; watering an extensive and fertile re- fifty mules of the tide, it passes through a rauge of our union back upon their own resources, and, gion ; receiving the tribute of soine of the finest of country which falls with great abruptivess tothe of necessity, to drive them to the contemplation of streams of our country, among the rest the She- Chesapeake, and presents

innumerable ridges of their intrinsic energies. The period is rapidly nandoah, whose protracted channel sweeps granite, which being broken in the bed of the approaching, at which it is conceived a large through the most luxuriant valley in Virginia, must river, offer almost the only serious obstacles manufacturing interest will be fostered in our always be considered one of the richest posses- which occur in its passage from the borders country, and the attention of our population ap- sions of our state, and eminently entitled to the of the state of New York.

some late efforts plied to’ furnish a substitute for a vast variety of attention of her citizens. Amid these advanta- evince the entire practicability of surmounung the present commodities of trade, which, before ges, it is the unfortunate lot of this river to pre- these dificulties, and there no longer remains a the lapse of many

years

, must become the pro- sent obstacles which must, for a long time, re- doubt that a judicious effort anplied to the imduct of our own labour and the growth of our tard the course of improvement, and exclude the provement of this lower portion of the river, own soil. This consequence has been partially benefits of a commerce longing to seek that chan- must be productive of incalculable benefit to developed at the present day, by the entire nel. It is remarkable for having the greatest the state. This once achieved, the products change of our political relations with the states fall, perhaps, of any river in the United States,' of

an immense extent of country, reaching of Europe, and it is believed that so far as re- where an ascending navigation is attempted, and through the heart of Pennsylvania and penetragards the condition of this continent, that pos- the consequence is, not only an accumulation of ting into the interior of New York, are at once ture of things will be permanent. From this rocks and rapids, which can only be surmounted poured into the lap of Maryland. 'For an estiview, it is obvious, that the labor of our country by the arduous toil and disciplined skill of the mate of the value of this commerce, even unmust be differently applied, and the current of boatmen, but a liability to extreme lowness of der its present disparagements, your committee our national means turned into new channels. water which has been known in some extraordi-, beg leave to refer to the separate report already

This work Your committee beg leave further to say, that nary years to have prevailed through the whole made by them upon this subject.

boating season, almost to the entire exclusion of therefore, in the opinion of your committee, dein their opinion it is impossible to give a more

that mode of transportation. These causes have serves the serious and immediate attention of the profitable direction to the policy of the government, than by the application of its strength to operated to produce a neglect of the trade of that legislature, and it is hoped that the measures internal improvement. A judicious effort in this river, so far as to reduce it to an amount certain- already projected by the spirited and meritorious way is always sure to produce a rich harvest of ly insignificant when compared with the illimita- enterprise of the citizens of Baltimore, will have remuneration, and it is believed, that every ex- The state has already spent large sums of money design, to

ble riches which might be collected on its banks. the effect to demonstrate the importance of the penditure required by it, is completely reimburs- in the fruitless endeavor to seize upon its treas- Maryland, and speedily to enlist a more decided

he great and permanent interests of ed to the country, almost before its deficiency is felt. There is scarcely a turnpike road con

ures, and the reiterated attempts of a well or- patronage in its favour. structed, or a canal made, which does not, in the ganized and richly endowed company, give a stri- The next object of concern in reference to the

king demonstration of the futility of attempting duties of your committee, is to be found in the course of a very few ycars, yield to the community, however unprofitable it may be to individu- The time doubtless will come, when the enter-long ago as the year 1799, and as yet but partly

to vanquish obstacles in their nature insuperable. execution of a design which was conceived as als, a full recompence for its creation ; and indeed from the facilities which the state of Mary- and the keen edged activity of commercial wants, between the Chesapeake and Delaware bays.

prize of the state aided by an abundant treasury, accomplished, to effect a water communication terprise, and the increasing trade that must ine- will devise and execute some project which shali A route was at that time marked out by commisvitably be the consequence, your committee do yet put Maryland in the full and perfect enjoy-sioners appointed by a company incorporated not hazard too much by declaring, that a well selected scheme for the improvement of the means

day is certainly not at hand, and the slender sup- of gentlemen of Pennsylvania, Delaware and of internal transportation, must become one of plies of the state, your committee conceive, would this state,) which was supposed to be the most the most profitable objects in which capital could

be lavished with a useless prodigality, upon any eligible course presented by the character of the be invested.

attempt to render the navigation of the bed of country of the peninsula, as well as by the con

that river more practicable than it is; indeed venience afforded in the supply of water. This In the discharge of the duty assigned to them everything seems to be done which can be done in route extended from a selected point on the Elkby the house, your committee conceive it neces- regard to that object. The channel has been River to the Christianna, in Delaware, and the sary that they should present a general view of cleared, canals have been constructed around or supply of water was to be obtained from a feedthe most prominent objects of improvement, at through all the important rapids, and the most er, reaching from the upper district of the forpresent within the contemplation of the state, considerable falls are provided with durable and mer. From the want of funds, as well as from and as the governor's message more particularly substantial locks; the trade, nevertheless, still other causes of less importance, this work did designates the river Potomac, as a subject of at- 'languishes under unsubdued impediments. The not progress further than the preparatory stages

[graphic]

a

One man,

of the design, by the partial completion of nine the citizens of this state. Every year may be ex-making roads, may have a tendency to attract capor ten miles of the feeder, in which attempt|pected to develope new schemes, and to suggest the ital to that species of investment, yet this advanthe whole capital originally paid in, amounting to wakening of some dormant power. Our country stage is more than preponderated by the great disupwards of one hundred thousand dollars, was teems with the facilities of this kind of enterprise; proportion between the two in the expense, the laexpended.

and the wants of an augmented population, and a bour and expedition of carriage, as well as in the In the session of 1812, an act passed this legis-more extended culture of our soil, must, in a very bulk transported. There are many articles of prolature, expressing a design to co-operate in the few years give rise to projects, as yet unanticipated duce, also, whose size and weight, compared with original scheme, by a determination to subscribe and unknown. There are many, however, rati- their value and the distance from market, prefor two hundred and fifty shares of the stock, onally within the view of the present time; such vent them becoming commodities of trade so long whenever the government of the United States, as the scheme of a connexion between the Sus- as they are shut out from the means of water and the states of Pennsylvania and Delaware quehannah and Potomac, by means of a junc-carriage; yet which, with this opportunity, may should have subscribed in their individual capa- tion canal, and its intersection at some middle form no inconsiderable portion of the internal cities for amounts therein specified. Since the point by another, leading to the city of Baltimore. commerce of the country. There are others alpassage of that act, no movement has been made This project is recommended by the command it so, which, although of a more convenient bulk, towards the ulterior accomplishment of this would instantly afford to the state of Maryland, are entirely precluded from a low market, owing work. As the interference of this state appears over the trade of the vast extent of country con- to the expense of transportation. In regard to to be of doubtful policy, a bill has been submit-nected with the Susquehannah and its tributaries such articles, the uncertainty of their becoming ted, which yet remains upon the table of the on the one side, and the Potomac and the Ohio a matter of profit, induces a negligent culture, house, recommending the repeal of that act be-on the other. The means of its accomplish- and prevents them from arriving at that perfecfire the performance of the conditions by ei- ment too, are considered as in no embarrassing tion which the activity of trade always communither of the parties, shall have placed this state degree difficult, while the revenue it would un-cates to an important staple. The difference of under an obligation to redeem the pledge. Your doubtedly afford to the state, or to individuals con- expense of transportation between roads and cacoinmittee do not hesitate to recommend the po- cerned, must be great beyond the reach of any nals, is generally estimated as 1 to 6, and from licy of this procedure, if circumstances which ordinary calculation. Other schemes, looking to that to 1 to 10 in favour of the latter; to this, alRay be unknown to them, have not before this the same object, the concentration of this extend- so, may be added, the convenience in regard to occurred to render their withdrawal a violation of eu trade in the city of Baltimore, have from time size and packing of the burthen borne. In Mr. fa.th. In this recommendation, your committee to time occurred to view. Among these may be Fulton's report to the secretary of the treasury, de em it necessary to say, that they are far from ranked, a canal extending from York-Haven on in 1807, this subject is considered by him, and bung actuated by any sentiment hostile to the the busquehannah, to that city, which it is sup- your committee would beg leave to make the folp usperity of the projected enterprise ; that, on posed will eventually furnish a substitute to the lowing short extract by way of illustration : “I the contrary, they believe it to be a work lower navigation of that river; a canal connect- will now suppose,” he writes, “a canal to have fin which very respectable portion of ing the Potomac with the Patuxent; another uni- been cut from Philadelphia to Columbia, and its t.cc state of Maryland may rive essential ad-ftingth Monocacy, Patapsco, and many others af- windings to make 100 miles, at 15,000 dollars a vantages, in the choice it may present them of an ording the means of an union with the upper mile, or for the whole $1,500,000. On such a caintercourse with two of the most extensive mar- country. The late attempt of the state of Penn- nal, one man, one boy and one horse, would convey kt is on this continent; and also from the facili- syivama to direct a large portion of the internal 25 tons, 20 miles a day, on which the following ties afforded to a trade with an extensive manu-trace dependant upon some of the above menti- would be the expenses : facturing district, through which the intended oned improvements, to the city of Philadelphia,

$1 00 canal is destined to run ; but your committee oy forming a connexion between the Susquehan

One horse,

1 00 conceive the propriety of the measure is urged nah and the Schuylkill, througin the means of

One boy, by a consideration in the first place, of the li- tne Swatara and Tulpehoken creeks, which un- Tolls for repairing the canal

1 00 niited means of the state, at present applicable dertaking is said to be now in a state of pros- Tolls for passing locks, inclined to such a purpose, and more especially, when, perous forwardness, certainly furnishes an addi- planes, tunnels and aqueducts, 1 00 by the terms of their enactment, they may be tional argument for urging at this time a consi

Interest on the wear of the boat

50 called upon, almost without notice, to perform deration of these subjects upon the state, and their stipulation : and in the second, from a refer- more especially, in regard to all such improve

Total $5 00 ence to the much superiour interest in this un-ments as relate to the navigation of the Susque- “This is equal to twenty cents a ton for twenty dertaking in the goverument of the United States, hannah. That cause will, doubtiess, operate to miles, and no more than one dollar a ton for one and the states of Delaware and Pennsylvania, which give expedition to the labours of our citizens, hundred miles, instead of ten dollars paid by the it is presumed, is sufficiently cogent to induce since delay must not only be attended with pre- road. Consequently, for each ton carried from them of themselves to finish the work—this sub- sent privation, but possibly the exclusion of all Columbia to Philadelphia on the canal

, the comject always having been one of favourite interest future hope of enjoying a rich and lucrative com- pany might take a toll of six dollars instead of at llashington, and to the city of Philadelphia, merce, now about to be lured into the channels one, which is now got by the road, and then the a natter of such engrossing importance, as to in- of a jealous and powerful competitor. In many four would arrive at Philadelphia for seven doiduce a belief that she alone could enter, single of these improvements, it will likewise appear, lars a ton, instead of ten, which it now pays.” A harded, upon the enterprise. These arguments that the interest of the adjacent states is so obvi- little before the above extract, the same writer no doubt would have been better urged against ously connected with our own, that we may sate- had given a calculation in regard to the road. the policy of the act of 1812, at the time of its ly confide in the expectation of their assistance " From Philadelphia,” he observed, “ to the Suspa-sage, and may now appear to fall with ill in the undertaking. Thus every substantial work quehanna at Columbia, is 74 miles; that road, if grace from the state of Maryland. Your com- calculated to open the sources of the Potomac I am rightly informed, cost on an average 6,000 nittee would, however, again repeat, that unless river, and to connect them with the western wa- dollars a mile, or $444,000 for the whole. On it, the withdrawal can be made without tresspassing ters, must be a subject of equal concern to the from Columbia to Philadelphia, a barrel of flour, upon the proper expectations of the other par- states of Ohio, Virginia, and Kentucky, and say 200 weight, pays one dollar carriage; a broad ties, much less trenching upon ther interests, would, unquestionably, insure their aid; while it wheeled wagon carries thirty barrels, or three they would reprobate the act and recommend an is no less to be supposed, that the state of Penn- tons, and pays for turnpike, three dollars; thus isiant provision to be made for this anticipated sylvania, would heartily concur in our labour's on for each ton carried, the turnpike company redemand, no matter what may be the embarras- the Susquehannah. indeed, your committee have ceives only one dollar.” This calculation, foundneits of the treasury, since they should regard every reason to believe, that even now, a bill is ed as it doubtless is, upon a careful and accurate it their duty to inculcate the propriety of a most before the legislature of this latter state, whichi, consideration of the question, demonstrates at scrupulous adherence to every engagement, (if it is presumed, will meet with their approba- one view the immense importance of the subject, such this may be called,) howsoever indiscreetly it tion, providing for an immediate co-operation and places the superiority of canals in the most Day have been made. In the present case, your with the state of Maryland in the plan of im- prominent light. committee do not perceive the existence of any provement for that river, suggested in the bill From this communication, your committee su h obligation, or that the state ever designed reported by this committee in an earlier part of would turn to the subject of the roads, upon which to jind itself to do more than good policy, evidenced the session, and passed by both houses. it is necessary they should say but very little. cien by a future state of circuinstances, should The advantages of transportation by water, over From the hilly and broken character of a great require.

the most improved methods of conveying pro- part of this state, as well as the difficulty of proSuch appear to be the most prominent objects auce by land, will always render the former thucuring a sufficient supply of water at the su uimit of improvement in internal transportation by most important objects of attention, and although levels, it must ever be necessary to substitute means of water, in the present contemplation of the superior facility, on the score of expense, 01 turnpike roads in many of the important districts,

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