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But soon a brown Ass, of respectable look,
The Pig replied, “Because I cannot jump.” “You are too Came trotting up also, to taste of the brook,
plump," said the Camel, “and I never saw so wide a Pig And to nibble a few of the daisies and grass:
who wobbled so from side to side, who could jump! Yet “How d'ye?” said the Cow; “How d'ye do?" said the ass. if you would trot to those trees which are two miles away,
twice a day — who can tell?” Then the Camel left. "Take a seat,” said the Cow, gently waving her hand; Next a Frog came by and said, "O Pig, what makes you "By no means, dear madam,” said he, “while you stand.” cry?” And the Pig replied in his bitterness, "Because I
Then stooping to drink, with a complaisant bow, cannot jump.” Then the Frog, grinning gleefully, thumped "Ma'am, your health,” said the Ass: — “Thank you, sir," his chest and said, “I'll teach you how to jump! You may said the Cow.
feel faint and you'll get bumps, but if you begin with some
thing small and end with a ten-foot wall, at last you'll When a few of these compliments more had been passed find you can jump!" They laid themselves down on the herbage at last; Thereupon the Pig rushed with all his might upon the And waiting politely (as gentlemen must),
ruined pump, rolled over like an empty sack, and broke The Ass held his tongue, that the Cow might speak first. his back.
The next day the Camel passed that way; and as he saw Then, with a deep sigh, she directly began,
the cold, still Pig, he said: “It needs something more “Don't you think, Mr. Ass, we are injured by man? fairy-like and slim to execute a jump!”
'Tis a subject which lies with a weight on my mind: We really are greatly oppressed by mankind.
In connection with Lewis Carroll one might mention
that in "Through the Looking-Glass,” Alice's ballad of “Pray what is the reason (I see none at all)
"The Walrus and the Carpenter" is a parallel of an Indian That I always must go when Jane chooses to call?
fable, “The Fox and the Crabs,” given by Raju Ramaswami, Whatever I'm doing ('tis certainly hard)
p. 28. After reading the ballad, the prose parallel might I'm forced to leave off, to be milked in the yard. be told by a pupil, and the moral point indicated.
It might be interesting for the child to make a list of "I've no will of my own, but must do as they please, fables in verse and other animal poems, some of which And give them my milk to make butter and cheese; might be read by class members at some special time. Sometimes I endeavor to kick down the pail;
The list might include among other poems, the following: Or give her a box on the ear with my tail.”
Selections from Mother Goose “But, Ma’am," said the Ass, “not presuming to teach The Tiger — Blake Oh dear, I beg pardon -- pray finish your speech;
The Lamb — Blake
The Owl — Tennyson Excuse my mistake,” said the complaisant swain,
The Bumblebee – Emerson “Go on, and I'll not interrupt you again.”
To the Cuckoo - Wordsworth
The Drowned Cat - Gruy “Why, sir, I was just then about to observe,
Girl and Fawn - Marvel Those hard-hearted tyrants no longer I'll serve;
The Melancholy Pig - Hunting of the Shark, Lewis Caroll But leave them forever to do as they please,
The Precocious Pig - Thomas Hood
The Mad Dog – Cowper
Binkie Rudyard Kipling
The Fox and the Crow -- Bernard Barton
The Cow and the Ass – Jane Taylor And then, “Not presuming to teach,” he began,
The Horse -- Jane Taylor "Permit me to say, since my thoughts you invite, The Donkey's Dialogue — Jefferys Taylor I always saw things in a different light.
Songs and Pictures, two complete volumes Randolph Caldecott
The Magpie's Nest — Charles and Mary Lamb, Posy Ring, p. 198 “That you afford man an important supply,
The Mountain and the Squirrel — Emerson, Posy Ring, p. 206
An Old Rat’s Tale - Nursery Rime, Children's First Book of Poelry No Ass in his senses would ever deny:
Ladybird — Carline Southey, Children's First Book of Poetry But then, in return, 'tis but fair to allow,
The City Mouse and the Garden Mouse — C. Rossetti, First Book of They are of some service to you, Mistress Cow.
The Fox - Old Ballad, Children's First Book of Poetry, Baker “ 'Tis their pleasant meadow in which you repose, The Lost Lamb — Westwood, Children's First Book of Poetry, Baker And they find you a shelter from wintry snows,
The Owl and the Pussy Cat Lear For comforts like these, we're indebted to man;
The Camel's Nose -- L. Sigourney, Posy Ring
Ant and Cricket - Posy Ring And for him, in return, should do all that we can.
The Lion and the Cub – John Gay, Golden Numbers
The Boy and the Wolf - Ingpen's Collection, p. 120 The Cow, upon this, cast her eyes on the grass,
The Fox at the Point of Death — John Gay, Ingpen, p. 128 Not pleased to be schooled in this way by an Ass
The Turkeys and the Ant. — J. Gay, Ingpen “Yet," said she to herself, “though he's not very bright, The Lion and the Mouse – 1. Taylor, Ingpen, p. 130
The Milkmaid — Jefferys Taylor, Ingpen, p. 130 I really believe that the fellow is right.”
The Priest and the Mulberry Tree -- T. L. Peacock, Ingpen, p 251
The Pineapple and the Bee — Cowper Another interesting reaction to the fable which may be
The Poet, the Oyster, and the Sensitive Plant - Cowper secured from children is to put a fable in verse into prose. The Pied Piper — Browning The literary translators of "Æsop” have been doing this To a Water Fowl — Bryant sort of thing and vice versa from the earliest times and
The Chambered Nautilus — Holmes children will enjoy doing it. Third and fourth grade The Dying Swan — Tennyson
The Stormy Petrel — Barry Cornwal
A Wren's Nest -- Wordsworth
Epitaph on a Hare - Couper
The Kitten at Play – Wordsworth
To a Butterfly – Wordsworth A Pig once sat all alone beside an old pump. As he sat The Grasshopper and the Cricket - Keats he moaned because he could not jump. A certain Camel heard him and said, "O Pig, why do you bellow so loud?” “The Fable of Jotham," quoted above, is really a Council
The Scales of Justice
- From an Old Print When people go to law about an uncertain title, and have spent their whole estates in the contest, nothing is more common than some little pettifogging attorney to step in, and secure it to himself. - Æsop's Fables.
In a dairy a Crow,
Having ventured to go, Some food for her young ones to seek,
Flew up in the trees,
With a fine piece of cheese, Which she joyfully held in her beak.
A Fox, who lived by,
To the tree saw her fly, And to share in the prize made a vow;
For having just dined,
He for cheese felt inclined, So he went and sat under the bough.
of Trees. It might be very interesting for a class to dramatize the various councils of the fables. There is a Council of Fishes in “The Cruel Crane Outwitted,” an Indian fable from the "Jatakas" in which a Crab calls a Council of all the Fishes of the Lake; the Council of Fish in the Japanese “The Happy Hunter and the Lucky Fisherman," called by the Princess Umi Ume; the Council of Mice in Æsop's “Belling the Cat"; the “Council of Horses,” by John Gay in “Golden Numbers,” p. 357; the Council of Birds in Grimm's Tale, “The Wren Chosen as King”; the Council of Frogs in Æsop's “King Log and King Stork”; the Council of Foxes in “The Fox Without a Tail,” Æsop; and the Council of Guineas in “Why Guinea Fowls are Speckled," in "Nights With Uncle Remus,” p. 196. Having once attempted a collection of this sort, much interest will develop in coming upon a new Council which may be added to the list from time to time.
A number of fairy tales illustrate how a tale may be an amplified fable. One of the best examples of this is the Indian "The Ass in the Lion's Skin," which has been already quoted. The moral of the tale is “The voice betrays the real character."
The fable serves admirably as an exercise in beginning grammar or in composition. A fourth grade class learning the parts of speech might use “The Dog and His Shadow," to distinguish nouns as name-words or verbs as action-words. “The Wolf and the Lamb” would serve very well to teach the use of quotation marks.
Another interesting fable exercise is to take an old fable and write a modification of it or find a modern instance of it. One might be able to find a modern instance of brothers going to law over an estate, so that when the legal proceedings were ended, the lawyers' fees used up the entire estate and the brothers received nothing. Then the following fable of “Æsop” might be told, which has especial interest as it has been illustrated in American lithography by N. Currier, entitled “The Scales of Justice.”
She was cunning, he knew,
But so was he too,
For he knew if she'd speak,
It must fall from her beak, So, bowing politely, began. “ 'Tis a very fine day”
(Not a word did she say); "The wind, I believe, ma'am, is south;
A fine harvest for peas;?
He then looked at the cheese, But the Crow did not open her mouth.
Sly Reynard, not tired,
Her plumage admired, “How charming! how brilliant its hue!
The voice must be fine,
Of a bird so divine,
"Believe me, I long
To hear a sweet song:” The silly Crow foolishly tries:
She scarce gave one squall,
When the cheese she let fall, And the Fox ran away with the prize.
Of coxcombs beware,
Try well each pretence,
And keep to plain sense, And then you have little to fear.
The Scales of Justice Once there were two Cats who, having secured a lump of cheese, could not decide which was to have the cheese. Therefore, in order to settle the dispute, they agreed to refer the matter to a Monkey as Judge.
The Monkey accepted the office readily, and, bringing a pair of scales, put a part into each scale. "Let me see, he said, "aye — this lump outweighs the other"; and immediately he bit off a considerable piece in order to reduce it to an equilibrium. The opposite scale was now heavier, which gave the conscientious Judge good reason for a second mouthful.
"Hold, hold!” said the two Cats, who began to be alarmed for the event. “Give us our shares and we are satisfied.” “If you are satisfied,” replied the Monkey, “Justice is not; a cause of this intricate nature is by no means so easily determined.” Whereupon he continued to nibble first one piece and then the other, until the poor Cats, seeing their cheese rapidly diminishing, begged the Monkey to give himself no further trouble, but to deliver to them what remained.
“Not so fast, I beseech ye, Friends," replied the Monkey; “we owe justice to ourselves as well as to you. What remains is due to me in right of my office."
Thus saying, the Judge crammed the whole into his mouth, and with great gravity dismissed the court.
A Snow Song There's a wonderful weaver
High up in the air, And he weaves a white mantle
For cold earth to wear. With the wind for his shuttle,
The cloud for his loom, How he weaves, how he weaves,
In the light, in the gloom!
He decks bush and tree!
A cover lays he;
On pillar and post,
To a grim, silent ghost.
The Fox and the Crow The Fox and the Crow,
In prose, I well know, Many good little girls can rehearse:
Perhaps it will tell
Pretty nearly as well,
But this wonderful weaver
Grows weary at last, And the shuttle lies idle
That once flew so fast. Then the sun peeps abroad
On the work he has done, And cries, "I'll unravel it all,
Just for fun!” – Sol.
Seasonal Problems for Grade Four
a snow man.
2 doz. candles at $.25 dozen, 1 doz. poinsettas at $.10 each,
4 rolls of red crepe paper at $.20 each. URING the month of December everybody is busy pre- Perhaps mother is the busiest person of all, for she has so paring for Christmas. The spirit of the Christmas much baking to do, and candies to make. season prevails everywhere.
Mother usually bakes 4 or 5 pans of sugar cakes. Each Mother Nature reminds us that Christmas is coming by pan holds 16 cakes. How many sugar cakes would there be sending Jack Frost with snow, ice and cold winter weather. in 5 pans? What fun the children then have!
Suppose 12 cakes got burned to a crisp. How many While the children are sleeping the snow falls thick and edible cakes remain? fast. In the morning they must clear the paths, and then If mother bakes twice as many ginger cakes as sugar they will have a jolly time building a snow fort and making cakes, how many ginger cakes will she bake?
The spice cookies are made in various shapes. If mother The pavement in front of their house is 100 feet long and makes 37 star shape, 54 diamond shape and 29 round cakes, 4 feet wide. If the snow is 2 feet deep, how many cubic How many spice cookies will there be? feet of snow will the children have to remove to clear the She makes 15 pounds of candy - 33 pounds of butter pavement?
creams, 21 pounds of chocolate mints, and the balance The fort and snow man will be made from the snow in hard candy. How many pounds of hard candy will which is cleared from the pavement.
there be? Sixteen boys try to hold the fort. Each boy makes 18 snow- Mother also must do the marketing and buy nuts and balls. How many snowballs will they all make together? fruit. Since the mixed nut are often inferior, she will buy
After 169 snowballs are thrown the fort is captured by several kinds and mix them herself. If she buys 1 lb. of the other boys. How many snowballs remain?
butternuts at $.38, 1 lb. of almonds at $.40, 1 lb. of hazel With these remaining snowballs they will try to knock at $.33, 1 lb. of English walnuts at $.45, 1 lb. of pecans at the hat off the snowman they have made; 33 balls strike the $.30, and mixes them herself, what will be the average body of the snow man, 58 balls miss the mark entirely, 17 cost per pound? How does this compare with the market balls strike the head, and the remaining balls hit the hat. price of mixed nuts? How many balls hit the mark? By this time nothing much The fruit will cost $4.50; } of this amount is to be spent remains of the snow man.
for oranges; § is to be spent for apples; į is to be spent for Several days before Christmas the farmer is very busy grapes; } is to be spent for figs and dates, and the remainder preparing to go to town with his seasonal produce. is to be spent for bananas. How much money will be spent
A load of Christmns trees must be cut, holly wreaths for oranges; for apples; for grapes; dates and figs and must be made, and moss must be dyed. All this must be bananas? taken to town, beside many other farm products, such as Not only in the home is there great preparation for Christturkeys, potatoes, apples, butter and eggs.
mas, but in the school and church as well. He sells a load of trees for $30.00. There are 24 trees on
The teacher usually likes to surprise her pupils with some the wagon. How much is each tree worth?
remembrance at Christmas. The first grade teacher is The farmer's wife makes 48 holly wreaths to be sold at going to have a little Christmas party for her pupils. The $.35 each. How much money will she receive for them? older boys and girls of the school are going to bring a
The farmer's son dyes some sawdust green, to be used as tree and trim it for the pleasure of the small tots. One moss in Christmas gardens. He will sell the moss at $.10 side of the room is going to be covered with imitation a quart, If he sells a bushel of moss, how much money brick paper to resemble a fireplace. The teacher is going will he make?
to hang a filled stocking for each pupil at this fireplace. How much would the trees, moss and holly wreaths net? How many square feet of brick paper will it take to cover In addition to this, the farmer reaps quite a profit from his a space 18 feet by 41 feet? regular produce.
If 36 stockings are to be hung along the 18-foot space, The children in the city are very busy helping their how many inches apart must they be hung? parents, and secretly preparing gifts for the various members If each stocking contains a chocolate bar costing $.05, an of the family.
apple $.03, an orange $.06, 2 sugar cakes $.10, and some John has made a sewing basket at school for mother, but peanuts $.05, how much does it cost to fill a stocking? he must equip it with the necessary articles.
What will it cost to fill 36 stockings? He needs 2 spools of cotton at $.10 a spool, 2 spools How many yards of tarlatan will the teacher need to darning cotton at $.08 spool, 1 thimble $.10, 2 packages make 36 stockings, if one yard makes 6 stockings? needles at $.25, 1 pair scissors at $1.50, 1 emory ball at $.15, When the teacher sees the joy reflected in the little * yd. of cretonne for lining at $.69. How much will it children's faces, she will feel well repaid for her trouble. cost to equip the basket?
The children in the Sunday-school also look forward to Sister is busy making handkerchiefs. How many 12- the Christmas treat. This, however, means work for the inch handerkchiefs can she cut from a yard of 36-inch Sunday-school teachers, for the candy boxes must be filled material? Handkerchief linen costs $2.50 a yard. What
and the tree must be trimmed. will each handkerchief cost?
How many pounds of candy must be bought to fill 198 Mother is going to make a silk shirt for father. If she half-pound boxes? buys 34 yards of silk at $1.98 a yd., how much will she How many dozen oranges will be needed if each child have to pay for the silk?
receives 1 orange? Alice is going to make a sweater for her brother. She The tree and the ornaments have been donated, but it will needs 8 balls of wool. What will the wool cost at $.65 a ball? be necessary to hire the electric lights to illuminate the tree.
The children can help mother a great deal by shopping If they get 16 sets of tree lights, with 8 bulbs on each set, for her. Christmas tree ornaments and decorations must how many lights will there be on the tree? be bought.
After such extensive preparation we are sure that no one Find the total cost of the following articles: 20 yds will be forgotten and that all will be happy on Christmas tinsel, at $.05 yard, 4 doz. Christmas balls at $1.25 dozen, Day.
Composition with Beginners
Mabel Styring VERY pupil needs to be able to express himself accu- questions. These questions must be thoughtfully worked rately in writing. This requires much practice and out by the teacher so that the story will be developed
there is no better practice than in reproducing the logically.
Sly Fox and Black Crow
Where did Black Fox walk? How did he feel? Whom in the primary grades. To the young teacher this detailed had he caught for his supper? How had Smart Little Red method of presenting a story for written reproduction may
Hen escaped? Where had she flown? be of help.
What did Sly Fox say about Little Red Hen? For whom
must I look? What shall I have then? Sly Fox and Black Crow
What did Sly Fox hear? What did he see? What did Sly Fox walked slowly through the woods. He felt Black Crow have in her mouth? How did she get the hungry and angry. He had caught Little Red Hen for his
cheese? supper. Smart Little Red Hen had cut a hole in his bag What did Sly Fox think about the cheese? What did he and had flown away home.
say to himself? Where did he go? “Red Hen is as smart as I,” said Sly Fox. “I shall look
What did he exclaim to the crow? What did he say for some one who is silly. Then I shall have a good meal.”
about her feathers? Like what did he say she could sing? Sly Fox heard a loud “caw." He looked up and saw a
What did he ask her to do? black crow. Black Crow had a fine piece of cheese in her What should Black Crow have known? Why did she mouth. She had stolen it.
not stop to think? Why did she open her mouth? What Sly Fox thought that he would like the cheese. “Per- happened to the cheese? haps I can get it by a trick," he said to himself. He came What had Sly Fox expected? What did he do with the near the tree and began to talk to the crow.
cheese? Why did he run away? What does this story “How beautiful you are!” he exclaimed. “What soft
teach? white feathers you have! I have heard that you can sing e The story is corrected by the child from his hektolike a lark. Handsome bird, will you sing for me?"
graphed copy. Black Crow should have known that her loud “caw, caw,” was not a song. She was so flattered that she did not stop
STEPS FOR THE THIRD DAY to think. She opened her mouth to sing. Alas, down fell The work of the third day is to write the story from sugthe cheese to the ground!
gestive words and phrases. That was just what Sly Fox expected. He picked up the a The story is read by the class. cheese and ran away. He did not want to hear the rest of b The words and phrases are placed on the blackboard,
arranged as: Poor, silly Black Crow!
walked hungry and angry caught STEPS FOR THE FIRST DAY
had cut a hole
home The story is written in script on the blackboard. as smart as I” shall look
good meal." 6 Each child is given a hektographed copy of the story
by a trick," carefully written in script on the same size
paper as came near to talk he is expected to use for his composition.
beautiful feathers like a lark sing for me?" c The story is read by the teacher.
should have known flattered opened d Its meaning is discussed by the class.
expected picked rest of the song. Poor, e The story is read in concert by the class. f Each sentence is read with its marks of punctuation. c The story is corrected by the child as before. & The story is carefully copied from the hektographed sheet.
STEPS FOR THE FOUTH DAY h The hektographed copy is returned by the child. The work of the fourth day is to write the story from
memory. STEPS FOR THE SECOND DAY
a All previous copies are put away. The work of the second day is to write the story from b The story is written without comment.