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Mark C. Mills
Although children like to hear the
stories Johanna Holm
over and over again it adds much to their pleasure
and certainly to that of the story-teller to be able The center figure and background are drawn with black, to vary the details from time to time. This may white and gray chalk. Draw figure as shown, almost the be done by changing the plot of the story, but an altogether height of the blackboard. In the rear and near top of easier and more satisfactory way is to change the setting. blackboard, shade in the snow with gray and white. Make Changing the location of the story from one country to the part representing water and ice darker. Cut out icebergs, another, or from tropical Africa to Arctic Alaska, or from bear, seals, and Eskimo houses from white paper;, the country to city will do this. For example, in telling the walrus and whale of dark-gray paper. Cut out the Eskimo familiar story of "Goldilocks and the Three Bears," it on sled and his dogs from white paper, also. Mount these may be told one time with a description of the bears' home on background and shade with black chalk.
in the country and another time with a description of The poster shown below blackboard is a portion of the their home in the city. Mother Goose Poster which illustrates the most familiar
An even more simple alteration is to change the climate Mother Goose Rhymes, as “Little Bo-peep,”. “Jack and and then to tell the story with all the variations this will Jill," "This little Pig went to Market,”: “ Jack be Nimble,” bring about. The children themselves like to be called and so forth. The figures are cut to line from black paper upon to help make the necessary changes in familiar stories. and mounted on gray background.
It is really surprising how well imaginative children enjoy The children enjoyed these decorations very much. making up their own stories and fables if they are given a Some teachers have scrap-books or other picture books with little encouragement at the start. which to entertain the children mornings before school If it is desired to give the story a distinctly educational calls, when weather does not permit them to be out-of-doors. bent this may be done by laying the setting of the story The decorations as shown in picture proved of such interest in some foreign country and supplyingaccurate descriptions to the children that no other entertainment was necessary. of the country and the customs of the people. Children
who are old enough to read can help in this by supplying facts from their own reading. It should also encourage
them to read more about the countries of which they have Laugh-Don't-Cry
heard in stories. Have you ever seen Little Laugh-Don't Cry,
Another source of story material may be found by That gay little elf who lives in the sky?
learning something of the stories that the mothers of The next time you stumble and bump your nose,
different nations tell their children. These may be obOr fall from a tree and tear your best clothes,
tained from miscellaneous sources and adapted to particular Just look up quickly, right into the sky,
needs if necessary. And forget how badly you'd like to cry. Just laugh, though softly, and don't even frown! The average teacher or other amateur story teller will You'll see little Laugh-Don't-Cry sliding down find that a story that she herself has invented or adapted A yellow sunbeam! He'll make you a bow,
can be told much more effectively than one that has been And say: "Now I see that you do know how read and memorized. The children, too, will like it better, To call me quickly! Cries drive me away!
and if allowed to help invent a new story or a new setting But laugh and I'll come! I listen all day.
for an old story, will get valuable exercise for the imagAnne Blair ination,
Ruth Ash In studying this story nothing makes it as real to the to strengthen them wiih a double thickness of paper of children as to have the miniature figures that can be cardboard. The bodies are pasted together about halfway moved around and enact the events as they read or tell down, the laps on the feet are bent inward, lapped on top of of them. This story can be very successfully worked out each other and pasted on the bottom to a small square or in a sand-table, or if that is not attainable, a table top will cardboard so that they easily stand upright. do. Small sticks can be gathered to make the fence, Robinson Crusoe is tan, his goat-skin suit white, his ladder and house, and the arrangement can be studied umbrella and shoes light brown, basket and hatchet brown, from the text.
gun dark brown and saw gray. Put on his suit and shoes
first, then his basket on his back, his saw on one side of his Directions for Making
belt and hatchet on the other, his gun in one hand and
umbrella in the other. The figures for this Story Stand-up are made from col- Friday is dark brown and goat-skin suit white. He can ored paper or from white paper and colored as suggested carry a gun or a hatchet in his hand. The visiting cannibelow. The figures are made double so as to be reversible bals may be made by using the same pattern but leaving and that they may stand on two legs. So fold the paper in off the goat-skin suit. the middle and put the pattern on with dotted line on The cat is gray, the dog brown, the parrot green and the the fold and cut on outside line, thus making the two sides, goats white. except in the case of Robinson Crusoe, where a single paper These patterns can be used very successfully in making is used. In some cases where the legs are slender it is best
Supplementary Reading and Language Lessons The Sentence and Its Ending
ful to put a period after each. Copy the sentences that
ask something. Put a question mark after each.
The dialogue which follows is written here without any
marks at the end of the sentences. CCORDING to the ruling of the Joint Committee
Copy it. As you write on Grammatical Nomenclature, appointed by the
each sentence ask yourself whether it tells something or
whether it asks something. If it asks something put a quesNational Education Association, the name declarative applies to all sentences which tell something
tion mark after that sentence. If it tells something put a'
period. without expressing feeling; the name interrogative applies to all sentences which ask something without expressing
Be careful to keep a straight margin. a feeling; the name exclamatory applies to any sentence
Tom and Fred which expresses a feeling whether it asks or tells; thus there are two things which a child must know about every sen- Fred Are you going to school to-day tence before he is able to place the proper mark at its end. Tom No, I have a bad toothache Does the sentence ask or tell? Does it express feeling or Fred Are you going to see the dentist not? If it expresses feeling it must be followed by the ex- Tom I do not know Would you clamation point. If it tells without showing feeling, it is Fred Yes If you do not it may hurt a long time followed by the period. If it asks without expressing feel- Tom Do you think he will pull it ing it is followed by the question mark.
Fred Is it a baby tooth or a second one He will not The following form a series of lessons to present the sen- pull a second tooth tence and its endings to children. It aims to be simple Tom It is a first tooth Have you all your second teeth enough to introduce the kinds of sentences to children learn- Fred The last baby tooth came loose yesterday I ing to use the period, question mark, and exclamation point. pulled it with my fingers It also aims to be comprehensive enough to be used as review for older children.
The Invitations In the exercises the technical names are omitted. Unless
May Ethel, look here! the course of study demands, it would seem advisable to
Ethel I shall come in a minute. What do you want? omit these for the younger children. For the older children,
May Look, here's an invitation! It's a written invitathe explanations given above of these names, may be added
tion to a party! to the lessons by the teacher. As the teacher will readily
Ethel Let me see the letter. see, our old friend, the imperative sentence, is now but a
May Why, here is a letter for you, too! It's an invitapart of the declarative, because it too, tells. The present
tion, too! division of sentences makes punctuation of sentences quite
Ethel I hope mother will let us go! simple for the child.
May Of course she will!
Ethel We could wear our new dresses!
May Let's ask mother now!
In this dialogue Ethel and May are very much excited Bob Do you know where she is?
over their first written invitation to a party. We show how Mary I think she is in the front yard.
excited they are by this mark, !, called an exclamation mark, Bob' Do you think she will let you go?
at the end of the sentences. The exclamation point is placed Mary Why not, if I ask her? Mother is good to let at the end of any sentence where a great deal of feeling is me do things because I always ask her first.
shown. Bob Shall I wait for you here?
Find and read all the sentences which show how excited Mary No, go around to the front gate. I am sure May and Ethel are. How does each one read? Can you mother will let me go.
show the feeling in your voice as you read? The exclama
tion point shows the same thing when the sentence is writAll the sentences in this dialogue either tell something ten. or ask something. How many sentences are in Bob's first Ethel has not seen the invitation when she first speaks, speech? Do they ask or tell something? Notice the mark and is not yet excited. How does her first sentence end? at the end of each. That dot at the end of a sentence is Why? How does the second one end? Why? called a period. It is placed at the end of sentences that Copy all the sentences which show the feelings of the tell something.
girls. In Mary's first speech does the sentence ask something Here follows a dialogue between Jack and Billy on Christor tell something? What mark is after it?
mas morning. They are very much excited because they In Bob's second speech does the sentence ask something have just waked up and do not know what is in the stockor tell something? What mark is after it? It is a question ings they have hung at the fireplace. Copy the dialogue. mark because it only comes after sentences which ask some- As you write each sentence think whether it shows feeling. thing. Make a question mark. It looks something like a If it does, place an exclamation point after it. If it does button hook, does it not?
not show feeling, but tells something, put a period after it. Does Mary's second speech ask or tell something? What If it asks a questions close it with a question mark. is the mark at the end? Does Bob's third speech ask or tell something? What is the mark at the end?
Billy and Jack How many sentences are there in Mary's third speech?
Jack Wake up, Billy It is daylight Does the first sentence ask or tell something? What mark is after it? What mark is after the next sentence? Why?
Billy Shall we go downstairs without dressing Tell what mark is after each of the other sentences in the
Jack Of course we shall hurry, let's go
Belly I can hardly wait to see my stockings dialogue? Why?
Jack You go first down the stairs Now copy the sentences that tell something. Be care
Billy My how dark it is