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PRIMARY EDUCATION – Not “What does it cost?” but “Does it pay me?”
The Need of the Hour
Henry Baxter Parker The need of the hour calls all who cherish American 2 No employment for children in business or at home. ideals to help create in the rising generation of voters a
3 The system would put the poor ahead faster. still greater vision of True Citizenship. Since coming out of the army hospital I feel that to help save the world from 4 Wages of high school graduates higher than autocracy means to provide more education for all, or, grammar school graduates;
grammar school graduates; therefore, better economic at the very least, to make some available to all. I hope conditions for the masses. by the fall of next year to take
5 / Bykrunning the school up teaching again full time, but can't sit idly by in these Partial Contents of This Issue
the year around the students
working their way through critical hours without suggest
These make PRIMARY EDUCATION
can choose the three months ing how the emergency may,
in which they can find the in a degree, be met. The salary question is up to the
April Issue, 1920
most lucrative employment. The Power of the Project.
212 public; it's up to American
English in the Grades. VIII.
6 Choice of seasons is more educators to see to it that Studies in Art Appreciation. VII.. 216
economical and democratic, Do We Teach Letter Writing?..
217 every bit of available teaching
Stories for Teachers... power is put into use so that
7 The forgetting during the Some Problems of the Third Year Teacher 221 the thousands of children now
three months is prevented. “Those Tables”,
223 without teachers may be taught.
An Easter Bonnet.
224 A Tree Design.
224 The public will be more apt to The Fundamentals in Primary Grades.. 226
Undergraduates as co-operate when it sees all Popular Ballad Studies for Grade IV... 228
230 children receiving education.
A Page for the Color Booklet.
231 Childe Rowland....
In addition I suggest that inMother Nature's Story Book.
233 Open Schools in Summer
The Story Stand-ups.
asmuch as there are thousands Where to Find the Birds.
of untrained people teaching Making Arithmetic Concrete.
240 In the emergency I suggest Supplementary Reading and Language
(in many cases even without keeping schools open during the
high school training), college Ideas to Try..
244 summer. The following reaLesson Plan in Language for the Pri
and even some high school sons are culled from Captain
under-graduates be allowed to April Games.
250 F. M. Hammitt's article which
A Little Play for Arbor Day.
take a hand at Americanizing, appeared in the School Board Why the Bluebird Brings Happiness. 254
i.e., educating, our youth durThe Spring of the Year..
256 Journal for May, 1919, entitled
The Stone in the Road..
ing the summer at least. "The All Year School in MaWeekly Plan for Using the Second
College students would thus Grade Seat Work..
260 son City":
vitalize their college work, The school year is divided
and more would enter the prointo four quarters, of twelve
fession, at least for this period weeks each — A, B and C classes, with promotion each of great need. Many regular teachers wish to attend quarter - twelve grades.
summer courses and would welcome this interchange. His reasons for favoring this arrangement:
These are the fruits of my own practical experience, given
gladly that education may be made available to more 1 Not good business to allow a million-dollar investment potential citizens, because I believe democratic education to be idle, or unproductive, for three months.
is the saviour of republics and of the whole world.
In Dr. Charless McMurry's new book, “Teaching by Projects,” lieu of such attendance, any body of teachers can systematihe says, “The term project belongs in one sense to the language cally read, discuss and put into practice the project method of business - or of plans and schemes in active life. It is an echo
as found in the following suggested bibliography. It is by from a noisy world, an intrusion upon the quiet of the school, like a sharp train whistle or a noisy street wagon. But our no means complete, but it does claim to cover the basic drowsy school work may need this influx of noise and disturbance principles, leaving the teacher to find in many other books from without. At any rate the school is being brought into sharp specific needs for her individual projects. Several mistakes contact with real life. On another page he states, “At the present
have been made in attempting to introduce this method moment we need to be jolted out of our conventional, formal school phrases and to find terms better adapted to the educational needs and in city systems without an organization of teachers to study forces of the hour. The term project is a newcomer among educational it beforehand. The results are such that if one wishes the phrases. It seems to suggest, not the school but the shop, not the
method to survive in that community it will be made text-book but the busy mart, the industrial life, the un hallowed things of the schemer and the promoter. Perhaps this is its merit, that it
compulsory that no teacher be allowed to try it till she has forces attention upon things that have come to importance in life, studied its fundamental principles, rather than using it things which need to break over the threshold into the school. The after three visits to a teacher who was using it. The project idea suits our present needs because it tosses aside our con
bibliography is submitted with the idea of its being helpful ventional abstractions and sets up a larger practical unit of knowledge
to teachers who have not yet had the chance to attend a as the basis of study. The school is absorbing into itself as fast as it can the big things of life, the schemes that men and women are chiefly
school and see the project method in its experimental stage. concerned about, and these are becoming our school topics."
Among many people who have omitted the preliminary The true project method of teaching is one of the strong
study, a fallacy exists that organization of subject matter est forces at work to-day to develop democracy and combat
and materials is unnecessary. The pendulum swings too Bolshevism. in the United States. The use of the word
far from the cut-and-dried method of doing a certain thing “true" is necessary because there are a number of fallacies always at a certain time, with the resultant criticism that abroad in the land which need correction or the power of the
time is wasted. A teacher said to a principal, “Oh, I like project work is weakened.
the project idea; it is such a 'snap' for me. I do not have One fallacy which always arises when a new word to plan my work now, for the children do that as they enters the teaching vocabulary is, that it will become
work!" Another teacher said, "I like it because I have so such a catch-phrase that its real meaning is lost. Witness
much more time.” Now the project method requires an the rise and fall of such terms as “definite aim," "object
absolute business-like attitude toward subject matter, teaching,” “interest as related to will,” “the appreciative
materials and plans. In any large project, a vast amount mass,' correlation,' " "abstract vs. concrete,' efficiency,”
of correlated material must be so easy of access that it will and a host of others. Just now almost every new device
take plenty of any teacher's time just to be her own filing is labeled "project." In the current educational magazines
clerk. To be sure, the teacher's plans are often changed you will see such labels as "A Sand-table Project," "A by a change in the child's purpose, but this, too, requires Dairy Project," "South America -a Geography Project.” more, not less, planning on the part of the teacher so that and even the teaching of a new song was called “A Music
she may follow several avenues of activity quickly. Project.” (If this article were named “The Power of Yet another fallacy exists when a teacher with that Teaching," or any older word, you perhaps would not read dangerous thing called "a little knowledge,” construes this it.) Sometimes these activities so named, are projects, method into meaning license. To quote Dr. Kilpatrick but oftener they are not, at least in the sense that Dr. again, “Some, in reaction, have resorted to humoring Kilpatrick intends in his pamphlet on “The Project childish whims.”
childish whims.” A child was found lying on his stomach Method.” He makes a strong point of the purpose, too
on the floor, while the teacher attemped group work, on much of which has been the teacher's purpose, not the
the other side of the room. Upon being asked the reason pupil's. Much of the so-called has no chance for its for this vestigial position, she replied, “You see in this fruition, is not a project. May it not be like the emotional project method we allow pupils to follow their own imstate which James warns against, where emotions are pulses!", Nothing could be farther from the point of aroused which we do not satisfy? This formal education view which declares that “whole-hearted, purposeful is a weakening rather than a strengthening educative
activity in a social situation as the typical unit of school process. Or is it educative at all? Is it not deadening
procedure is the guarantee of the utilization of the child's passivity? So test your projects by the initiative, by the native capacities now frequently wasted.” purpose, and see if there are a series of acts leading to a Now another mistake, also due to introducing the method successful conclusion. More, do the activities "lead on"
with too little forethought, is that of attempting it in a to further knowledge, or must the teacher constantly prod one-grade room of fifty to sixty pupils, with screwed-down and assign tasks? Test them by the method of learning seats, meagre equipment, materials too small in size, and in real life situations.
very little floor space. This is almost physically impossible Perhaps a greater injustice is being done to the project aní too many conscientious teachers have been discouraged idea in many localities where it is being attempted by
by being asked to follow the project plan, but without teachers who do not know the underlying principles.
proper equipment or assistance. Their “spirits are willing,” but their intellectual fields are
There are a number of objectors — many of them truly unprepared. The project becomes a collection of hand- conscientious — who claim that too little is accomplished me-down, ready-made devices suggested by an enthusiastic
in the three R’s as contrasted with the old régime. True, supervisor. Such superficiality discredits the project these people often have closed their minds to anything method in any community. How may teachers understand different from the way they have been trained, but many these principles which must be the basis of all project work parents will hearken eagerly to this type of criticism anú it in the schoolroom? Perhaps the best way is attendance must be met if the project methoa is to grow in power as at schools where the project method is taught and prac
it should. In the successful project method plan, more ticed with children. Accompany this with a considerable reading is done than in any formal scheme. Real reading amount of reading on the topic, and an open mind. In
is not a process of calling words, or being expert at long lists of phonetic symbols; rather it has to do with emotion like the German army, to please the ruler. Good children and with information, with the getting and giving of thought were those who sat with feet flat on the floor, backs stiff, in real life situations with familiarity in classic lore, and hands folded on top of desks, eyes front, and who especially with a desire to read more and more. Such insane remarks sat this way when an assigned task was completed before as "I see a girl," "This is mamma," "Run, squirrel, run, the teacher was ready to look at it. To be like a wooden “Does the squirrel run?" "He runs,” “Well, well, is the statue, doing nothing, was a virtue that often the bright boy well?” “The boy is at the well,” hardly come under and clever ones did not attain. It made one think of the the thought-producing term of reading. Neither is it al- old hymn, "O, to be nothing, nothing!” Truly “perfect ways a virtue to declare, "My first grade class read sixteen order was perfect death” in such rooms. The seats were readers last year!” The quality rather than the quantity veritable "scholastic cells.” If, perchance, you wished to is the first consideration. How can we prove to these borrow a pencil or to compare your progress with another objectors that the three R's are not neglected? Too many pupil, you might be so allowed, if you raised your hand and teachers of the project method are keeping no record of received the royal permission. But to do this without full their experiment. A complete daily record, using the preliminary permission often meant that the offender would Columbia University blanks or others equally good, and remain in his “cell” after school. adding to it any facts needed for a record of the three R's, It may be that this is an exaggerated picture to many of will overcome this objection. The real test is the pupil's you, but such schoolrooms still exist in this land of ours, reading, being sure that this reading “leads on” to more even after a war has been fought to establish democracy. reading activity with a teacher constantly setting the time, but this is hopeful: we do keep trying for better things. the lesson, or the place. Why not apply the standard A transition time arrived, when we kept much of the above reading tests and rate these children accordingly?
plan, but removed the platform, introduced chairs, occuIn some situations the project method is not as powerful pation materials, and a free work period. an educative force as it might be, because the teacher has The materials are still kept in little boxes, taken out and tried to graft it on to a mechanical routine program. replaced by dictation, while the bead stringing, stick laying, In "carrying water on both shoulders” some of it is likely card sewing, or seed outlining could hardly lay claim to to be spilled.
developing initiative on the part of the learner. A criticism made is that teachers fail to check uj The free work period was often a time when materials materials and that the pupils are not taught the care of were scattered broadcast and not picked up at the close of the materials. In the project plan, materials are on low the period. Anybody did anything anybody chose, but shelves or tables and in constant and quite free use. Make there was no guiding purpose, no “purposeful act.' At it a personal matter as an apostle of the democratic idea the close of the period, all went back to the routine. Even of the project, that your room will be taken care of, so, the routine was better than certain types of free work though it will always look “worky," it will not present a periods in many rooms. It was as if some German subject ragged, untidy appearance.
escaped across the border and for a few brief moments We have looked long enough at the negative side of the attended a Bolshevist meeting, only to be brought back project method, as mistakes have been made in working it again., out. Let us now consider the real side, the positive side. Then came the cry for a sub-primary group, containing What is the power of the project method? Is it far reach- those children who were a cross between a good old-fashing, extending to all phases of citizenship, or is it local and ioned kin lergarten pupil and a full-fledged mechanical restricted to a few school people and through them to the first grader. This transition served a good purpose, for kindergarten or primary grades alone? Has it any relation it awakened both kindergartners and primary teachers to citizenship in a democracy?
to the need of changes. We then heard much of the word Apart from politics and religion, there is nothing so “unification." With a project method rightly understood difficult to change, so traditional, as education. In spite and carried out, is it not possible that the above transition of advances in industry, science, business and government, words, namely, free period, sub-primary, and unification, the traditional persists so strongly in the schoolroom practice will be dropped from our vocabulary and practice? that the project method seems to many to be a sweeping But wherein lies the ability of the project method to innovation. It is not; it is quite the method of learning develop a democratic citizenry? Some one has said; found in life outside of the schoolroom. There is a close “Without education democratic government becomes a relation between this method and the development of farce or a tragedy.” Education under an autocratic ruler democratic ideals. It is opposed to militarism, Bolshevism, will not function in a representative form of government. and to blind obedience to dogmatic authority.
Was it not true that in the World War the Germans often Do you recall the far-from-good-old-days when the retreated in frenzied haste when a leader was killed? teacher's desk stood on top of a high platform? Can you Was it not equally true that our American boys often went see long rows of screwed-down seats with aisles sufficiently over the top at the call of a private soldier when their leader wide to discourage whispering or the help of a neighbor? was killed? Dr. Kilpatrick says that “the teacher's success The high platform symbolized the high intellectual position - if we believe in democracy - will consist in gradually of the teacher as she looked down and poured knowledge eliminating himself or herself from the success of the on, over and into the helpless subjects below. The teacher procedure." rules as would the Kaiser, not permitting differences of Does your schoolroom have to be watched constantly by opinion or action from those prescribed by authority. you, or worse, by a monitor? Can you trust your pupils This platform, as a symbol, put the teacher so far above
to go to one corner of your room, to the hall, to a recitation her subjects that severe penalties were placed on those or shop room, and there teach each other in
groups, work on who disagreed openly or expressed any opinion foreign a doll house, write invitations to a party – do all this while to the ruler. In life, we teach that altruism is a virtue and you conduct a reading class in your room? Or are they so that we must help our neighbor. But in this traditional unsocially trained that they need the watchful eye of the type of school, it was a crime to help your neighbor. The law upon them at all times? Which kind of training makes seats were placed far enough apart to discourage the the better citizen who later may be your banker, your town possibility. Other acts were crimes, too. For example
, treasurer, your legislator, your custodian of taxpayer's it was a crime to whisper, to move about, to hammer, to funds? saw, whistle, paste, use clay, use paints - unless the royal The project method has the power of making pupils scepter was put forth, or all the subjects performed these “intellectually critical.” They do not watch the teacher's acts at the same time. It must be a mass formation, face to catch her approval or disapproval before being sure
of their answers. They are too busy with their own friends volunteered their services to teach this boy. For problem. It is a higher plane of motive to which they have one week this was done and it was good teaching, too come, namely, an interest in the work itself, rather than real purpose was there. doing it for personal approval of the teacher — or even the The roof of the play house was to be covered with asclass. If it is their own work, it must stand on its own bestos roofing about the time that area needed to be taught, merit and intelligent criticism is invited. A pupil was so the class used this opportunity to figure the exact amount making a cupboard for a large doll house which had been needed, and when the arithmetics were opened, the new constructed with the Patty Hill floor blocks. He stayed problem of area was partially solved. faithfully at the work bench and used his hammer, saw, Does it sound easy for the teacher? It is far from it: knife and nails, but in the end each shelf was crooked. hours of planning and organization of subject matter At last he said to a boy near by, "Can you make this shelf around each project are required, as well as an assembling straight?” The boy tried, but the shelf was still crooked of the necessary materials to make it complete. In a new so an appeal was made to the teacher. By a simple showing book by Parker, “General Methods of Teaching in Eleof the need for a ruler measurement on either side, the boy mentary School,” Chapter Five, on Organization of Subject made a straight-shelf cupboard. No teacher was critical Matter, is excellent to show the necessary organization for him; he did his own thinking as far as he could. Can in a successful project method. politicians, I. W. W. leaders, false prophets, easily influence A power of the project too little discussed, is the benefit the citizen who, from his youth up, has been trained to do to the teacher. It is rather recent that we have begun his own thinking, backed up by an intelligently critical to consider her at all, except as a bit of machinery to be attitude toward his own shortcomings?
spent, weary and worn at the end of a day. The woman In a certain type of project, Dr. Kilpatrick names four teacher, as a poorly paid public servant, was not supposed steps. They are, “purposing, planning, executing and to wear as good clothes as many other employed women, judging." So it is easily seen that the project requires a to ride in parlor cars, to stay at the best hotels, to command high variety of thinking such as Dr. Dewey describes in his a room with a bath, to require the services of a manicurist book, “How We Think.” The teacher, of course, needs to or hair dresser; in short, she was not expected to live as a think through the difficulties so that total failure may be prosperous business woman might. She was too “pore.” avoided for the child. But most of all, does this type of In her new era of better salaries she will have more chance thinking require initiative and activity.
of studying education as a creative project. Truly it will A Hallowe'en party was to be given by the first graders be the child of her brain, and its growth and nurture carefor the kindergarten group. The purposing and planning fully watched. Dead formalism does not long live in the steps moved rapidly, but in the executing the question of heart and brain of a teacher who is constantly growing and mailing invitations brought up the difficulty of not knowing developing new projects for herself and her pupils. Life the house numbers of the guests. Ways were suggested becomes not only a game, but a project to her, and soon by the children and they were allowed to get the numbers she files away much valuable data and from it becomes more according to their various plans. Some found them in charitable, sweet and human. telephone books, others asked older members of the guests'
The project method does not need to be argued about families, while some went to the house and copied numbers. or pleaded for. For those who see it in the light and hope of Now the teacher had these numbers in her record book creative work, rather than the darkness resulting from dead and could have given them to each child on a slip of paper. formalism, it becomes a new gospel of democracy and a But this one point in this project brought out more inde- weapon against Bolshevism for future generations. pendence and initiative than was thought possible in so simple a difficulty. What kind of citizens do you prefer?
Bibliography Do you prefer the type that handle an emergency or a
Kilpatrick — The Project Method — Reprint Teachers College Record, difficulty by their own initiative, or that appeal to the
Columbia University, Oct. 12, 1918 nearest ward boss for an understanding of principles and Kilpartick – Horace Mann Studies in Primary Education. — T. C. candidates for a coming election, simply because they have Record, March-May, 1919 never been trained to do their own thinking?
Dewey - Schools of To-morrow
Dewey - How We Think Examples of initiative in emergencies may be multiplied, Dewey The School and Society - University of Chicago Press for they occur in the project plan each day. A group of Dewey Reasoning in Early Childhood – Teachers College Record intermediate children needed material for working on a January 1914 large play house. This house was to be set out-of-doors
Dewey — Democracy and Education
Dewey Interest and Effort in Education in the spring. Committees were appointed to care for
Dewey - Elementary School Teacher - Report of Experiment materials, to buy supplies, and to secure funds to pay for Norsworthy and Whitley -- Psychology of Childhood them. The last committee faced a serious shortage, as Temple Survey of Kindergartens of Richmond, Ind. the teacher had found it necessary to advance three dollars
Bobbill — What the Schools Teach and Might Teach -Russell Sage
Foundation, New York City for paint brush, shellac and nails. It was finally decided
Bobbitt - The Curriculum to put the question before an open meeting and let the class Tanner - The Child vote. The decision was a pledge to earn five cents a week Key — The Century of the Child and put it in a fund to pay the teacher. In all this the
Day - Experimental Teaching -- Teachers College Record, November,
1917 teacher suggested nothing. The point needs to be stressed
Tyler — Growth and Education – Chapters on Kindergarten Period here, however, that it is often the teacher's right, nay, it and Child Entering School is what she is hired for, to suggest, guide, even lead, at Dorothy Canfield Fisher — Mothers of Children times. There are also brief intervals where she must
Watson, Myers, Hopkins — Suggestions of Modern Science to Edu
cation assume the role of dictator. Emergencies, such as wars, Holmes The Nemesis of Docility bring out that necessity. Food dictators and coal adminis- Holmes - What Is and What Should Be trators are not unknown to the American people. A
Colin Scott - Social Education teacher must not be a chronic dictator, for she would be
Branom – The Project Method in Education
Rrackowizer – Projects in the Primary Grades as harmful to a schoolroom as a Soviet Ark passenger is to Parker - General Methods of Teaching in Elementary Schools our body politic.
Dynes - Socializing the Child An arithmetic game was suggested by a teacher where McMurry — Teaching by Projects boys and girls kept scores, seeing which side won the more
Weeks — Socializing the Three R's
Dobbs – Primary Hand Work points in a series of games. The boys lost several games Terman - The Hygiene of the School Child because one boy did not know the table of seven. Two Holmes — Tragedies in Education
English in the Grades
Every paragraph should be indented.
This list is given merely to show the material that is used. Needsfor Dictation Lessons
It is not in any sense complete. To put the matter briefly, In composition the thought is stressed all the time. every rule of composition, should be tested in dictation “Bear hard upon your subject,” says a book of advice to lessons. adult writers. “What is it you are trying to say?" we Method of Procedure in Lesson ask again and again when a child becomes self-conscious and hesitates over the form. Always the thought is kept dictate the matter to the children, they writing it sentence
When the preliminary drill is ended the teacher should in the foreground, and rightly so. Yet some place and some time the child must learn the rules and regulations by sentence. Naturally, in the first grade a sentence, and by which expression is governed.
a short one at that, is all the children can manage. In He must learn them and learn them thoroughly, but let higher grades they can take much more, a little story (if this work be done by itself, not sugar-coated and passed over
given a sentence at a time) is not beyond the power of third as something else, unless both types of lesson become grade children. When they begin to write consecutive equally hateful. To pretend it is something else is like
sentences to dictation it is best to tell them when to begin the plea of the primary teacher who keeps calling a sentence
a new paragraph. The habit of placing each sentence by
itself is hard to break, and it is well for them to grow used a story because, she says, “children love stories so." There are very few forms of mental activity which children
to the sight of the larger unit before too great a strain is cannot enjoy if they are put clearly and rapidly. It is
placed upon them in the matter of deciding where the break
should be made. not doing things which becomes wearisome, but the waiting for something to do.
As soon as the writing is finished the correction should The French children are among the best trained in the
be made. If the material has been placed upon the board
the curtain which has been used to cover it can be withdrawn world when it comes to the use of language, and they have dictation work from the very earliest years. Some educa
and the children may make most of the necessary corrections tors tried the experiment of dictating certain English para- self-correction, which is most desirable. Besides this, it
themselves. This encourages the habit of self-criticism and graphs to boys in French schools. The form was more correct than when the same selection was given to children gives the opportunity to say, “Why is this the way it is in of the same age in America. More, when the experiment
the story?" The reason is emphasized. was repeated with college students it was found that they, writing would tend to make them remember the location
It may seem that the drill given immediately before too, were inferior to the little foreigners.
of the mark rather than its meaning. In theory there Their training in writing contains much dictation work and experiments recently made in our own schools prove happen. The placing will not come exactly as it did on
might be this danger. Practically I have never seen it the wisdom of this course.
the board, so position will not be of any great assistance. Special Advantages
What if the child does remember that a period came after Dictation work possesses several points of advantage. a certain word? Have you not asked why it is there? The child is freed from the thought of subject matter and The reason has been made plain. We see that a certain can turn all his energies to form until the points under mark occupies a particular position and try thereafter discussion are mastered. Special topics can be stressed. to use it in the same way. If the class has been studying the use of the quotation mark,
Material Used the example chosen can be such as to employ its use a number of times. If the pupils have no other drill than that given
It is better that all the selections used be by good authors. in the writing of themes, they may have no occasion to use
We can manufacture examples to fit almost anything, but their knowledge for a number of days. It is immediate and
we want our pupils to feel that these rules are not abstracfrequent use which clinches facts.
tions formed for the annoyance of children and subject to
discard when they reach years of discretion. Rather they The ease of criticising the result is another point in favor of this type of lesson. The skilled teacher should be able
must be brought to feel that they are studying the conto complete the survey in a very few minutes by means of
ventions observed by all educated people, that they may class and self-criticism. This can never be the case when
take their own places with such men in the future and feel the material under discussion is not identical.
no awkwardness in the association.
Possibilities in “The Wolf and the Lamb" Preparation for Lesson
One day a wolf found a lamb drinking at a brook. The The preliminary work is most important. The material
wolf said, “What do you mean by making the water muddy to be dictated should be placed before the children, prefer
at my spring?” ably on the blackboard. Then let the teacher go over every
"Indeed, sir,” said the poor frightened lamb, “I did not point upon which drill is needed. “Why does this word
disturb your spring; it is farther up the stream, and the begin with a capital?” “Why is a period used here?”
water does not run that way.” “Do you find any other place where a period is used for the
“Well,” said the wolf, "you trampled the mud up in my same reason?”
spring last year.” Interest is easily aroused. The children know they will
"No, indeed," said the trembling lamb. "I was not born have immediate use for all the facts which are run over
last year.” and they are anxious to prove they know them all.
“Oh, well, if you didn't do it, your father or mother did.” Suitable rules are not difficult to find. The following
And he gobbled the poor lamb — which was just what he topics were discussed in a fourth grade.
had intended to do all the time. — Æsop Every declarative sentence ends with a period.
Quotation marks are placed around the exact words of All but two of the rules quoted in an earlier part of this a speaker.
discussion are illustrated in this story. We advocate the A person's name begins with a capital.
use of such material, not that the children may incidentally The name of a people begins with a capital.
learn more stories, but that they may realize that these When asking permission use "may."
rules which they have to learn are a part of what they know Every interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. to be ordinary expression.