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II Teach new phonograms and initial sounds as indicated The teacher who teaches phonetics as outlined above,

above, these being added to the perception allowing no careless, slipshod, haphazard work, cannot fail cards as soon as thoroughly known.

to succeed in the teaching of the mechanical side of III Give a blend drill

reading.

Some Problems of the Third Year Teacher

I

Irene Douglass Twas half past four, and the darkening shadows lifted hand to request a repetition. A note, too, would

of a fall day were filling the schoolroom with gloom, be sent to each home, telling of the state of affairs and but still Miss Boyd sat at her desk lost in thought. urging medical attention.

There was no pile of books or papers awaiting cor- What treatment should be meted out to Bonnie, the rection, the appointments of the room seemed in order, artistically inclined? Numerous stories of unfeeling schoolthe last pupil was gone, and yet the perplexed little teacher masters who tried to keep genius from displaying itself made no sign of leaving her post. She was gazing at sprang to Miss Boyd's mind. Were the wondrous ladies the empty rows of small seats and in imagination filling that decorated so many scraps of paper on Bonnie's desk each place with its rightful occupant.

the precursors of later world renowned portraits? Still Miss Boyd had accepted this third year class of forty it seemed advisable for Bonnie to learn to read and spell little girls with a slight fear tugging at her heart, for tiny to some slight extent, and perhaps her activity in the as they were, they had achieved an unenviable reputation drawing line night be called into use in helping to put of being an unsatisfactory class with which to work. some simple designs on the board from time to time, or

"Is there any way,” she soliloquized, "of managing a slight decoration on condition that all surreptitious these little people so that I can do without so much ex- work should be discontinued. postulation, so many 'don'ts,' so many minor punish- Problem number four required serious consideration. ments given for peccadillos which seem so trivial and Mary was indeed so nervous that any effort toward helping yet cannot be overlooked.” Each child of the forty was her must be cautiously applied. When rising to answer interesting and dear to her and yet forty separate prob- any question there was such a pulling at her dress, placing blems confronted her.

her hand over her mouth and such numerous wriggling Miss Boyd was nothing if not mathematical and precise, movements that Miss Boyd had formerly often tried so after a puzzling half hour she drew her writing pad to expedite matters by a rather stern manner. This into position. She had no intention of instituting a divid- increased rather than dispelled the nervousness with the ing line between “the sheep and the goats” but just wished result that Mary would finally take her seat flushed, to see set down in black and white the names of the more abashed and perplexed. On the other hand Miss Boyd serious of her cases, her “patients,” and opposite each remembered how carefully any little message or duty name place the principal complaint and when possible had been done and resolved in the future to have Mary a suggested remedy. She tried to avoid the pitfall of do many little unobtrusive services for her when the child robbing a child of her individuality and of laying down would in a measure forget self in the pleasure of doing such rigid rules that each would become an automaton, something for “teacher. moving and speaking like a well regulated machine set The same treatment might be applied to the fifth case. in motion by the teacher. She felt her incapacity and Edith, too, was a silent, reserved child, and she and Mary too great reluctance to attempt to model each child after were both sure to gain more self reliance by being appointed her own ideas, but in a spirit of helpfulness endeavored monitors for various duties, when each would feel a slight to find the best method to bring out what good traits responsibility. Miss Boyd also resolved that as it was were latent in each, and to subdue the unsightly and still too painful an ordeal for either to recite, sing, or even harmful.

read individually they should be frequently placed in After a further half hour of work the following memo- small groups to read or act in concert with others. randum appeared.

In Ruth Miss Boyd considered she had her thorn in

the flesh. Being modeled in an exact and punctilious 1 Anna slightly deaf.

mold the continued late arrival and general unprepared 2 Louise. . poor eyesight.

ness of this small girl greatly exasperated her teacher. 3 Bonnie the artist

If not actually late she dawdled so long in the cloakroom 4 Mary extremely nervous.

in divesting herself of coat, hat, and rubbers that almost 5 Edith.. timid and shy.

invariably she entered the classroom after her fellow 5 Ruth

.seldom on time for lines or lessons. pupils. This habit followed her throughout the day. 7 Catherine .playful, attention easily distracted. Ruth's book was always the last to be found, her work 8 Maude no self-reliance.

the last to be given in, and if she was the last to enter 9 Nora .the eternal questioner.

she was also the last to leave the room. Scoldings, de10 Irene the wriggler.

tentions, loss of conduct marks availed nothing. Per11 Gladys .the uninterested.

haps the old game of running races with the clock might 12 Ida .. untidy in appearance and work. prove interesting to Ruth. She might be allowed, say,

five minutes for dressing, packing up her books, etc., The chief problems were finally set down, but the and a record be kept to see when she “beat the clock' solution of each one presented a special difficulty. In or when she was beaten. Some pleasant duty must be due course of time, however, the following thoughts winged thought of to be her special privilege, provided she arrived their way to the little teacher's perplexed mind.

in time each day to perform it. Miss Boyd was a firm Problems number one and two were solved by the re- believer in the efficacy of a pleasant little note sent to solve to pay more attention to the seating of Anna and the home, and determined that a nicely worded request Louise. Simple experiments might be necessary to find should be despatched to Ruth's mother to see that the out the positions best suited for these children with these wee daughter be sent off a trifle earlier each morning. slight infirmities. This would prevent Louise from run- Problems seven and eight were thought of next. The ning up to the board to decipher what was there, and first step would be to separate these two whose attention would do away with Anna's puzzled expression and up- was so easily distracted from the matter in hand. Miss.

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Boyd recalled her previous attempts to remedy this trouble duly installed there, and some exercises given in standing when Catherine had been ignominiously led to the Kinder- and sitting correctly. Irene must be commended on all garten room on one occasion when she had been discovered possible occasions when her position merited approval. playing with some treasured toys instead of working The problem of Gladys, the languid, uninterested pupil, at her arithmetic. Maude had been sent bruskly back presented a difficult aspect until Miss Boyd remembered to her seat with the order to work it out for herself. that Gladys had often spoken of evening parties and late Catherine had been subdued and attentive for the follow- hours. Here surely was need of a diplomatic note to ing day only, while Maude had returned to her seat with the mother explaining that it was impossible for a pupil her usual helpless and hopeless expression. Catherine to be alert and bright who stayed up at night till ten and should be placed in such a way that she would have only eleven o'clock. Gladys must be given some responsibility two near neighbors while perhaps the shy Edith would as a monitor or as a helper, “a pupil teacher” to little help to counterbalance her liveliness. Maude, too, must Dorothy who, entering late in the year, was rather behind be brought near the front and, perchance, if she saw busy her class. The knowledge that some one depended on little Clare working away earnestly she might feel like her for asistance might help to waken her up a bit. doing likewise. Certainly Maude must be praised for The twelfth and last of the cases seemed almost the every determined effort to master any subject in hand. hardest for which to prescribe. Carelessness at home A tiny motto of “Try, Try, Again,” prettily printed, must surely account for Ida's unkempt appearance, soiled might be pinned to the front ledge of the desk. For dress, untidy hair, and lost buttons. Untidiness in person Catherine "Do Your Best Always,” might be effective. communicated itself to her surroundings. Her desk was These mottoes must not be considered as badges of dis- crowded with old papers and cloths, and the paper strewn grace, but as little helpers to do what is right.

floor was decorated with ink stains and rolling pencils. Who has not had a Nora in her class? A Nora who Some of the morning talks must be taken on cleanliness is always busy di something else when a lesson or page and tidiness. Suggestions must be asked for as to the is given out, and when the class is ready to begin work best way of obtaining a good result, and Ida must be raises her hand to have the information repeated. A often called on to contribute some of the suggestions. Nora is always ready to ask questions on subjects that a A watchful eye must be kept on the appearance of her moment's thought would reveal the answer. Now Miss desk and tidiness insisted upon. Then, again, a little Boyd delighted in answering questions which showed that word like "How pretty your hair looks to-day!” “How her pupils were taking an intelligent interest in a subject clean your hands are, even the nails!” may help toward and always encouraged the questioners. Questions, how- a desired end. ever, which were asked simply to obviate the necessity Miss Bloyd stopped, glanced over her notes, then smiled of thought on the part of the asker must surely be dis- quietly to herself. “Perhaps this is not a very scientific couraged. Perhaps a little talk to the whole class on or pedagogical analysis of the trouble, and perhaps the this subject and a private five minutes with Nora might prescriptions are a trifle homæopathic, too much sugar help to remedy that trouble.

coated for the severely inclined, but I'm going to try these Could any seat prove more satisfactory than another ideas, and perhaps I'll write up the results to hand over to the restless Irene? After a moment's thought Miss to other perplexed teachers who are distressing themselves Boyd remembered that Irene was usually turning around over the infirmities of their pupils." So springing up with a in her seat to interview her neighbor just behind her. happy relieved look Miss Boyd stepped gaily to the door, Surely a seat at the back of the room would do away locked it, and started home, and proceeded to forget that with the inclination to turn around. Irene should be forty little problems awaited her attention on the morrow.

W"

“Those Tables”

time allowed won the game. Addition facts were treated

in a similar manner. Grace Evelyn Starks

Again cards one by two inches were given out. Upon THY," said Harriet one morning before the last

these were written number facts with answers lacking. school bell had rung, "I just love those old tables

Pupils rose from their seats, stated the problem and gave V now! I always just despised them!” There were

the answer in regular order. many eager assents to Harriet's sentiments, and

No game was more enjoyed than"playing ball,” however. Miss Carter felt a queer sense of mingled guilt and satis

For this a square was drawn upon the board and subfaction. Rewards of merit had been so strictly tabooed

divided into squares. In each division a problem was writin the training school from which Miss Carter had been

ten by the teacher. The pupils were then allowed to come graduated! And these dear babies of hers had been bribed,

in turns to the board and bounce the ball. The square hit truly!

by the ball became the one for which the answer must be An unwritten but nevertheless inflexible rule had been given. that Grade III learn all the multiplication tables. And

A variation consisted in writing in the squares, numbers Grade III had struggled earnestly but hopelessly to learn

to and including 30. The player was allowed three trials them. "Help" had been given outside of school hours, for

at bouncing the ball at the square. Those at their seats set Miss Carter never "kept anyone after school,” notes had

down the figures and he who was first to give the result been despatched to parents enjoining their assistance, but

became “It” for the next game. still no results were apparent.

Ring Toss was almost as popular. In playing it a circle Then Miss Carter deliberately bribed them. The school

was drawn around the standard, the value set at any figure was divided into its A and B classes, and numbers equalling successfully tossed over the standard the player scored the number of pupils were written upon slips of paper and successfully tossed over the standard the player scored distributed. Every day after the board work in arithme

the value of the ring times the value of the circle. This tic was completed, the sides lined up and had a table con

was varied to be a training in addition, also. test. He who missed was sent down, while he who was

Another form of the same game consisted in substituting able to answer a missed problem went “up” and to "go Standard outside of which were again drawn four circles.

a ball for the ring and drawing an oblong around the up head” was the greatest honor, and procured for the successful one a “head” mark! These were placed opposite These circles had a fixed value and the ball had a fixed value the name of the winner upon the blackboard, and the one

in a like manner. The player rolled his ball and his score in each class receiving the most marks at the end of the

was the product of the value of the ball and that of the obmonth secured the prize! Almost from the first week a

ject touched. marvelous change took place in the attitude of the pupils and instructive bean bag game was played by setting a small

Bean bag games were as keenly enjoyed. An enjoyable ! the pupils and Miss Carter soon found it difficult to catch ladder against the wall, each rung having a different value, any one on either multiplication, division, addition or sub

that one farthest away being the highest. The bags were traction of number facts. Indeed they could give facts

then tossed through the rungs, from a distance marked on concerning the table of thirteen and add readily such facts the floor, the score being the product of the value of the as 20 + 13; 40 + 15; 70 + 18; 90 + 12; and so on.

ball and the value of the rung through which the ball passed. Miss Carter had to think quickly herself to give them fast The sides of the ladder, when struck, were zero. enough. And formerly 5 X 8 had been a painful effort of

These simple games and the spirit of competition they solution. Do not we all

, thought Miss Carter, really work aroused not only gave Grade III the mastery of those long in the hope of reward or the fear of punishment? And do abhorred tables, but gave the children a keen intellectual we not work better and harder in the hope of reward than pleasure as well. Truly has it been said that “a child is when spurred by fear? The prizes were insignificant in

educated through his play." themselves — postcard photographs of the happy winner, an especially coveted pencil or tablet; once it was a growing lily bulb that brought cheer to a home of most humble circumstances, the mother telling Miss Carter, almost with tears in her eyes, that the entire family somehow had to be better after its coming! How could it be wrong? That

Litheld Holm incident alone made it right.

I Bakery · There were some delightful games now and then, that helped impress the facts. One consisted of a circle drawn Clay rolls, bread, etc, upon the board, the multiplier and the sign being writ- Signs ten on the outside and the numbers from one to twelve

Cashier within. The answers were written to the right.

Wrapping paper, etc.

Money. Make change
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II Prepare dramatization of story. Children make cos2

tumes
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III Japanese tea

Make money 56

Blossoms, decorations

Kimonos, toys
64
72

IV Preparation for Martha Washington Tea to make 80

money
1012
88

Minuet
Soldier march

Children make hats, swords, etc. Play soldier The pupils in turn, took the pointer and gave any number Perhaps give dramatization of story for mothers fact they wished. The one who made no mistake in the Have doll house finished by that time. Or bakery.

Possible Projects

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An Easter Bonnet

The hat in the illustration is colored a light tan with a garnet bow.

The hat with a quill should be colored black, with a black An Idea for Grade IV

and blue ribbon and a blue quill.

The poke hat is yellow, with black velvet bow.
Frances Clausen

The hat with the plume is green, with dark blue plume

and black ribbon trimming. 'N looking over the many things appropriate to Easter,

nothing is perhaps more suited to the feminine part of our community than the Easter bonnet and tainly will be hailed with delight by the average

A Tree Design primary child. The hats may be drawn freehand or traced

Marie S. Stillman according to the ability of the class or the grade constructing them. They may be colored with crayon or paint, and

Rhode Island Normal School here the teacher should limit the pupil to one or two colors The approach of Arbor Day and its attendant celebration and black, so as to correlate good ideas on dress as well as with invitations, programs and exercises, with possibly a mere pleasure in making the toy. Never allow a child competition for a cover design for an Arbor Day leaflet to color anything, and especially an article of clothing, all these offer opportunity for motivation of drawing and unless the finished problem would be really wearable. design in every grade. Some principles of design and some For often the foreign element of our schools is allowed full definite shapes to work upon are necessary, if we are to get sway in gorgeous reds and yellows, the teacher resignedly good results from all the children in a class. thinking that it is impossible to alter their ideas. No one Four tree symbols are shown at the head of the page, has more beautiful schemes of coloring than the Italian, suitable for use in beginning tree design. In these the tree but they must be toned down to meet our American climate form is stripped of all individual variation and the resulting and ideas of correct dress.

shape is the simplest possible tree form, with the salient Thus we skillfully conceal a lesson in our apparent characteristic of the tree retained. Thus the general shape pleasure.

of the elm is a circle, its trunk long and slender. The pine The hat should be drawn on white drawing paper and is triangular in shape, with trunk short and straight. outlined in black.

Low and spreading is the apple, semi-circular in shape, Use light gray construction paper for the base, which with gnarled and crooked trunk. The cedar or poplar is a consists of two ovals or egg shapes, the wire support being tall, slender, modified triangle, with almost no trunk at all. slipped between them and both pasted together. The wire Such shapes as these the children can draw readily if the is about eight inches long or five inches when finished. teacher works at the board with her class.

Use thin hat wire. A spool of Dennison's flower wire Beginners in design need to see many variations of a form was used for the originals, which contains ten yards of made upon the board, and the teacher who works for her light green wire sufficient for a room of forty-five pupils. class to show them how, will get results impossible in any

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