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years old,

11 Have the children copy these sentences, filling the

Pussy willows. blanks:

Birds sitting on a fence.
is my name.

Girl or boy carrying an umbrella.
I live on
street.

Girls jumping rope.
I am

Boy flying kite.
My home is in (name of town).

Boys playing marbles.
Man plowing

Tree with a bird and a nest in its branches.
12 Write the names of things in the schoolroom that are
made of wood, iron, leather, cloth, glass.

Broken egg, chick, coop and chickens. 13 Write the names of things in the room that are shaped like a circle; like a sphere; like a cube; like a cylinder.

The same may be done for the things which indicate the

approach of winter. 14 Place upon the board a list of objects of which the pupils are to tell the color, as, the sky, snow, grass, roses, strawberries, etc. Require complete statements.

VIII Handwork 15 In the spring, when the birds are being studied,

1 Trace on green paper, cut out and mount leaves of place the bird pictures in the chalk tray. On the black

common trees. Paste the name of each leaf under it. board above each one write its number. Require the children to write the name of each bird on paper and number

2 Cut flowers freehand. Color them. the name to correspond with the picture.

3 Cut birds freehand and color them. 16 The common flowers may be named in the same way. 4 When the first grade is learning a new consonant

17 Make outline pictures of birds which have a sound, let the second grade cut and color objects the names characteristic silhouette. Arrange these in the chalk tray of which begin with that sound. For example, when h is and write a number on the board over each. Let the being learned, they may cut a hat, a house, a hen, etc. children write the name of each.

Take the best of these and mount them on one large sheet 18 Hektograph outline pictures of a bird. Place the for the h page of the phonic chart to be used in the first colored picture of this bird where all can see it easily. grade. Write and print the letter h on the page. Have a Let the children color the outline pictures, cut them out page like this made for each consonant. and mount them.

5 Cut pictures from magazines and make picture books 19 Bird books may be made by fastening together the

for younger children. They may be made for Christmas pictures described in the previous paragraph. A short

gifts. written description of the bird may be inserted opposite the picture. This description may be developed as a piece

6 The children will enjoy helping their teacher collect of class work and copied from the board by the children.

stories suitable for first grade children. They may also

collect pictures to illustrate them. The children should 20 Make flower books similar to the bird books. See

trim the stories and pictures neatly and paste them into preceding paragraphs (18 and 19).

books which they have made for this purpose, pasting the 21 Draw upon the board the outline of a bird. Write picture near the story it illustrates. at one side the names of parts of the body, as, bill, head, wings, tail, breast, leg, feet, toes. The pupils may draw 7 Since there is a need for children to make books for the bird and write each of the parts named where it belongs many different purposes in school, the children may very on the picture.

profitably practice designing covers to suit given topics. 22 Write on the board a description of a bird, such as

Cut designs of colored paper and mount them on the cover,

or cut stencils and stencil the designs with colored crayons. the following, omitting the name. Let the children read, copy, and write the namę.

However, this should not be done for seat work until

several covers have been designed in class under the I am a bird.

teacher's direction. I am black and white.

8 Names for the covers of books and for labeling posters I have a red head.

are more attractive when the letters are cut from paper and I make my nest in a hole in a tree.

mounted than when little children make letters with crayons I have a strong bill.

or pencils. Some practice will be necessary to enable I can drum with it.

the children to cut letters that are correctly and well I can run up the trunk of a tree.

formed and of uniform size. Much of this practice may be I am a

done as seat work. Give the children strips of colored

construction paper one inch wide. Print on the blackboard 23 Write similar descriptions of common flowers. Have words which the children may cut. For titles of books the pupils read, copy and write the name.

all of the letters will be capitals. Each letter should be 24 Or simple descriptions of birds similar to the above cut as high as the strip of paper is wide, one inch. This (Section 22) may be hektographed. Include a description

will insure uniformity in height of the letters. After of all the birds the children know by sight. Number each. cutting the letters which comprise a title, let the children Pass these to the children. They will read each and write mount them. the name of the bird, numbering the answer to correspond 9 Make original posters. with the description. Go over the work in a later class

10 Make paper dolls. See suggestions in First Grade period and correct the answers.

Seat Work, XI, 5. The second grade will be able to make 25 After the children have become familiar with the

more elaborate dresses than were made by the first grade. characteristic form of the common trees, cut a silhouette of each tree from black paper and mount it on paper

of a 11 Take sheets of cardboard 9" x 9", and with a punch light color. Place the pictures along the chalk tray and let make holes at equal distances apart all over the cardboard. the children write the names in order.

The children may place pegs in the holes to form borders 26 Let the children draw with colored crayons signs of

or designs. spring and then write the name of the picture under each 12 Let]the children cut squares, circles and triangles one. Suggested subjects are:

out of colored paper. Make borders and designs with them

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Johanna Holm The Emigration or Return of the Birds Draw a section of a lake in center of blackboard, coloring yellow. Mount the swimming ducks on the lake and the and shading the water a darker blue than the sky. Color a flying ducks on blue border. blue border the full length of blackboard on top, to represent This border is suitable for the return of the birds in the the sky. With green and brown chalk draw grass and spring, or for fall decoration, mounting them on blackboard cat-tails on the shore of the lake.

running north and south and placing the ducks in position, Cut out ducks from white paper. Color bills and feet flying to the north or south as desired.

Study Suggestion for Grade IV occupy far too much of the school curriculum. A child

might memorize the names, locations, industries and E. J. T.

products of all the principal cities of the United States HERE was once a teacher, Miss A, who had taught and not know very much about our country. Such facts T the fourth grade in the same building for a great might be entirely meaningless.

many years. During those years she was con- On the other hand, if the material were to be organized

sidered a very thorough, efficient teacher. Her pupils about some central thought, how interesting and vital were always, seemingly, well prepared for the next grade the work might become! Instead of a sum of memorized and ready to go on with the advanced work.

facts, but slightly related, the child would have a vital There came to the same building a young teacher of grasp of some phase of the geography of our country.' two or three years' experience. She had been trained Suppose, for instance, we take one of our grain products — in one of the best normal schools of the East. Her children wheat. Children are interested in knowing how wheat developed wonderfully in initiative and independent is raised and how flour is made from the wheat. Then thinking and her work was highly approved. The class they must know what kind of soil, climate, etc., is required was passed on at the end of the year to Miss A's room. for its growth, and where such conditions are found. They

At the end of the first week with her new class Miss A must find the great wheat producing regions; compare went to the principal with the complaint that the chil- latitude, climate, soil, etc. The great flour mills and dren were not prepared and insisted that several of them grain elevators will be found in the large cities in the be demoted. An investigation followed, during which center of wheat producing regions. Then the shipping it developed that Miss A had based her decision on the of the flour brings in means of transportation and dischild's ability to answer the stereotyped questions in her tribution and export trade. Let the children get as much note books. These questions were the accumulations as possible of this information from books, pictures and of her years of experience. Her geography note-book from their parents. contained every question that a fourth grade child could They are now in actual possession of many geographipossibly be expected to answer. Her children were thor- cal facts acquired by their work: the climate, rainfall, oughly drilled in these questions and answers. Then soil, surface, names and locations of cities and rivers of again, she had a list of every form of concrete problem a large area of the United States. Something of the inin arithmetic. These her children were taught to solve dustries, trade and transportation of the same area has mechanically, one by one, to the end of the list. They been learned. All of which has been organized under were then reviewed, the figures alone being changed. In the topic of wheat. all office tests and examinations her averages were very A list of isolated facts means nothing to a child, but the high. Thus she had taught for years and years. She same facts closely related to a central idea have a valuable had never given a development lesson. Her whole method and definite meaning.

and definite meaning. After studying several products of teaching had been memorizing from beginning to end. in this manner nearly every important fact about our And she got away with it.

country will have been learned, and having mastered Not many teachers overdo the memory work to such these facts by the law of association of ideas he will be an extent as this; nevertheless, purely memory exercises quite certain to retain them.

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They HAVE FOUND
THEIR MITTENS!

Stories that are dear
to Childish Hearts

First Year Literature “Action, Imitation and Fun Series" of Primers and First Readers

В у MARA L. PRATT CHADWICK This series consists of one phonic reader, which is a basic text, and ten supplementary readers, based on stories dear to childish hearts. These supplementary readers are carefully graded and form an ideal series through which to develop both sight_reading and sound interpretation. Each book is complete in itself and independent of the others. Each may be used with any system of teaching reading. The illustrations, in addition to being pleasing to children, are of such nature as to inspire creative imagination.

PRICE, FORTY CENTS EACH, POSTPAID PUSS IN BOOTS - REYNARD THE FOX

gain such a welcome from beginners as greets Buster Brown and Fully illustrated. 87 pp.

Foxy Grandpa with every issue of the Sunday newspaper, and No words in the vocabulary of this book can overtax or even

to utilize it in the mastery of a vocabulary that is an ample perplex the little ones of the first or second grade, as all have preparation for the first reader. been long familiar in the household and folklore of the fireside. THE THREE BEARS The cunning and resourceful ingenuity of “Puss in Boots” and of "Reynard the Fox" must keep up curiosity and interest at

Strikingly illustrated with original drawings. white heat, as scene succeeds scene in fine dramatic action.

Like the Little Red Hen and the Three Pigs, this little book

avails itself of a classic story from which to evolve very pleasTHREE LITTLE KITTENS - CHICKEN LITTLE

antly a good working vocabulary. Fully illustrated.

HOP O' MY THUMB- TOM THUMB Step by step the child grows unconsciously familiar with words and sentences and readily interprets the printed page. Reading

Fully illustrated. thus becomes a labor of love and no more irksome than the strain

Dr. Harris very pertinently remarks: "If a beginning is made with which the little one digs with beaded brow the holes in the

with literature sufficiently childish, the children may be led by sand pile or joyfully bears other burdens in his round of play.

their own growing taste and capacity.”

Incident follows incident at short intervals, so that the little JACK AND THE BEANSTALK — DIAMONDS AND mind is not too long on the stretch, and the short chapters hold TOADS – SLEEPING BEAUTY

in store fresh surprises from the beginning to the close of the Graphically illustrated. Three attractive folklore tales which are rewritten in the RED RIDING HOOD - THE SEVEN KIDS simple straightforward language of those early days when the

Fully illustrated. world was young, and are arranged in development of story Tested in the schoolroom, it is found that the interest is and in progress of verbal and phrase perplexities with a peda- heightened by putting these familiar classics into a primer form gogical art, born of experience, of careful child-study and of a from which he may learn to read; for childhood delights to go veritable love for the little ones.

over again and again the dear old story and tirelessly to repeat The chapters are brief, crispy, appetizing.

the doings imaginative or real, once made familiar. JACK THE GIANT KILLER

The happy Kid Family, the wicked deception of the hungry Fully illustrated. 94 pp.

wolf, the harrowing tragical incident, the joyous restoration, This folklore is handled by Mrs. Pratt-Chadwick in so in

and the righteous retribution must so divert and intensify the genious and original a method as to secure great interest and

interest that the labor of reading will be really a labor of love. great readiness in reading at sight.

THE LITTLE PEOPLE'S SOUND PRIMER (Basic Text) Yet she does not fail in addition to reach the higher effects of

Each lesson specially illustrated. 128 pp. developing the receptivity for poetry and that wonder and reverence which is part of religion. Besides by "placing the child

Consider the leading original practical features: (a) Wordamidst general human companionship, she corrects the tendency building from the start, with sound stories, with drills, inciting of imagination to center in self.”

the child to self-activity. (6) Illustrations, unique, alive with

action, and impressively interpreting the sounds. (c) Abundant BOW-WOW AND MEW-MEW

busy work. Fully illustrated. The illustrations, abundant, apposite, vivid, very happily THE LITTLE RED HEN re-enforce the text of each. Note these principles involved: (a)

Fully illustrated with original drawings. A classic basis from which the vocabulary is evolved. (b) Inter- Prof. M. V. O'Shea, University of Wisconsin, in a recent letter est from a tale pedagogically germane to childhood. (c) Rhyth

remarks: “I have carried a child through the Little Red Hen, mical repetition. (d) Imitation or dramatic effect.

and it has seemed to me to be based upon psychological prin

ciples more fully than any primer I know. The material is of THE THREE PIGS

interest to the child and the verbal forms are introduced in such Fully illustrated in heavy line and shading.

a way as to let the learner become familiar with them most The aim seems to be, in this and other books of the series, to effectively."

book.

Boston

New York

EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING CO.

Chicago

San Francisco Outlines for “The Return of the Birds "

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