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America's Great Golden Harvest The Present Method of Marketing That Vast Crop of Our Country Wheat, the Demand for Which, At the Rate the World's Population Is Increasing,

Will In Twenty-Five Years Greatly Exceed the Possible Supply The strength of a nation is in its firesides; and attained.

The farms themselves have its independence—or wealth—is in its crops. The increased in value to a fabulous extent." nation that can supply its own bread to its people is West of the Mississippi wheat is king. The big safe; the nation that can not is at the mercy of those ranches and the ranges which were formerly left to countries that feed it.

the ruminations of cattle and hogs, are now being cut The United States is the only great nation of up into smaller farms, and plowed and sowed to the world that raises on its own domain sufficient wheat. This has caused an increase of billions of wheat to feed its people. England consumes her dollars in western land values. Further evidence oi wheat crop within thirteen weeks after it is harvested prosperity lies in the fact that west of the Mississippi and then she barters with her neighbors across the river alone, 513 small banks have been established waters for food for the remainder of the year. in the last few years to take care of the farmers'

The securing of bread—the primary requirement surplus cash. These signs of "good times” can not of life is the greatest problem man has to face. be gainsaid by the occasional farmer who has not The growing of grain is the foundation of the most prospered. Figures can not lie, and these figures tremendous, the most perfectly organized, and the have been obtained by the most accurate methods. most vital business in the entire world; a business A larger knowledge of soil manipulation and enrichcombining in its operation the calmest, sanest, most ment have played their part in the increase of pronormal and peaceful of occupations, and the maddest duction of last year over the year previous. of speculative ventures, the wildest risks, resulting in All things are judged comparatively. We can best wreck and ruin or sudden fortune—as the case may picture to ourselves the money value of the world's be.

wheat crop by the statement that the crop for the past From the time the tiny golden grains are dropped

two years is greater in value than all the gold from the by the farmer into the warm welcoming earth, until mines of the entire world since Columbus first set the sowing and reaping, the threshing and stacking, foot on American soil. It amounts to more than the hauling and storing, are accomplished, a great six times the capital stock of all the National banks. feverish anxiety is present in the breasts of the finan- is twice the value of our imports and exports and cial world and particularly of the brokers, those men three times the gross earnings of our transportation who at the Board of Trade turn themselves loose

companies. The United States contributes one-fifth like wild beasts in a panic, screaming and yelling of the entire world's wheat supply. in demoniacal awfulness in an attempt to sell or to Inventive genius has also been at work to help the buy; and there is a reason for this anxiety, for the farmer. Milling has reached a higher state of de. whole nation's welfare depends upon the success of velopment, and wheat that was once below par now the crops.

takes first rank from superior methods of grinding, Never in the history of the world was there such

etc. There are many varieties of four made by difprosperity among growers of grain as during recent ferent processes and of different grades of wheat. years. According to Secretary Wilson's latest re

Another change of recent years: Wheat raising, port "every sunset during the last five years has reg- once an adjunct to the farmer's business, has become istered an increase of $3,400,000 in the value of a busines in itself. Many farmers produce nothing the farms of this country, and every month has piled but wheat. Specializing, which is coming to govern this value upon value until it has reached $102, all lines of business, has made its way into farming, 000,000,000. That portion of the national debt and as is always the case, with better results to the bearing interest is equaled by the increased value of article produced. Bonanza farms of earlier days of farms in nine months and the increase of a little over from three to four thousand to 40,000 acres, are a year balances the entire interest and non-interest gradually being cut up into smaller tracts, thus inbearing debt of the United States.

The creasing the population of the West and consequently farmers of this country have had the most remarkable the growth and up-building of the country Irrigation series of years of prosperity that has ever come to is opening enormous tracts of land for settlement the farmers of any country in the annals of the and it would really seem to one crossing the great world's agriculture. Production has been unequaled desert regions of the West, that the enormous fields and its value has reached the highest figures ever of wheat possible in this section of the country would supply the whole world in the years to come; but With all this semblance of confusion, the buying a careful computing of the natural increase in popu- and selling have really been governed by the strictest lation and tillable land produces startling evidence laws. Notwithstanding the appearance of overthat by 1931 consumers of the world will demand wrought irresponsibility, in no other busines in all more bread than the world's farms can supply. This the world does a man's word stand for more, or can is a market that can never be glutted.

his honor more surely be relied upon. His transac · A better class of people are in the wheat-raising tions are all conducted on the spot, decisions are business today than ever before. The telephones and made quickly, and the goods must be delivered as trolley lines are gradually making their way through- agreed. The spoken word here is as binding as the out all the farming districts, while the rural free de- written contract elsewhere. The rules do not permit livery and the results of good-roads agitation have a man to change his mind; he must comply with his already done much to put the farmer on a par with obligations, regardless of the lack of formality or a the city dweller, so far as proximity to the news of technical error which might make it possible for him the world is concerned. These improvements have

These improvements have to break his word, in other lines of business. He encouraged a more progressive class of people to may buy or sell as he chooses or can, but he must move to farms and that exerts an awakening influ- stand grimly by the consequences; the training and ence on those already living there.

expectations are such that seldom does a man attempt The wheat farmer's task is to subdue the soil and to avoid his obligations. The penalty is expulsion grow his golden grain. The great system markets it from the Board. for him—that system which expresses, with its This is the great grain clearing house of the other peculiar characteristics, really splendid busi- world. Complete information concerning crops is ness ability and the highest order of business honor collected—prices, the conditions of the crops, famines, in its transactions, and which centers in the Board shortages, etc.—and reports on the grain market are of Trade of Chicago.

sent out daily both to producer and consumer.

It If one would see pandemonium let loose, madnesz is also known at all times just how much grain there gone trebly mad, frantic contortions of face and fig- is in the world, where it is and in what condition-ure, yelling, tearing, wild calling and absolute for- whether in cars, on boats, in warehouses or still in getfulness of all decorum, order and seemingly all the fields, unthreshed. The great American wheat sense of control, I commend him to the gallery sur- traders possess the most complete net-work of knowlrounding the "pit" at the Board of Trade, from edge covering the whole world of supply and demand. where he can look down upon a seething, writhing. They keep their fingers constantly on the great throbmass of black coats and white upturned faces. For- bing pulse of humanity, detect the slightest variance tunes are won and lost while you look on. Men which indicates bread want, and trim their sales rush in wild with excitement and enthusiasm and and speed away to relieve the want—always with stagger out later with white, drawn faces, and not a good profit for so doing. a dollar to their names. All types are found there; The Board of Trade maintains a department for men who have grown old following the beck of the weighing all cars in all markets. Through this de Goddess of Chance, who will not miss a morning at partment general conditions have been much improved the "pit" until their souls take flight from their and theft has been greatly lessened. Over one hunstaggering bodies; and young men just beginning to dred persons have been arrests for stealing grain or feel the thrill of her enchanting touch; staid men of buying stolen grain during the past few years. dignity-staid in all other relations of life, but as The department for sampling grain and inspecting wild as the wildest hare; church members, deacons seed has done much toward establishing confidence of and class leaders—all are mixed in one cauldron of western shippers, and of eastern buyers. As grain is waving arms and shouting voices; all are governed bought and sold largely by sample, this is a very by the mad desire to buy or to sell, and all keep up important department. One chief sampler and thirty the excited frenzy until the clock strikes one, when assistants are employed, all grain experts, who esthey subside as completely as they entered into the tablish the standard of grades of wheat. Each grade delirium three hours earlier. They go out on their is governed by certain well-known laws, and it can separate ways, once more conventional men of the be graded only as high as the lowest grade found world. Only the janitor is left, and he moves nois- in that lot. In earlier years the grain was mixed, lessly about picking up scraps of paper, and remov- bringing the poorer quality up to the standard of the ing all signs of the havoc the morning has wrought best. Now it is kept distinctly separate. in some lives and the gain in others.

Grain elevators are another outcome of the in To the casual observer this seething mass of buyers creased crop. Their history parallels the developand sellers represents the main function of the Board ment of the great Northwest. At first they were of Trade. In reality it is but one of the manifesta- mere warehouses, built by the transportation comtions of the board's activities.

panies for the convenience of farmers, usually near

a

the shipping point. The farmer sold his crop for

A Frank Admission cash and gave no more thought of it. Gradually the

Uy course I is sorry fer troubles uv odders, elevator companies consolidated, and the storing of I hates to see any one down on deir luck, grain became a business. Immense elevators were I knows dat de men uv de woild are me brudders built near the great centers for convenient shipping. An' I helps 'em, if possible, out uv de muck; The supply of wheat increased, the business grew But w’en it comes down to a question uv cases more profitable, there was always plenty on hand for

I lays all my sumpathies up on de shelf, delivery, and thus speculating on future options came For uv all de fall guys wot's in trouble's embraces, into practice. With this came greater prosperity to De

guy

dat I'm sorriest fer is Meself. the wheat trader. He was enabled to use the telegraphic service to keep in touch with the world's mar- I kin feel fer de troubles uv friends an' relations, kets and in consequence the gigantic business of the But not half so bad as I does for me own. elevators of today evolved.

I hates to see odder mugs short on deir rations, Bankers, financiers, transportation company offi- But to famish Meself is wot loins me to groan; cials, manufacturers, in short all people having money A guy wot's in love an' don't seem to be winnin', to invest keep in touch with the crop conditions I'm sorry fer him, but me sorrer is tame, through the Board of Trade. The business policy To de way dat I feel w'en I'm havin' an innin' for the ensuing year is determined by the prospects An' losin', Meself, at de same kind uv game. of next season's crops and the results of the last harvest.

Wen some odder gieser makes barrels uv money, The largest flouring mills are in Minnesota, prin- I'm glad fer his sake as a feller kin be; cipally Minneapolis. Many of these mills have their But say, it don't make me one-quarter as sunny own elevators. Numerous improvements have been

As it would if de same t'ing had happened to me! made in the art of making flour, new and improved I'm proud uv de t’ings dat me friends do, but prouder machinery is used, and every lot of flour is especially

A hull bloomin' lot, of de t'ings dat I do; tested by baking bread from it before it is allowed

I laughs at folks' jokes, but I laughs a lot louder to receive a stamp and be put on the market. But

At de jokes wot I makes all Meself—an' dat's true. milling is another story--and an interesting one.

W'ats more, I kin say dat I likes Meself better

Dan any one else I has met wid so far;
A Hypothetical Question

I knows Meself down to de last little letter “Miss De Smythe,” began the young man, “I

An' I t'inks I'm as good as de best want to ask you a hypothetical question."

I woiks fer Meself an' I gives Meself credit The girl nodded assent.

Fer bein' de best uv me friends, old or new, "If a young man of good family and sound health

I'm strong fer Meself—an' now dat I've said itand an assured income of $5,000 were to meet the

Say, cull, on de dead, ain't it dat way wid you?

-Puck. most charming of girls and feed her ice cream for a year; if she had a complexion like a rose, hair a "A man only begins to be a man when he ceases crown of golden glory, the hand of a fairy, the bear

to whine and revile, and commences to search for ing of a queen; if she knew how to play the piano,

the hidden justice which regulates his life. And as how to induce her small brother to absent himself; was he adapts his inind to that regulating factor, he ceases versed in cooking, competent to superintend a home;

to accuse others as the cause of his condition, and and if the young man, auspicuously catching the girl builds himself up in strong and noble thoughts ; ceases alone, were to murmur into her ear of pearl, Will

to kick against circumstances, but begins to use them you marry me?' what, in your estimation, would be

as aids to his more rapid progress, and as a means her condition of mind and what her answer?"

of discovering the hidden powers and possibilities with"While not an expert alienist," replied the girl,

in himself."- James Allen. coyly, “I think she'd believe him a chump for being so slow, but she'd say 'Yes.'

Lemon Extract.—Let stand the rind of four With the preliminaries thus settled, the naming of

grated lemons in half-pint of alcohol for about threc the day was a simple matter.

weeks. Drain off the fluid, bottle and cork and you

have a finer extract than that which you buy at the Doctor (indignantly, to friend) : "My dear sir, my

stores. patients have never yet complained of my treatment Lemon Icing.–Put half a pound of sugar in a of them!"

bowl, add grated rind and juice of one lemon and Friend: "I dare say not; but those they left be

a half cup of boiling water. Whip stiff and spread hind may!"

between cake layers.

dem are;

Teaching Things Out of Season

By Elbert Hubbard Teaching things out of season is a woeful waste He owns a kit of tools, but does not know how to of time. It is also a great consumer of nerve force use them. And now, if his father is rich, a place is for both pupil and teacher.

made for him where he can do no damage, a genteel For instance, the English plan of having little and honorable place, and he hypnotizes himself and boys of eight study Latin and Greek killed a lot deceives his friends with the fallacy that he is really of boys, and probably never helped a single one to doing something. shoulder life's burden and be a better man.

In the meantime the plain and alert young man Knowledge not used, like anything else not used, brought up in the business keeps the chimes on the is objectionable and dangerous.

barrell, otherwise it would fall to pieces. Nature intends knowledge for service, not as an Use and acquaintance should go hand in hand ornament or for purposes of bric-a-brac.

Skill must be applied. All great writers learned to “Delay adolescence—delay adolescence!" cries write in just one way—by writing. To acquire the Stanley Hall. The reason is plain. The rare-ripe whole kit is absurd—get the tools one at a time as rots. What boy well raised, of ten or twelve, can

you need them. compare with your street gamin, who has the knowl- College has just one thing to recommend it, and edge and shrewdness of a grown-up broker! But that is the change of environment that it affords the the Arab never becomes a man. The awkard and pupil. This is what does him good-new faces, new bashful boy from the country—with mind slowly rip- scenes, new ideas, new associations. The curriculum ening in its rough husk, gathering gear as he goes, is nil—if it keeps the fledgling out of mischief it acsecuring knowledge in order to use it, and by using complishes its purpose. But four years in college it making it absolutely its own, and gaining capacity tends to ossification instead of fluidity—and seven for more—is the type that scores.

years means the pupil gets caught and held by enThe priestly plan of having one set of men do all vironment; he stays too long. the thinking and another set all the work is tragedy Alexander von Humboldt was right--one year in for both.

college is enough for any man. One year gives him To quit the world of work in order to get an edu- inspiration and all the spirit of good there is in it; a cation is as bad as quitting the world of work and longer period fixes frats, fads and fancies in his noodle struggle in order to be “good." The tendency of the as necessities. Men are only great as they train on. classical education is to unfit youth for work. He College may place you in the two-thirty list, but you gains knowledge, like the gamin, in advance of his

get in the free-for-all only by letting the bunch take needs. The boy of eighteen who enters college and grad

Happy is the man, like Ralph Waldo Emerson, uates at twenty-two, when he comes home will not wash windows. He wants to run his father's busi- who is discarded by his Alma Mater, or like Henry

Thoreau, who discarded her. ness.

He has knowledge, but no dexterity; he has learn- In any event, get weaned! ing, but no competence.

-Chicago Examiner. Some Irish Bulls Mrs. Gilhooly was treating a well-known clergy- A shop-keeper purchased a quantity of butter in man; she poured out a very small measure of whis- single pounds from Mary Moriarty and found that key, and observing the divine look askance at the each pound was light, for which he took her to glass, she hastened to assure him that it was the very task. "That's your own fault," was Mary's reply, best, being seven years old. “Oh, ma'am," ob- "for it was with a pound of your own soap I weighed serevd his reverence, “isn't it blamed small for its them.”

Colonel Saunderson, who has just died, once inPeggy Muldoon was charged with stealing a formed the House of Commons, "I was born Irish shawl. The judge asked her if she was guilty. and have remained so ever since.” “How can I tell, Your Honor, until I hear the evi- An Irish corporation once adopted this resolution: dence against me?”

"That a new jail should be built; that this be done A countryman went into the postoffice and asked out of the materials of the old one, and that the old if there were any letters for him.

jail be used until the new one be completed." "What name?" inquired the attendant.

An old Irishman was so poor that he was com"Why, you blockhead, you will see the name pelled to sell his cooking pot. Asked why he sold it on the envelope."

he replied: "To buy something to put in it."

your dust.

age?”

S "The most satisfying, because invariably effec- che presses were busy with new books from his pen tive,” said the man from Mulberry Street, “is the trick for several years afterward. of depriving suspects of sleep.'

Like Hugo, George Washington made it a rule to We were discussing the third degree," a relic of withdraw from the company of his friends, official medieval torture chamber jurisprudence, “a regularly receptions or state banquets, at 10 o'clock sharp, his appointed agency for injustice in the United States, wife or secretary announcing: according to Lombroso.

"Ladies and gentlemen, the General bids you all Depriving suspects of sleep," to gain the civil a very good night." death of men, though innocent before the law!

The Father of our country was sixty-seven when Yet we have the effrontery to send out missionaries he died, and if it had not been for Valley Forge and to convert the Chinese, who practice this abomination the hundreds of sleepless nights imposed upon him only against the worst of criminals, whom merely to by the cares of war he would undoubtedly have lived deprive of their heads would be a waste of mercy. much longer.

Enforced wakefulness is, indeed, a recognized Balzac, the universally read and admired, wrote form of torture in the greatest of empires.

even more books than Victor Hugo, though his life There malefactors too vile to be killed outright, was the shorter by thirty-two years. To accomplish are slowly but inevitably driven insane and to a hor- that much he worked out a system for weaning himrible death by robbing them of sleep.

self away from sleep, and at the moment when he I wonder how many Americans are following that thought his triumph over nature was complete, he section of the Chinese penal code and courting a

died, a

man “in his best years" and a physical straight-jacket by turning night into day and keeping

wreck. awake when duty compels wakefulness by the use of

The Power of Sleep drugs and stimulants.

The greatest gambler in human lives that ever As a rule, persons burning the candle at both ends breathed—the price of his glory and failures being are without the pale of sound reasoning, since they two million dead—Napoleon, gambled as recklessly esteem their folly a badge of genius and every hour with his physical strength as with the lives and hapstolen from natural rest a gain to pleasure or study. piness of others. He trained himself to get along on

six hours of sleep distributed over the twenty-four, “Dinner At Six, Bed At Ten”

according to the exigencies, work or pressure made Let, then, the glory of failure and genius talk to those reckless of mental and physical health.

Worse still, he doled out this short allowance in As a boy I repeatedly met Victor Hugo, the great- driblets of an hour, or ninety minutes at a time, reest of French poets and authors, at his retreat in turning to his work at midnight, when he had retired Guernsey.

at 11, and to bed at 1, 2, 3, or 4 o'clock, to snatch Hugo used to talk voluminously on a thousand a little more sleep. The rest of the allowance he and one subjects, but his neighbors and friends “slept off” at odd times during the day, after din. maintained that he never repeated himself, never even ner, in the imperial box at the opera, or previous to a referred twice to the same poem or novel of his. council of state. Yet I heard him pronounce this piece of antique Napoleon, born in 1768 or 1769, died on May folklore over and over again:

5, 1821, his demise premature like that of the other “Diner a six, coucher a dix,

“sleep conqueror,” Balzac. But, as a matter of fact, Font vivre l'homme dix fois dix."

he succumbed a still younger man, mastered and In English:

completely overcome by sleepiness at Waterloo. “Dinner at six, bed at ten,

There the power he had so long defied overthrew Life to last ten times ten" (100 years). the artificial fabric of Napoleon's energy, causing “Living up to this maxim has kept me young and him to lose battle, throne, wife and son. at work,” Hugo told me in Paris about a year be- Of the all-absorbing nature of the power of sleep, fore his death. And his niece added, sub rosa, that a relative of the writer who was with Napoleon's the great author never "accomplished anything" if army in Russia used to tell a most convincing story: his eight hours of sleep had been encroached upon. During the last stages of the retreat the narrator

Hugo, it seems, regularly devoted the hours be- belonged to a convoy of prisoners escorted, or rather tween breakfast and luncheon to writing, but when driven, by Cossacks, the latter trying to reduce the he did not get his full quota of absolute rest he more

number of mouths to be fed by allowing the enemy often than not left his study at 10 or 11, complain. no sleep whatever. ing that "to-day I write worse than a penny-a-liner. Hundreds died by the roadside, but they died not

Victor Hugo died at the age of eighty-three, and fast enough for the blood-thirsty Asiatics.

upon his time.

So a

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