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Home Geography for the Third and Fourth
Lucy M. Dunigan
Boundaries. Take field trips to the boundaries. geography the child's mind is stored with concrete
Observe the way streets are paved, if they are information with which he can afterward relate
paved, and notice that they are higher in the the new and otherwise unappreciated facts, which he
center. Give reason for this. Visit park if there will learn of unknown places. Better text-books and a
is one, and notice physical features (gently rolling wealth of supplementary reading are aids to the teaching
land, large trees, etc). See factories, foundries, of geography. With emphasis shifted from facts, to the
hospitals, freight depots, railroads, public buildcausal relation between facts, an exercise which once was
ings, churches, cemeteries, car lines, storage a draft upon the memory alone, has now become a cultural
houses, lots for private or community gardens, force, which trains the mind to habits of reasoning which
etc. Visit stores. Visit places of historical inwill be of lifelong value.
terest. Home geography is not a text-book subject. The local environment of each school makes uniformity impossible.
2 Home in your city. Each teacher must organize the material to fit the needs 1 Make a definite study of your city. of her community. There are, however, general princi
1 Location, size, number of school districts. ples which help us not only to define the limits of home
Compare its present size with that of several geography, but to present it to the children in a logical
years ago. Give reason for its growth. List manner.
these. Everything in the course should be truly geographical.
1 Located near coal or iron fields, In order to stress the geographical facts one must know
2 Roads were here to connect the farms just what constitutes geography. Some say that geography
and nearby villages. is a “Study of the Earth as the Home of Man. Others
3 Railroads. Name the roads running say the emphasis should be put upon the human element
into your city. and define it as “A Study of Man in his Home, the Earth.”
4 Trolley lines that connect the city with There are two classes of topics into which home geog
villages, towns and larger nearby cities. raphy should be grouped. These are the social topics
5 Mail, telegraph and wireless systems. and the physical topics. A child must know life relations
6 Stores to supply the necessities of life. and the interdependence of one family upon another.
7 Industries that attract the people. He should know what this community supplies the outside
1 List these. It is interesting and helpworld, and for what it must depend upon other countries
ful for each child to tell the kind of and other communitios, in order that he may have the necessities of life. The physical topics call for a knowledge
work his father does, such as gardening,
farming, mining, manufacturing, railof the earth. The home is one of the simplest of social topics, which
2 Summarize industries and fix in the should be studied, because it furnishes concrete illustrations
minds of the children that their city of many of the phases of geography. The town, city or
has these industries because it can county community in which the family resides forms a second social topic.
supply the following:
1 Power. Physical topics call for outside work and for this reason
2 Labor. many field trips should be planned for the home geography
3 Raw material. class. Children should be led to see that which is near them first, and then advance into the foreign fields.
8 Amusements: Beautiful natural parks The following course consists of the study of the three
that are free to the public. Golf links necessities of life, namely, shelter, food and clothing.
and tennis courts. Community play
grounds. Rivers or lakes where people Ra peer-Teaching Elementary School Subjects
can camp and fish. Freeman-The Psychology of the Common Branches
9 Museums. Klapper-The Teaching of Geography
II Materials needed to build your home and furnish it.
dishes, brick, etc. Use clay during an industrial lesson Charters—The Teaching of the Common Branches
and make a Hopi Indian village. Fairbanks-Home Geography for Primary Grades.
2 Kinds of lumber. I The Home.
1 Kinds used for building purposes. Name the district in which you live. Show a map.
2 Kinds used for furniture. Make one on the sand table. Draw one on the board.
(Study the African Boy Mpuke. Find out how his
home differs from yours. Go with him into the Help the children to interpret the map. State what this district was formerly. (Farm land, park, etc.)
forest to cut some of the large trees that are made
into beautiful furniture. See a separate outline Tell the direction of your home from your school.
for this.) Name the direction toward which you walk when you come to school. On the map of the district find the 3 Carpets. (Study Kanana the Arabian Boy. Find street on which you live. Always teach directions out how his mother makes the rugs. Compare his out-of-doors.
tent with your home. See separate outline for this.)
V Summary. All nations and people must have food,
shelter and clothing. 1 The important factors in bringing these necessities to us are:
III Food 1 List products used for food that are raised near your home. 1 Home gardens. When started? Preparation of
the ground. Soil ready for seed. Planting. Cultivation and care during the growth of the plants. Harvesting.
Consumption. Market. Sale or exchange of the surplus.
Usefulness of this garden to the outside world. 2 Community gardens. 2 Truck farms.
1 Called market gardens.
of high taxation, where the market for the produce
quick transportation. 3 Methods of cultivation. Compare with home
gardens. 4 Problems of labor and problems of skill. 5 The part the truck gardens play in supplying the
large cities with vegetables and fruits. Gardens of the South send us early vegetables, and send them earlier than we could produce them at home. Later the districts far to the north of us send the fresh vegetables that are in season there, so that our season for fresh vegetables, strawberries, etc., begins earlier and is prolonged until later than we
can raise the same products at home. 3 Dairy farms.
Location near the city. Why? List products from
this farm that will not keep. Those that will keep. Sometimes cheese and butter will keep a long time. (Study the home and industries of Heidi the Swiss
1 The economy of having a well-balanced farm.
transportation is good.
Good roads, how prepared and cared for, funds secured to keep roads in repair, cooperation of neighbors, community spirit even
in isolated regions.
for food: Cattle, sheep, hogs. Fowl used
are used there for beasts of burden.) 5 List the food that comes to us from foreign lands.
1 Tea from Japan.
3 Tropical fruits. IV Clothing 1 Wool comes from the pelt of sheep. Sheep raised for
wool need a different geographic environment from those raised for meat. Different varieties of wool need different geographic conditions. (See Kanan the Arabian Boy. Find out how he helped to raise the sheep that give us the fine wool that is raised on the margin of the desert. Make a type study of wool.
Correlate it with history and literature.) 2 Cotton. 3 Silk. See separate outline of France and study this
country that sends us silk. Find out why less of the
silk making is done in the homes than formerly. 4 Linen. 5 Furs. These come from our north and Siberia.
France I Take a trip to France, where Jean the French boy lives.
He would be called John in our country. II Physical features of the country. 1 Long sea-coast where ocean vessels can be seen
bringing food and visitors. 2 Network of rivers and canals upon which there is a
great deal of travel and carrying of goods. 3 High mountains where there are good pastures,
beautiful scenery and swiftly flowing rivers. 4 Many forests which are protected by law.
5 Fine, well-cared-for farm lands. III Resources.
1 Coal and a little iron.
Orchards of apples, pears and peaches in northern
States. 3 Vineyards, groves of lemons, oranges, olives and
mulberry trees in the south. 4 Clay for fine china and porcelain. IV. People.
1 Thrifty and love beauty. 2 Speak a strange language, do much gesturing and
talk fast. 3 Very polite.
1 The boys remove hats when spoken to by elders. 2 Men shake hands when they meet and again
when they part. 4 Very fond of the outdoors.
1 Girls may be seen knitting and sewing on the
steps. 2 Women clean vegetables outside. 3 Tailors, shoemakers, etc., bring work out to the
4 School children study out-of-doors. 5 Parks are used all the time.
1 Few games are played. Even boys walk instead
of playing football, etc.
may be bought.
4 Punch and Judy shows.
1 Fine libraries, churches and art galleries.
mopped at night. 7 Homes.
1 In the cities the people live in apartments instead
of in houses. Stores or shops are on the ground
floor. Homes are on the higher floors. 8 Dress.
1 In the cities people dress very much as Ameri
cans do. 2 In the country the men wear a cap, blue blouse
blue trousers, wooden shoes. Women wear dark
woolen clothing, white caps. 9 Food.
1 Much of it is bought at the public markets,
where an auctioneer sells chickens, eggs, vege tables, fruit, cheese, live rabbits, oysters, snails and frog legs.
V High up in the pastures with Peter. 1 Good schools. When a boy leaves school he 1 Goats ate grass and moss. Heidi gathered berries
serves as a conscript in the French Army. Every and flowers, delicate primroses, blue gentians, golden boy must have two years of military training.
rock roses. V Industries.
2 Heidi called to the robber bird, perched high on a cliff. 1 Farming.
3 Goat-herd whistled and the goats came jumping down 1 Many small farms, but all are well cultivated. to him, 2 Owned by the common people. Nearly every
4 Peter milked the goats and gave Heidi some milk to farmer owns his own land and feels that a part
drink. of France belongs to him. For this reason few
5 Heidi called to the sun that was making the snowFrenchmen leave France.
peaks red and her voice echoed back to her from the 3 Hills are terraced. All space is utilized.
rocks. 4 Men, women and children work in the fields. VI Occupations of the grandfather. 5 People do not live on farms, but in small villages
1 Raising sheep and goats. nearby, which are connected with the farms by 2 Making butter and cheese. hard roads, lined with tall trees.
3 Wood carving. 6 Houses in these villages.
VII Winter time. 1 Walls are made of mud mixed with straw,
1 Too cold to take the goats to pasture. They were white-washed except near the ground, where a kept in sheds. coating of tar keeps out the dampness.
2 Roaring and rushing of the winds through the fir 2 Roofs of red tile or thick reels of straw laid
trees could be heard.
of the hut.
connected with house.
Mpuke, the African Boy
1 Eyes round, shiny, black.
3 Head covered with a mass of curly black wool. 2 Manufacturing. In the cities and in the homes. 4 Lips red and thick.
1 France sends us wine, silk, fine cutlery, ribbons, 5 Skin black and shiny.
made in homes on hand looms, lace, lisle thread 6 Tall, straight people.
1 Cotton, brightly colored.
2 No shoes and stockings. 2 Rivers furnish many fish.
Huts, low walls, made of clay. High, conical roofs, I Her Home.
thatched with palm leaves, no windows, small doorway 1 In Switzerland with her grandfather, high up in the
faces the street. One room in the house used for a mountains, near the mountain Falkniss (Falcon's
1 Small group of huts. 2 One-room hut made of logs. Loft used for a bed
2 High wall surrounds the settlement. room for Heidi.
1 Wild animals are kept out.
2 Protected from other tribes.
3 Huts nestle in a grove of banana trees. 2 Table, chair, bed, fireplace, where a large kettle VI Chief of the village, Mpuke's father. hung; cupboard (everything the uncle owned was
1 Tall, muscular, well-built. in this).
2 Body is covered in a ridiculous fashion with red, white 3 Sheds for the goats near the hut.
and yellow chalk. Looks like clown in the circus. 4 Surrounded by tall fir trees.
3 Black rat-tails at the chin.
4 Large hat of grass. I Food.
5 String of charms. 1 Toasted cheese.
6 Little clothing. Sometimes this consists of girdle of 2 Thick slices of rye bread and butter made from goat's
pineapple leaves. milk.
7 Skillful hunter. 3 Milk.
8 He is chief because he is brave. 4 Dried meat.
9 He bears many scars. 5 Chestnuts, raw boiled, roasted.
VII Men and boys battle with animals. II Clothing
1 Elephant. 1 Heidi — barefoot, barehead, in summer, coarse dress 2 Panther. apron to cover dress.
3 Cobra. 2 Grandfather — tall Alpine hat, short knee breeches, 4 Gorilla. heavy shoes, tall Alpine stick.
VIII Boys have mock battles. IV Heidi's playmates.
1 Use a wooden spear. 1 Peter the goat-herd.
2 Blunt knives. 2 Barla (little bear) and Schwanli (little swan). IX The elephant hunt. Schwanli was white and Barla was brown.
1 Men slip up on elephants. 3 Chamois.
2 Shoot bows.
3 Elephants make a great noise and run. 4 Men cut and skin the dead animals. 5 Women and children bring baskets into which the
meat is put. 6 An oven is made in the ground. 7 The meat is baked here for three days.
8 This hunt takes place during the early part of the day. X Men go to war with neighboring tribes. Why?
1 Paint faces and bodies. 2 Women and children are busy sharpening weapons.
3 Boys remain at home to protect the women and children. XI Victors bring their allies with them. 2 A great feast is held.
1 Cooking is done out-of-doors.
elephant, manioc pudding (manioc takes the place
it, to make gravy; fruit palm wine. 3 Men eat first. Women and children eat that
which is left.
The Philippines I Trip to the Philippine Islands.
1 Under the control of the United States. 2 Longest single ocean voyage we shall take. Fifteen
days from San Francisco to Manila. II Places of interest we may visit.
Many islands, active volcanoes, hot springs, many lakes (some sulphur-colored), rivers, snow-covered mountains, forests with luxuriant tropical plants and vines, where we will see strange animals, birds of variegated and beautiful plumage, but poor songsters,
interesting cities and villages. U People. There is no Philippine nation. The people
are divided into tribes, over eighty in number. Speak
seventy-five languages. 1 Civilized people near the coast.
1 Men, black-eyed, black-haired, brown-skinned
working men; bare-footed, dressed in pantaloons
and shirt of thin material. 2 Women, lips red, hair combed straight back,
teeth blackened, always chewing betel nut, a product of the arnica plant, clothes are brightlycolored skirts to the knees, no stockings, sandals.
Pina cloth handkerchiefs about the neck. 3 Children wear thin clothes, go to American
schools, learn to speak the English language. 2 Natives of the interior are savages.
1 Wear no clothing, live in a primitive way; villages
of huts that look like nests high in the trees or on high poles; tattoo bodies, black woolly hair, noses flat, lips thick, dwarfs; weapons, bows and arrows; hunt wild goats and apes, love music,
have instruments, flutes of bamboo, guitars, drums. IV Entering the bay.
1 A little bay takes us into the shallow waters.
1 Commerce is of importance there.
warehouses near the shores. (Hemp, rice, tobacco, sugar cane, going out; flour, machinery, clothing, army
stores coming in.) V In the city of Manila. 1 Transportation.
1 Two or four-wheeled carts drawn by water buffaloes or goats.
1 Buffalo called carabas. It is ridden like a
horse. Used to plow rice-fields in water three feet deep. It must be allowed to wallow in mud and water, three or four times a day.
2 Street cars drawn by ponies.
tionery stores, jewelry, confectionery and soda
water, bakeries.) 3 Houses.
1 Close to sidewalks. Two stories high. No
glass windows to keep dust out, screened. Sometimes oyster shells are used for windows. Built around a courtyard, where there is . flower garden with seats along the walk,
shaded by large banana trees. 2 Lower floors used for kitchen, servants'
quarters and stable.
over the street.
1 Sheds and booths made of poles covered with
plant, cabbage, potatoes, peppers,
squashes, tomatoes and gin.
3 Chickens, turkeys, duck, fish.
heels bad weather.
made of pineapple fibre. 5 Factories.
1 Sugar drying, tobacco, factories where
they make flat bands, straps for sandals, ropes for harness, and clothes-pins, mata, rattan chairs; bamboo makes cups, dippers,
tableware, furniture. 6 Amusements.
1 Cock fighting, pony racing, bicycle racing,
playing upon musical instruments, religious carnivals (especially at Christmas time, when
weather is finest). VI Native villages. 1 Homes.
1 Houses thatched with nipa grass. (House seem
ingly on stilts, use a ladder to climb up to the door.) 2 People sleep in hammocks, cook and live out-of
doors. 3 Women wash clothes in rivers with water to their
waists. 2 Crops.
1 Cocoanut groves.
1 Fields in low, marshy lands flooded during
planting season. 2 Cultivated with plow that is a crooked stick
of wood on a handle, a piece of iron on the
bottom and drawn by a buffalo. 3 Women and girls assist in harvesting rice.
They pound husks from the grain. 3 Food. Consists chiefly of rice. It takes the place of bread and potatoes. 1 Rice, boiled bulbs of the bamboo, fruits, bananas,
oranges, lemons, papayas, limes, pineapples, figs, grapes, cocoanut. (Mother and sister prepare copra from the dried fruit of the cocoanut. From
copra we get cocoanut oil, used for lamps, in 1. Five hundred tents were set in four rows, as straight perfumes and soaps.)
as an arrow flies. VII Forests of hard wood.
1 Tents were made of goats' hair cloth. 1 Cinnamon, pine, dye woods, rubber, gutta percha.
2 Tents seven feet high in the center and twenty VIII Animals.
feet broad. 1 Horses are all furry ponies.
3 Each tent was divided by a white Damascus 2 Cattle small, resemble Jerseys.
carpet. 3 Caribou.
1 Men occupied one side of the tent. 4 Deer (mouse deer, smaller than a goat).
2 Women and children occupied the other side. 5 Hogs - tame and wild.
4 Furnishings. 6 Monkeys.
1 Mats. 7 Python (used in walls - eats snakes and rats.)
2 Cushions. 8 Chickens, ducks, rabbits, goats.
5 Favorite horse and most valuable camels slept by 9 Poisonous snakes.
the tent and the master's lance stood in the ground 10 Parrots.
at the entrance of the tent. 11 Pigeons.
6 Field of ripening grain filled the narrow space 12 Pheasants.
between the yellow water and the silver-gray of 13 Eagles.
the desert sand. 14 Lizards.
V Kanana refused to take the lance. 15 Crocodiles.
1 He was made a watcher, sat upon a perch when the 16 Alligators.
grain began to head. He remained there day and 17 Many insects.
night till harvest, throwing stones at birds to frighten 1 Locust plagues visit the islands every two or them away from the grain. three years. They come in swarms by the
1 Women brought him food once a day. It millions.
consisted of buttermilk dried and ground, LX Storms are many and of great violence.
mixed with melted butter, dates, etc. 1 When a storm is coming a signal is run up over a
2 Women renewed the supply of stones. look-out tower.
VI After the harvest Beni Sad tribe went to the cities 2 Crier is sent about the streets to warn the people, for on the oases to trade their grains, dates, etc.
roofs of houses, as well as loose articles, are in danger 1 Cities protected by walls. of being blown away.
2 First camel of an important caravan is led by a man
who walks before it through the streets. His cry is Life of an Arabian Boy
to warn the people to clear the streets. I Kanana, an Arab, a Bedouin Boy.
1 There are no sidewalks. 1 Born upon the deserts. Of the tribe of Beni Sad, of
2 The beggars, men women, and children, flock the seed of Ishmael.
near. 2 His father, the chief of the tribe, was called The
3 White camel generally leads the way. It is considered Terror of the Desert.
sacred. 3 Appearance: brown skin, black hair.
VII Arabs face the Holy City of Mecca three times a day. II Desert thought more of making warriors than shepherds. VIII Kanana leaves his people and becomes a hero. 1 There were many robbers on the desert, who lived 1 His turban, a large piece of cloth bound about his by theft and plunder.
head with a camel's hair cloth. 2 Many caravans fell into the hands of such men and
2 Coat of sheep's skin stitched together. A Bedouin perished.
wears this coat winter and summer. It is a protection 3 Kanana refused to take the lance when he was old
from the heat and frost. enough, so he was called a coward.
3 Bare feet. 1 No name was more bitter to an Arab. It meant
4 Shepherd's staff in his hand. traitor III Customs of the people. 1 Boy rolled around in the sand and sunshine until he was five years old. 1 He wore no clothing but a twisted leather cord
Mrs. Charles T. Hiser tied around his waist. 2 For five years he helped the women of the father's As the price of paper made itself very evident in the tent.
bills presented to the school board, we primary teachers 1 Shaking goat's skin, filled with cream, until resolved to do our bit toward reducing it. One of the it turned to butter.
board members being a prominent dry goods merchant, 2 Watching the kedder upon the fire.
we easily secured his assistance. His clerks were in3 Drying buttermilk to be ground into flour. structed to save all the paper coming from the ribbon 4 Digging komma, which grows like truffles bolts, and at intervals we called for it. All lengths and under the sand.
widths could be used, and aside from doing a patriotic 3 After he was ten years old, for three years the service, we had the added satisfaction of a far more liberal
boy watched the sheep, goats and the camels. supply of paper than we would have felt justified in 4 After he reached the age when Ishmael was sent having purchased for us.
away with Hagar by Abraham, he (the boy) was The widest adapts itself very nicely to folding and supposed to drop all menial labor and take his construction, medium widths are excellent for copying place among the men and make a position for and practise, while even the very narrowest is useful.
himself according to his fighting qualities. We made both foot and yard lengths of this, marking the 5 Few occupations were open for a boy unless he inches, first under supervision, and later as work to be had won laurels with a lance.
done independently at the seat.
A square of medium IV Every year for three months, from planting time to width, hektographed in tiny squares with two selected
harvest time, the Beni Sads encamped upon a river crayons, furnishes fascinating seat work, as a "perfectly bank on the outskirts of the Great Desert.
boo'ful checkerboard” is the result.
Salvaging the Waste