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524. Ουκ αν γένοιτο ποθ' ούτος ευγενής άνήρ. Several readings of this verse are mentioned by Mr Porson (p. 10, 11, 63), who appears to hesitate between ottore yévot' and ovx är jávort'. Perhaps the poet wrofe, Oủx åv yévort' üv ojtos túyeving dve. t Ibid. 706.
The convertibility of de and yàę, of which we shall have occasion to give more than one instance in the course of this article, is mentioned by Mr Porson in his note on Med. 1083, and elsewhere. We do not object to Heath's emendation, cauren civor #xs. Phil. 491. Tạox:vay T asugana, ai này vốeoáy. Mr Porson, as we are informed, read disgold, 5. Ibid. 1288. Tõs sinas; o's özx devriçon doroupsdc. Mr Porson (p. 12) proposes is oy, or åpx without the negative particle. The latter emendation appears to us to be preferable.
A tragic senarius, according to Mr Porson (p. 20), admits an iambus into any place; a tribrach into any place except the sixth ; a spondee into the first, third and fifth; a dactyl into the first and third ; and an anapest into the first alone. So that the first foot of the senarius is capable of five different forms; the third of four; the fifth of three; the second and fourth of two; and the sixth of only one. Two hundred and forty different varieties of the senarius may be produced, without employing any combination of feet unanthorised by Mr Porson's rule. The tragic poets, however, do not often admit more than two trisyllabic feet into the same verse; and never, if our observation be accurate, more than three. The admission of anapests into the second, third, fourth and fifth places, and of dactyls into the fifth place, increases the varieties of the comic senarius to seven hundred and ten. The number would be eleven hundred and twenty-five, if four hundred and fifteen combinations were not rejected, because they exhibit a tribrach or a dactyl immediately before an anapest. E 2
+ This mode of exhibiting the double év is one of the most frequent. The following corrections are submitted to the judgment of our readers. Æschyl+Choëph. 854. Očtou pe év? äv xaétail av appeceτωμμένην. Soph. El. 913. 'Αλλ' ουδε μεν δη μητρός ούθ' ο νούς φιλεί Τοιαύτα πράσσειν, ούτε δράσ' άν έλαθεν άν. Εurip. Tro. 397. Ει δ' ήσαν οίκοι, χρηστος ών άν έλαθεν ών. Βacch. 1309. τον γέροντα δε Ουδείς υβρίζεις *Ελντε γαρ αινόν άχος απ' όμμάτων "Αρης. Read, "Ελυσε δ' αινόν άχος, ήθελ', εισορών το σόν Κάρα» δικην γαρ άξίαν αν έλαβεν άν. εού, τίν' άνδς άριστον αν κρίνειαν ών.
* That all such combinations are to be rejected, was first distinctly taught by Dawes in the year 1745. In the year 1773, the great father of this department of criticism proposed the following verses as legitimate senarii, in the second cdition of his Emendations of
No regular tragic senarius, of whatsoever feet it is composed, can possibly exhibit two short syllables enclosed between two long ones, or more than three long syllables, without the intervention of a short one. A moment's consideration will satisfy the reader, that all such combinations of syllables are absolutely incompatible with the structure of the verse. The inability to employ four or more long syllables together, is productive of so little practical inconvenience, that the tragedians appear to have acquiesced in it without difficulty. The inadmissibility of two short syllables enclosed between two long oñes, is a much more serious grievance. Many persons of great eminence have had the misfortune to bear names constituted in that' unaccommodating form. Such were Ægialeus, Andromache, Andromeda, Antigone, Antiope, Bellerophontes, Hermione, Hippodamia, Hypsipyle, Iphigenia, Laodamia, Laomedon, Penelope, Protesilaus, Tiresias, and a great many more of equal fame. Although all thesë persons were admirably qualified by their names, as well as by their actions, to shine in epic poetry, unhappily not one of them is capable of being mentioned by name in a tragic senarius composed in the regular manner. There is also another class of persons noť altogether so unfortunate, whose names are excluded only in some of the oblique cases : as Hippolytus, Neoptolemus, Enomaus, Talthybius,
c. In favour of all such persons, and perhaps of the names of places which are formed in the same manner, the tragic poets occasionally transgress the ordinary rules of their versification. Proper names which cannot enter the senarius in the regular way, are admitted into it in two different manners. The first, of which Mr Porson has not spoken, consists in substituting a choriambus in the place of the first dipodia of the verse:
Menander and Philemon: P. 30. 'Εξ ίσταρίου γαρ εκρίματο φιλοπόνως πάνυ. Ρ. 33. 'Αχρειότερος διπλάσια γάρ έσθίει μάτην. We have just nosticed the continual confusion which subsists between gäę and S. In the year 1796, the use of a tribrach, although not of a dactyl, before an anapest, was defended by the learned Hermann. Three only of the thirteen instances which he produces (M. p. 158), appear to be capable of creating any difficulty. Aristoph. Ach. 927. Δός μοι Φορυτόν, και αυτόν ενδώσας φέρω, "Ωσπερ κέραμον, ίνα μη καταγή φερόpesyos. For iva peine setagjā read kai pin xategia Nub. 662. Oções de πάσχεις και την τε θήλειαν καλείς 'Aλεκτρυόνα κατά ταυτό, και τον αρρενα. Α satisfactory correction does not occur to us. Pac. 246: Ιω Μέγαρα, Μέγας', ώς επιτρίψεσθ' αυτίκα, Απαξάπαντα καταμεμυττωτευμένα. ad. dition to the tribrach before the ana vest, we suspect that the passive sense of irrerit sot's is destitute of authority. We read: 'IÀ Meyxgñsos ας επιτετρίψεσθ' αντίκα, Απαξάπαντες καταμεμυττωτευγένοι,
This practice has been adopted by Æschylus in two well known instances. Theb. 494. "Ιππομέδοντος σχήμα και μέγας τύπος. Ιbid. 553. Παρθενοπαίος Αρκάς: ο δε τοιόσθ' ανώς. The only other instance of this license, with which we are acquainted, is produced from a play of Sophocles by Priscian (p. 1328): 'Arpacißoway, o ysviras narúg. The second and more usual mode of introducing proper names of this form into the verse, consists in admitting the two short syllables, and the following long syllable of the proper name, as one foot, into the second, third, fourth or fifth place of the verse. We have not observed more than one instance of this practice in the surviving plays of Æschylus: Theb. 575. 'Αλκήν τ' άριστον, μαντιν, Αμφιάρεω (pronounced 'Αμφιέρω) βίαν. Sophocles and Euripides, however, will furnish examples in great abundance. In the Orestes of Euripides, the name of Hermione occurs in a senarius ten times. In nine of these instances, the anapest occupies the fourth place in the
This last circumstance is in a great measure the natural consequence of the predilection of the tragic poets for the penthemimeral cæsura,
We have some doubts whether the tragedians ever extended this license to patronymics. We are not at present able to recollect any authority for the following emendation proposed by Mr Porson (p. 38). Soph. Phil. 1333. 'Arxantiedas dè tom mag ημιν έντυχών, We read: Και τον παρ' ημίν εντυχών Ασκληπιού.
A few senarii may be found, which contain anapests in some of the four middle places, composed of the three first syllables of a proper pame. Most of the following instances are borrowed from Mr Porson (p. 24, 25); and their number is so small, that we do not hesitate to consider them as corrupt, although we do not pretend to correct them. Soph. Aj. 1008. 'kov Terduan, cès rating, zucós esqueçe. The reading of this verse, as Mr Porson observes, is uncertain. The different readings, with the authorities on which they depend, may be seen in Brunck's note.
The anapest may be avoided, by adopting the emendation of Toup : *Η που με Τελάμων, σος πατήρ. Phil. 793. & διπλοί στρατηλάται, 'Αγαμεμνον, ώ Μενέλας, πώς αν αντ' εμού. Mr Hermann reads (H. p. xii), Πώς αν, 'Αγαμεμιγον και Μενέλεως, αντ' εμού. In all probability, Nir ilermain has long been convinced, that, the first and filth feet of this verse are such as Sophocles never exhibited. The poet might have written, if he had thought proper to do so, Movišaos
, 'Ayapéuerwv Ts, wãs do ávi' ipsc. Eurip. Οr. 459. 'Απωλόμην, Μενέλαε. Τυνδάρεως, έδε Στείχει προς ημάς. If the fault is not in the word Muvésze, perhaps we ought to read, Meyśm λα, απωλόμεσθα. Ιph. Aul. 1168. Ελένης Μενέλαος έκα, λάβη, κάλον γέMavárens is an obvious correctiou ; but we suspect that Eu. E 3
ripides wrote: Μενέλαος Ελένης ένα λάβη. καλόν και έθος Κακής γυναικός μισθον αποτίσαι τέκνα.. The intermediate step between ή έθος, and γένος is ή έθνος. Γένους for έθους occurs in Athenaeus (p. 297, D). The modern editions of Euripides read, καλόν γε, νώ, &c. ; which reading we do not presume lightly to abrogate. Hel. 86. "Ovoμα μεν ημίν Τεύκρος· ο δε φύσας πατής Τελάμων: Σαλαμίς δε πατρίς και θρέψασά με. Herc. 220. “ος εις Μινύαισι πάσι δια μάχης μολών. Read, Μινύαισιν είς ος πάσι. Εl. 314. Μήτηρ δ' έμή Φρυγίοισιν εν σκυλεύμασι Θρόνω κάθηται, προς δ' έδρας Ασιάτιδες Δμοναι στατίζουσ', ας έπερσ’ έμός πατης. Mr Hermann Yeads : Μήτηρ δε Φρυγίοις εν σκυλεύμασιν θρόνω 'Eμή κάθηται, προς δ έδραισιν 'Ασίδες. Unfortunately, the first syllable of σκύλευμα is long. The following arrangement is at least exempt from any violation of the metre: Mήτης και έμή Φρυγών μεν εν σκυλεύμασι Θρόνω κάθηται, προς θ' έδραισιν 'Ασιάδες. The words σκύλα τε Φρυγών occur in the Troades, V. 573. The particle pèr is used as in Iph. Aul. 73. άνθηρός μεν ειμάτων στολή, Χρυσά λαμπρός, βαρβάρω χλιδήματι,
We form the same judgment of those verses, in which the three last syllables of a proper name of four or five syllables are used as an anapest without necessity. Æsch. Prom. 839. Lan φώς επίστωσ', Ιόνιος κύκλήσεται. This is not a real instance, as we believe the first syllable of 'Ιόνιος to be short. It is, indeed, sometimes made long for the convenience of the metre, like the first syllable of 'Iterix or icóleos. It is short, however, in the Phænissæ of Euripides, v. 216, where the words 'tóvcov xatè correspond with ίσα δ' αγάλμασι in the antistroplue. In most of the editions, the first syllable of loc is improperly circumflexed. Eurip. Οr. 1654. ός δ' οίεται Νεοπτόλεμος γαμεϊν νιν, ου γαμιεϊ ποτε. The word Νεοπτόλεμος is commonly read in the tragedies as if it were written Noυπτόλεμος. In the present verse, however, if the common reading be correct, the contraction of the two first syllables does not take place. We suspect that one long syllable or two short syllables have been omitted after Νεοπτόλεμος. Iph. Taur. 825. 'Έκτήσαθ' Ιπποδάμειαν, Οινόμαον κτανών. Real Οινόpector érdv, from Pindar, Olymp. I. 142. The same variety occurs Med. 385. Ιbid. 1456. "Αρτεμιν δε νιν βροτοί Το λοιπόν υμνήσουσά Ταυροπόλον θερέν.
We should prefer Ταυροπόλον αεί. Tro. 1126. Αυτος δ' ανήκται Νεοπτόλεμος, καινάς τινας Πηλέως ακούσας ξυμφοράς. Ιon. 267. Εκ γής πατρός σου πρόγονος έβλαστες πατήρ ; 'Εριχθόνιος γε. το δε γένος ' ουκ ωφελεί. Perhaps we ought to read 'Εριχθονίου γε, έκγονός είμαι being understood. Ε. 4. Κτείνας δε τον κρατούντ' εν Ιλιάδι χθονί. For ΙΛΙΑΔI read ΙΔΑΙΑΙ.
The following verses may also be considere as in some degree licentious. Eurip. Herc. 2. 'Aργείον 'Αμφιτρύων, ον 'Αλκαίος Ibid. 701. Eίς καιρόν είκον 'Αμφιτρύων έξω περά. The second
syllable of 'Ademirglwy is not necessarily short, and is lengthened more than once in the same play.
As the tragic trimeter iambic admits anapests when they are contained in proper names, so, it is not unreasonable to suppose, that the tragic tetrameter trochaic admits dactyls in similar circumstances, and for the same reason. The thirty-two tragedies, however, afford only two examples of this practice, both of which are probably corrupt: Eurip. Iph. Aul. 882, Eis άρ' Ιφιγένειαν Ελένης νόστος ήν πεπρωμένος. Ιbid. 1352, Πάντες Έλληνες. στρατός δε Μυρμιδόνων ού σοι παρών. Read στρατός δε Μυροιδών. With regard to unnecessary dactyls in this metre, it may be observed, that they are liable to the same objections as unnecessary anapests in iambic verses, together with the additional objection, that they are divided between two words. Mr Porson (p. 25) produces three examples of this kind, of which the first alone deserves much consideration. Eurip. Or. 1533. Ei yog 'Agyelous επάξει τοϊσδε δώμασιν λαβών, Τον Ελένης φόνον διώκων, κάμε μη σώζειν θέλει, Ξύγγονός τ' έμεην, Πυλάδην τε, τον τάδε ξυνδρώντά μοι, Παρθένον τε και δώμαρτα δύο νέκρω κατόψεται. The obnoxious verse is thus corrected by the learned Hermann (H. p. lxiv): zúy yováy mi greinu séde Ilyλάδην το τον ξυνδρώντα μοι. In this verse, the rhythm is violated by the tribrach, which begins on the last syllable of a word of more than one syllable. We suspect that the word Murcièny has crept into the text from an interlinear gloss, and that the poet wrote, Ξύγγονός τ' εμήν, τρίτον τε τον τάδε ξυνδρώντα μοι.
τε τον τάδε ξυνδρώντά μοι. This use of τρίτος is not rare.
So Eurip. Hippol. 1404. Πατέρα τε, καί σε, και τρίτην Euvéogov. Every person couversant with Greek MSS. is aware how often proper names supplant the words which are intended to represent them. See, for instance, Eurip. Med. 58. where Mr Porson has restored doctors instead of Modulus, and Aristoph. Plut. 1173, where all the editions read IIūros instead of θεός. . Mr Porson's second instance of a divided dactyl is Iph. Aul. 324. ου, πριν αν δείξω Δαναοίσι πάσι (Δαναούς άπασι Aid.) ταγγεγραμμένα. The true reading, δείξω γε Δαναούς πάσι, which is exhibited in one MS., and is mentioned with approbation by Mr Porson, has lately been admitted into the text by Mr Gaisford. The suppression of the verb aiter où renders the introduction of ye almost indispensably necessary. The third instance is from the same play, V. 354. Ως δ' ανολβον είχες όρεμα, σύγχυσίν τε, μη νεών Χιλίων άρχων, Πριάμου το πεδίον έκπλήσας δορός. The meaning of these lines appears to be: Do you remember how unhappy you were, because you were not able to land your army al Troy, although you had a thousand ships under your command ? If this interpretation be correct, the conjunction in the second verse