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III

Projects for Primary Grades A Project for Little Children

A Red Cross Project

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does eat some strawberries and cherries, destroys thousands

of harmful bugs? Elizabeth I. White

Clay is, perhaps, the most satisfactory medium of ex

pression for the child. Free hand drawing, making jointed The World War is over and there is no longer the paper birds, which they color, are other good ways of necessity for little children to hear about soldiers and their bringing bird life in close contact with the child. suffering, nor is there work for them to do. What is to

The accompanying picture gives an idea of what was take the place of this work and how are we to use, to accomplished in one New Jersey surburban kindergarten. good advantage, the helpful sympathy that has been And I have no fear that the children who worked to make aroused in even the tiniest the past months?

and paint a clay robin sitting on the nest, protecting her à Can we not turn some of our attention to the helpless eggs, will ever have the slightest desire to harm in any way and appealing feathered friends, the Birds? If we are to

any bird. The flicker, if in his home, trhough contact with really save them from extermination we must teach the

the real nest, has become a real friend and must be protected child first to know about birds and to love them. Then

in spite of his noisy habits. as he grows older he will not have the desire to kill, rob

One nest is not enough for this work and I appeal to the nests and play the part of young savage.

teachers to be on, the lookout for different kinds of nests If a teacher of little children is to make bird study of

in the fall of the year, so that when you are ready to real value there must be plenty of material. Of course take up the subject in the spring material will be at hand. pictures play an important part, but even more important As the leaves fall nests are easily seen, and may, without a are nests.

scruple, be taken before the strong winds and snow destroy When a child has seen the nest of an oriole, handled it them. and heard about the way in wihch it was woven, he has Is it not worth while to make an extra effort at that time a respect for the home of a helpless bird and is willing to

to collect material so that more definite work can be do his part in protecting it. Of course very few little accomplished in the spring? children have any desire to rob nests, but the older brother may have reached that stage. The newly acquired knowledge and desire for service carried home and repeated at the dinner table is often just the right word given unconsciously to restrain the older brother.

It is better to have children learn a few accurate facts about a few birds than to learn the names of many that

HOW WE EARNED THE MONEY TO BUY A would never be recognized. The robin, flicker, oriole and

DRESS FOR OUR FRENCH ORPHAN swallow are good examples, for their food, habits and nests

Allie K. Higgins are so very varied. Can one feel that it is superficial to teach a child that

(Book rights reserved) orioles eat tent caterpillars and thus destroy many insects

Y second grade in their nature study had been which ruin our trees? And that the robin, although he

VI also having stories, poems and songs relating

observing the germination of seeds. They were

to Easter, when it occurred to me that we might make an Easter offering this year to our French orphan.

How we might do this was discussed. Some of the children said they could bring some money. I told them I wanted them to make the money at school in some way, so they could feel that it was their very own. I suggested that as they had learned something about seeds, they might plant some tɔmato and cabbage seeds in our window boxes, and sell the plants and buy a dress for our French orphan, calling it our Easter offering to Simone Hoffa.

The plan was accepted and all were eager to help. Two of the boys made a trip to the seed store to get a catalogue. The class looked through the catologue to decide what kind of seeds they should buy and the price of each. They decided on one package of Early Jersey Wakefield cabbage seeds at ten cents a package and one package of Bonny Best tomato seeds at five cents a package. Two girls then went to the store to purchase the seeds. Several children brought soil from their gardens at home. To this a little sand was added. The directions on the packages for planting the seeds were read by the children. The seeds were planted and watered daily. The children observed their growth from day to day.

When our plants were ready to sell we discussed ways of informing the public that we had plants for sale, and we decided it would be best to write a circular letter. We decided that this letter should explain that our class had tomato and cabbage plants for sale at ten cents a dozen; that proceeds were for the benefit of our French orphan; that the money must accompany the order; and that plants were to be delivered the next day. The

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following day the children wrote the circular letter and carried it around our neighborhood after school soliciting orders.

The next da; "hey returned with more orders than we were able to fill. Baskets of tagboard were made in which to deliver their plants. Several li er children assisted in taking up the plants, wrappin' chem in wet paper, placing them in baskets on which was iten the name and address of the customer.

Those who were not successful in getting an order assisted others in delivering their plants. The sum of $3.15 was cleared on the project.

Samples of dress material were shown the children, and by a vote of the class a pink and white gingha. : 'ress was di 'led upon, as well as a pink hair ribbon.

Ainy arithmetic problems and spelling words grew out of the work. There were also oral language lessons in which we discussed what they would say to a person whom they might approach to solicit an order, and what they would say to their customers when they delivered the plants. For written language a letter was written to Simone telling her of the gift the class was going to send her.

Besides this work which the children had done in various subjects, they were learning a lesson in thrift, and also learning that it is their happy privilege and duty to love and care for little children less fortunate than themselves.

Thank you.

Correlated Arithmetic I Ma. d Helen went to the seed store to buy 1 package of c. Jage seeds at 10 cents a package and 1 package of tomato seeds at 5 cents. What was their bill?

II "at change did they receive from a quarter?

III Leon got an order for 2 dozen cabbage plants. How much money did he collect? IV Mary sold Mrs. Williams 5 dozen tomato plants.

A St. Patrick Poster How much money did she collect?

Bess Dixon V Mrs. Siegleman has 40 cents to spend for cabbage plants. How many dozen can she buy?

March came and we learned something concerning the VI Bennie sold Mrs. Straus 12 dozen tomato plants. life of Saint Patrick. How the children pitied the sixteenWhat did the s her?

year-old lad who was sold into slavery in Ireland! They

pictured him taking care of his master's pigs, the work An Oral Language Lesson

required of him for seven years.

How relieved they were when the story told of his escape I

to Gaul! They were glad he intended to go back to Child Good afternoon, Mrs. Shevick.

Ireland some day, not as a slave, but as a missionary. I should like you to read this.

And when he did return as such, he did his work so well Can I take your order?

that Ireland became known as “the Island of the Saints." How many do you wish?

And how did he teach those heathen people? He taught They will cost you 20 cents.

them the doctrine of the Trinity by the use of the shamrock,

the small white clover bearing three leaves on one stem. I will deliver them to-morrow afternoon.

Does the poster show you Saint Patrick as a missionary?

The story concluded by telling us that Saint Patrick died II

on the seventeenth of March, and on that day the Irish Child Good afternoon, Mrs. Shevick.

people all over the world remember the man who made Here are your plants.

Ireland a better country in which to live.
I am glad you like them.
I hope you will raise some fine tomatoes.
Good-bye.

The Crocus
A Written Language Lesson
The children wrote a letter to Simone telling her of the

Brave little crocus, what's in your cup?
gift they had planned to send her. They made the following Snowflakes and sunbeams I've gathered up.
outline:
What are we going to do?

Are you not hungry, lonely and cold? Tell how we got it or anything else you wish.

Snowflakes sustain me, sunbeams enfold.
Closing sentence.

Byight, cheery crocus, we wish you'd stay;
A Spelling Lesson

Other flow'rs_follow; I'll haste away.
cabbage
new dress

- Belle Willey Gue. tomato

enough plants

dozen planted

package window

friend boxes

Simone Hoffe

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Suggestions for Coloring
Color the faces and hands of figures flesh color. The old lady with the basket, red cape, blue dress, white apron,

green bonnet and covering for basket, yellow basket and brown hens; boy, green suit, white collar, yellow hair, brown shoes and stockings; little girl, red dress, white apron, brown shoes and stockings, brown hair; mother, blue dress, white apron, yellow shawl, white cap; brown house, green shutters; green grass; blue sky; gray cross.

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English in the Grades VII

Rea McCain

Corrective Work—Games and acquaintances and she felt very sorry for Uzer Izor, who

Type Sentences

to."

would be terribly hurt and was not there to defend him

self. (Oh, it was great fun to play this game! The little Need for This Work

child I remember liked it better than any of the others, We need corrective work in the language courses because

but she never knew until she was grown up that the game imitation has bred errors. The child hears in the home or

she played was not the one they played with her. on the street some expression which he later needs to

Watch that your children do not have as mistaken a make clear his own thought. He uses it as he heard it meaning. They like to swing the words back and forth and the result is not always in conformity with the rules

and they can do it very glibly

without any idea as to what of English Grammar. A bad habit is formed. Worse,

use they are to make of the form. It is not the game an indelible impression is made upon the ear. As all

which is to correct, but the application which you make correction of speech comes from objections registered of the pleasurable excitement they have been feeling. by the ear there is small chance of improvement until

Usually the teacher has to point her moral, but once so much emphasis has been laid upon the point that the

in a while the children will do it for her. A country school child is conscious of a nervous pang when he uses the

teacher has succeeded in eliminating the use of leave condemned term.

for let, which is very common in many districts. She

says she did not do it herself, the children did it for her. Aim of Games and Type Sentences

One day she found a little girl in the corner of the school The aim of the game and the type sentence is to call yard, crying bitterly: "What is the matter?” “They the child's attention to the correct form in emphatic

won't play with me. "We only did what she asked us

A day or two before that they had been taught manner, and to do this by adopting some device which will not arouse antagonism. To correct invariably during permission. They were teasing the child in the familiar

that it was incorrect to use leave in the sense of granting recitation will tend to make the child self-conscious and this will prevent the free expression of thought. Since

way of youngsters. She, in high glee, put up her arm to

ward them off and cried, “Leave me alone.” They promptly clearness of thought and careful organization of material is of so much more importance than any one verb form obeyed, scampering off to the other end of the playground.

She had meant “Let me alone!" and had expected them it seems a pity to tear to pieces a whole recitation to em

to keep on playing with her. The other children cried phasize one word.

out in chorus, "She said to leave her alone and we did!" The game is fun, they want to play it and so there can

It was a hard lesson and the one little girl cried bitterly, be no question of antagonism. Moreover the correction implied is general. It is left for each child to make the

but no pupil in that school ever again said leave when individual application if he is guilty of that particular

he meant let without correcting himself, and the teacher

told me six months later that she had not heard the mistake offense.

made for weeks. So much for the carrying over. Don't Again, aside from its language value, the game is

make your children unhappy, but see to it that the use useful because it gives relaxation from the school work. It is a chance for change of position and of interest which

of the game carries over, or else admit that you are filling

up a hard period with a showy device and that you expect gives freedom without the mischief which is the bane of the unskilled teacher.

no result. Undoubtedly games are a good thing.

Method of Procedure with Games

First decide what mistake you want to correct. There Limitations

are many which could be chosen, but it is well to confine If, with this relaxation and enjoyment, there came the the attention each year to a few of the most glaring. A correction of errors the game would be the solution for young teacher prepared the following lesson plan, which the teacher's difficulties with language work. Unfor- was very successful: tunately it does not carry over.

The children repeat the words automatically, delighted with the repetition; "I seen” by impressing upon the minds of the children the

TEACHER'S Aim To correct the common error of using and without much thought as to the reason for the form. Think of the games you used to play and the way you

correct form, “I saw. did it. Do you remember “The Prince of Wales has lost his hat? This is the way it goes. One stands in faster and more correctly than the others.

CHILDREN'S Aim To play the game and do it a little the center, the others are in a circle around. The leader says to some one of the others, “The Prince of Wales PROCEDURE We shall play a new game this morning. has lost his hat and blames it on to you, sir."

First, I shall write a sentence on the board and I want The one who is challenged retorts, “Who, sir? I, sir? you all to read it. (Teacher writes, “I saw a pony.") No, sir, not I, sir."

How many have been to the circus? Those who have The leader speaks again, ''Who, then, sir?”

may put their heads down and think of something they “Number so-and-so."

saw at the circus. All ready. What did you see, Mary? I knew a little girl who played this game for several And you, Robert? Continue until all who had heads years. She was seldom caught napping and she liked down have taken part. Now, how many have been to it immensely, but her game was not that which was played a park? Proceed as before. If all the children have by the others. Here is what she thought it was. “The not participated choose some other place. Let a child go Prince of Wales has lost his hat and blames it on to Uzer.”

to

the window and tell what he saw there. This Uzer was not there to speak up for himself and the one to whom the leader spoke felt called upon to defend After this, when a child says “I seen,” remind him of the absent “Uzer Izor? No, sir, not Izor.” (Uzer's the correct form by asking, “What did you see at the last name must be Izor. It was not at all like Johnny circus?” Later “What did you see?” will be sufficient. Smith and Sammy Blake, but then, the Prince of Wales This game or drill should be carried on in a spirited

way, the children not being allowed a great deal of time half a dozen errors the fun is driven out of the game and for thinking of what they saw, and should not be continued it becomes only a part of the routine drill of the schoolafter the children begin to lose interest.

room. Additional Suggestions

Type Sentence

Some teachers obtain good results by means of the If the game is one with questions and answers be sure that the response given is the logical one. I have seen

type sentence. This is a sentence containing a form children playing a game to inculcate the correct use of

upon which the class is to be drilled It is referred to “It is I." It was done after the following manner: “Who

every time that particular expression is given incorrectly saw a robin this morning?” “It is I who saw a robin Suitable Material this morning.” This game may have taught "It is I,"

The story in which the sentence occurs should be very but it is a most absurd violation of good taste. If a friend

familiar. Suppose the children have been told the story should ask you the same question you would answer,

of George Washington and the Cherry Tree. You re“I

saw a robin this morning.” This doesn't give the chance to get in the desired expression, “It is I.” Of damage he said, “I did it, father. I did it with my little

member when the little boy was asked who had done the course it doesn't. There was no reason for that answer.

hatchet.” Every child learns this story and it is a simple Children will feel that the standards you hold up are

matter when a child says “I done it,” to ask him what pedantic and unnecessary if you use such absurd models.

George Washington said. The sentence thus becomes a Again, this particular correction is hardly worth making. model on which the pupils are expected to model their Now that the professors of Harvard and Columbia say that usage justifies “It is me” it hardly behooves us of speech and a standard to use in correction. The story

must be a familiar one. If it is necessary to learn material little fame to pick out this expression from many. We for which there is no other reason than that it may give ourselves avoid using this sentence lest we seem pedan

a model sentence, the plan is of doubtful value. In this, tic and then we waste our time drilling on this point when

as in the use of games, moderation must be exercised. the children say comfortably, “I seen him when he done

The effectiveness of the sentence depends upon the clearit.” Shift your spot light.

ness with which it stands out in the mind. The tree must

not be lost in the maze of a forest, Conclusion of Lesson

Extent to Which These Devices Should be Used A certain playful warning may be given at the end of the lesson. One primary teacher said, “If you ever use It has been said repeatedly that these devices must the wrong form now I am going to say 'Caught.' You not be used too generally. There is an age limit, also. will have to try hard and nit let me catch you at all.” The first two grades give the best chance for using such This is excellent for a device, but it can be used only in things. Sometimes in the third grade there may be need one instance. If the child is told the same thing about for such games, but never beyond.

Studies in Art Appreciation VI

C. Edward Newell

Supervisor of Art and Handwork, Springfield, Mass.
At the Watering Trough -- Jean Dagnan-Bouveret
Suggestive Method of Study

treated and cared for by their young driver, whom we may What do you first see in this picture? What is one horse

see standing near them. He is holding the lines that lead

to the halters. The headstalls or bridles have been taken doing? What is the other doing? What is the color of each horse? What are the trappings they are wearing

off to be hung with a short string of bells over the hames

at the side of the collar. The black horse has finished called? Name the pieces of harness on their heads? Where are the bridles? Why are they here? What is the

drinking, but the white one is still sipping the cool water

from the large stone trough. The young man stands very part of the bridle that goes in the horses' mouth called?

erect in his leather boots and loose clothing. His whip is Can you find bells on the harness? Where? Is there much

held in the bend of his arm, for at present it is not water in the trough? Of what is the trough built? Who

needed. is standing near one horse? Is the man young and strong? How is he dressed? Where is his whip? Why does he not

We seem to be looking directly at the young, dark-eyed use it? What does he hold in one hand? What is in the

man and the dark horse. They, in turn, seem to be looking other hand? Where is the young man looking? What

directly back at us. It almost seems as though we had kind of eyes has be? Is one of the horses also looking in the just walked toward them and our approach had attracted

their attention. The placing of the dark against contrasting same direction? Tell where you can see light parts of the picture against dark ones, or dark against light. (Dark light repeats itself often and adds much of interest in this horse, light sky; dark hat, light sky; light face, dark hat; picture. It also helps us to catch the artist's message and light shirt, dark horse; light ear, dark chest; dark harness,

see more clearly just what he wanted us to see. He wished light horse; dark bridle, light head; light nose, dark water.)

us to feel the power of the kindly sympathy that may exist

between man and beast. Do these darks and lights help you to see the picture more clearly? What forms a background for this picture? Whay do you like the picture? Have you studied another

The Story of the Artist picture of animals? Tell about it and the artist who I Men and women who paint and draw great and famous painted it.

pictures are called artists. The artist who painted “At

the Watering Trough” was named Dagnan-Bouveret (DänThe Sun of the Picture

yon' Boov rā'). His parents gave him the very long name These two fine horse lived on a farm in France. They of Pascal Adolphe Jean Dagnan. When the child was but were used for the heavy farm work, but were always well a baby his parents moved from Paris, where he was born,

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