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Lincoln, and James Whitcomb Riley. They are beauties. Your pupils easily will sell them for 10 cents each. Return the $5.00 to us and we will send a beautiful silk U. S. Flag, 32 x 48 inches, heavy quality, mounted on staff with gilded ornament FREE.

is the flag for all practical purposes. Carry it in your class parade! Rally round it as you sing *The Star Spangled Banner." For the sale of 50 buttons at 10c each --- FREE.

OFFER NO. 3 To proudly place next to the Stars and Stripes you will want a set of our Allies' Flags, each 16x24 inches, mounted on staffs with ornaments. There are

OFFER NO. 5 five of them, American, French, Eng- Americans to-day are talking of Washington and Liberty, Lincoln and Freelish, Belgian, and Italian. New history dom, and Wilson and Humanity. You will be delighted with our wonderful is being made so fast every day that it "Oil Process" paintings of these great Americans. They are wonder pictures is hard to keep pace with events of

showing the artists' touch found in the original,

the brush marks, rich colorings,

and pigments just as they were laid on the canvas. As durable and beautiful tremendous importance. As battles are as the originals. Can be washed and will never fade. These portraits are fought and won it will help you show the 13 x 16 inches in a 1/2 inch gilded frame. For the sale of 35 buttons you may colors of the nations who are fighting that

choose one picture, for the sale of 60 buttons two pictures, and for the sale of 75

buttons we will send all three pictures — FREE. freedom shall not perish from the earth. These flags of the Allies are beautiful for inside ornamentation. We will send them

OFFER NO. 6 for the sale of 35 buttons at 10 cents each — FREE.

This Giant Pencil Sharpener, not the small kind for standard pencils only, but for every pencil from the smallest to the largest. Does not break the lead and saves time as well. For both hard and soft pencils. For the sale of 25 buttons at 10 cents, we will send you the Pencil Sharpener - FREE.

Twenty years ago we began this plan of giving flags OFFER NO. 4

to Schools FREE. We are the oldest company of the kind. Established 1898. Over 50,000 satisfied cus

tomers among teachers throughout the United States. We have secured sets of handsome silk flags of the Allies, five of them, Ameri

MAIL ORDER FLAG CO. can, French, English, Belgian, and Italian. They are each 12 x 18 inches 107 Meridian Street, Anderson, Indiana and mounted on staffs with ornaments. You will be glad to use these beautiful MAIL ORDER FLAG CO., 107 Meridian St., Anderson, Ind. Hags anywhere. They are rich enough

Gentlemen: – Send me post paid

Flag, Washington, Lincoln to grace any well appointed home no

or James Whitcomb Riley Buttons (cross out the kind you don't want). As less than the school room. They re- soon as sold I will remit you the proceeds and you are to send me, all charges call the glories won by Joffre, Haig,

prepaid

(State the number of offer you accepi) Pershing, and the brave boys on the battle

Sign your name and address in full: fronts of the Marne and along the Belgian

Name front. You will want the tri-color of glorious France which stood firm against Address the selfish cruelties of imperialism and City

State saved the civilization of the world. You will want the flag of Britannia's fleet

Teachers who have secured flags for their own schools are invited to write which has kept the German Navy bottled for our special offer showing how they casily can make considerable extra

money up. For the sale of 50 buttons at 10

Mail Order Flag Co., 107 Meridian St., Anderson, Ind. cents each we will send the lot — FREE.

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COPPERHEAD

WITH LIONEL BARRYMORE

Founded on the play of the same name

by Augustus Thomas, from a story by Frederick Landis

Adapted and directed

by Charles Maigne

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out.

THE future of America lies in the hearts of the

young. The way their ideas are formed about our country is one of the biggest things in their education.

The screen has never given a finer example of its power to instil love of country into See “The Copperhead?' and you will find young hearts than this stirring Paramount Artcraft Picture, “The Copperhead,” which had just been made when the above Resolu- realize that the strongest waters of patriotism

And in the finding out your pupils will tion was passed.

run deep and silent. All you have taught about history, good

“The Copperhead” is full of stirring, miligovernment and good citizenship will be

tary action and excitement. illuminated by the exploits of Milt Shanks. Milt Shanks loved his country well enough

You will enjoy it every bit as much as the not only to risk dying for it, but to live for it, living for it through all kinds of odium, Verify the date it is coming to your theatre eating his heart out in secret, not able to and arrange for the whole school to go. tell wife, child or friend.

Demonstrate to exhibitors of motion pictures What was it the President asked Milt that they really have your co-operation when

thev show better Motion Pictures.

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young folk.

to do?

Every teacher who cares for beautiful pictures in her school

room should read ALL of ihis advertisement Schoolroom Decoration Months

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January and February

The Perry Pictures

We are calling these two months “Schoolroom Decoration Months.” Look about your schoolroom and see if it does not need some new pictures.

Childhood is the most impressionable period in life. Your pupils will never forget many of the beautiful pictures on the schoolroom walls — if such pictures are there—but will carry them as a beautiful memory

George Washington throughout life.

It is well worth the cost to surround childhood with
beauty. It is one of the privileges and duties of the
public schools.

Our NEW 1920 CATALOGUE is ready.
Song of the Lark Breton
IS YOUR SCHOOLROOM DOING IT?

64 pages, 1600 miniature illustrations, 54 pic

tures about 2 x 274 each, a Ten Cent picture For $1.00 each in lots of two or more, or for $1.25 for a single picture, we furnish really beautiful pictures in

on paper 9x12, a colored bird picture, etc. a great variety of subjects. Each picture is on paper 22 x 28 inches, and most of the pictures themselves are about 14 x 17 inches. Tho price of these largo pictures will be advanced later. ORDER NOW!

Price, 15 cents. Among the choicest subjects are:

(Please do not send for the Catalogue without Sir Galahad, by Watts Song of the Lark, by Breton

“Can't You Talk?" by Holmes

enclosing the 15 cents, in coin or Stamps.] The Mill, by Ruysdael The Angelus, by Millet

A Helping Hand, by Renouf
The Shepherdess, by Lerolle Christ and the Doctors, by Hofmann Stratford-on-Avon, Shakespeare's Home,
The Gleaners, by Millet The Lake, by Corot

England (Unusually beautiful)

Order Pictures for February Birthdays
Spring, by Corot
Saved, by Landseer
Sistine Madonna, by Raphael

NOW! Don't wait,
Baby Stuart, by Van Dyck

Washington Lincoln LongfellowIf you are not acquainted with these fifteen subjects, present a beautiful framed picture to the school. You Lowell — Dickens.

may find several parents or other citizens who will be for 30 cents we will send you these 15 pictures in the

20 pictures of these 554 x 8 size, and from these you can select the ones glad to do this. The donor's name may be attached

5 men, their homes, etc., for 40 cents. you like best in the 22 x 28 size. We will send you a to the picture by a card or a plate. You may be sur- Size 512x8. No two alike. Or 30 smaller list of more than 150 subjects, 22 28, for a stamp. prised to see how many friends of the school will gladly each present a framed picture.

pictures, 3x372, for 30 cents. How to Raise the Money

Send to us for the pictures and have them framed in One Cent Size. 3x342. For 30 or more. If allowed, let the pupils bring money, perhaps no your home town or city. more than ten cents each in any case.

But Do It Now, and let the pupils have the pictures Two Cont Size. 572x8. For 15 or more. Perhaps a better way is to ask citizens if they will to enjoy for several months in this school year. Ten Cent Size. 10x 12. For 5 or more. We Sell 10 of These Choice Pictures, at 95 Cents Each, for $9.50

In the 10x12 size, send for the above five, Think of Buying Really Beautiful Pictures for Framing at $1.00 Each, in lots of two or more! except Dickens (not published in that size) You may want a very few portraits, as Washington, Lincoln, President Wilson, Longfellow.

and for President Wilson. The 5 for 50 cents,

These cost 31.25 each for any number.

postpaid.
The Perry Pictures Company, Box 1, Malden, Massachusetts

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PRIMARY EDUCATI
- AN INVESTMENT
Published Monthly, September to June inclusive
Entered at Post-office, Boston, as Second-class matter
Subscriptions, $2.00 per year. Single copies, 25 cents. Canada

postage, 25 cents per year; foreign postage, 40 cents per year Copyright, 1920, by PRIMARY EDUCATION COMPANY BOSTON

50 BROMFIELD STREET CHICAGO

2457-2459 PRAIRIE AVENUE NEW YORK

18 E. 17TH STREET SAN FRANCISCO

717 MARKET STREET CANADA

MCCLELLAND & GOODCHILD, TORONTO AUSTRALIA EDUCATIONAL SUPPLY Co., MELBOURNE

FIRST LESSONS IN BUSINESS

By J. A. Bexell. $ .68. The first volume of Lippincott's thrift text series — of vital interest and instruction to pupils of the grammar grades and junior high

schools. AMERICAN LEADERS (Books I and II)

By Walter Lefferts. $ .92 each. History story texts, describing the lives of some 40 national leaders, written in consonance with the recommendations of Committee

of Eight of the American Historical Association. WATERBOYS AND THEIR COUSINS

By Charles Dickens Lewis. $.60. A new and different

nature reader, for grades four and five. VERSE FOR PATRIOTS

By Jean Broadhurst. $1.12. To encourage good
citizenship-splendid contribution to High School

English.
APPLIED ECONOMIC BOTANY

By Melville T. Cook. $1.60. A text sufficiently techni-
cal so that there can be no mistaking its meaning and

yet elementary enough to make its meaning clear to all. HORTICULTURE

By Kary C. Davis, Ph.D. $1.75. This text obviates
the necessity of the student purchasing several books
to cover the field, and it is sure to prove an immense
time saver for both student and instructor.

Partial List of Contents in This Issue
These are what make POPULAR EDUCATOR
An INVESTMENT, not an EXPENSE

February Issue, 1920
The Blaming Habit .

75 Our Little Citizens

76 Page for a Color Booklet

79 Projects in Primary Grades. III

80 Words of Abraham Lincoln

83 English in the Grades. VI

84 A Hygiene Lesson

86 The Shepherdess

87 Studies in Art Appreciation. V

88 Picture Study ....

89 Schoolroom Decoration

90 The Story Stand-Ups

90 Graded Course in Seat Work

and Second Grades 92 Short Division in the Third Grade.

95 Popular Ballad Studies for Grade III

96 Supplementary Reading and Language Lessons

104 A Page for Srory-Tellers

105 Carol's Nextra Day

109 The Pied Piper

111 Ideas to Try

112 February Games

116 Being Like Washington

118 Little Pilgrims in Holland

120

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

PHILADELPHIA
Boston Chicago Atlanta Montreal London

By ETTA AUSTIN BLAISDELL and Mary FRANCES

BLAISDELL

THE RHYME AND STORY PRIMER

“Story-approach” method, with emphasis on phrasing. Mother Goose vocabulary. All pictures in colors. Price, 42 cents. RHYME AND STORY FIRST READER

"Story-approach" method. Emphasis on phrasing. Profusely illustrated in color. Price, 48 cents. WIDE AWAKE JUNIOR: An Easy Primer

Really the easiest primer - and the largest. Carefully graded. All pictures in color. Vocabulary, 200 words. Price, 40 cents. The new book in the series of Wide-Awake Readers.

When Overwork

Pulls You Down and the nervous system has been reduced below normal, a teaspoonful of

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Number Games for Primary Grades (750) By Ada Van Stone Harris and Lillian McLean Waldo. 125 pages. Cloth Illustrated. Contains 59 number games designed to create an active interest in number and to make the child skillful in applying it directly and naturally through the "make-believe" element and the idea of friendly contest.

Nonsense Rymes and Animal Stories (500) By Alhambra G. Deming. 65 pages. Cloth. 35 illustrations in black and color. For language teaching in the primary grades. The attempt here has been to incorporate the commonly misused expressions into a form which shall so appeal to children that they will voluntarily give much repetition to the correct form. Animal-Land Children (550) By Margaret Flora. 128 pages. Cloth. With over 50 illustrations and frontis. piece in colors. The author, with rare tact, portrays the various characteristics of these wild-folk children in a way to teach little human folks some valuable le ssons.

“3 All material, both in te Manual and in the readers, encourages and promotes good tone production. There are no words which are unworthy or which injure or prevent good tone production.

4 The attractiveness of the songs, their musicianly and artistic quality, and their appeal to children. The thoughts and words are perfectly in accor) with the spirit of song.

"5 The really wonderful way in which the rhythmic accents of the poetry coincide with the musical accents. I have not found this important feature in any other series.

"6 The systematic development of sight-reading, ear-training and song interpretation.

“7 The presentation of all the necessary musical theory in connection with the lessons.

Father Thrift and His Animal Friends (550) By Joseph C. Sindelar. 128 pages. Cloth. With 40 illustrations in black and color. A fascinating story for children, dealing with a subject which is of prime interest at the present moment, namely, the teaching of the habit of saving. Intended for reading in the second and third grades.

“8 The necessary aid to the grade teacher in preparation of the lesson.”

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A MONTHLY JOURNAL FOR PRIMARY TEACHERS VOLUME XXVIII

FEBRUARY 1920

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The Blaming Habit

Jessie Althaus

Primary Teacher, Franklin School, Muscatine, Iowa ID you ever have it, the blaming habit? Are a teacher to sit at a desk, book open in front of her, you justified in it? Might not some one have asking question after question from the book? Have the same criticism regarding your work? What you ever known teachers to not even have an aim for shall we do about it?

any one lesson of the day? On the other hand, have you After the High School has blamed the grammar grades not known teachers who spent time on preparation and for deficiencies in certain lines; after the higher grades were ready to assign certain topics in certain books for have loaded deficiencies on the lower grades, and so on a pupil or pupils to look up and report? No teacher down to the first grade teacher, who, if there is no kinder- can be thinking about her clothes, social engagements, garten, has put all shortcomings on the parents and home; or debts and be doing justice to each pupil, for as sure as what have we done to remedy the evil? The fact that she does, the unprepared pupils will slip through to-day's the above criticism is often justly given makes the work; neither can these pupils secure by a quick review thoughtful, efficient teacher stop and consider whether what was missed, and so these pupils go on with each child knows just what he is required to know that one thing a weak link in the chain. A certain for her grade; though we as teachers are not respon- child got to the eighth grade, where the teacher soon sible for what the child brings to us mentally, we discovered him trying to subtract by beginning at the are responsible for the developing of what he brings left. The seventh grade teacher too was aware of this and for what he has when he leaves us. Just imagine deficiency. Why was he allowed to get as far as the eighth the result if each teacher from the kindergarten and first grade with that wrong method? What shall we say about grades up, knew absolutely that each child had compre- such a condition? Does it not seem probable that some hended and mastered, to the best of his ability, the lessons where -- it may be down in the second grade where of each and every day. If the teacher were an efficient one this child learned subtraction without “borrowing". she would remember that to-day certain ones were not well though he had the answers correct on paper handed in, grounded in the new subject taughtand would make conditions or even at the blackboard, he did not know the process? such that those pupils would again have a chance to see Who knows if this child had been taught the value of the same subject in a new guise. This may sound hard, units, tens and hundreds, etc? Had this been made but it is practical, and no teacher has any right to deprive definite and plain he would never have tried to take thouany child of his right to know certain things as part of sands from hundreds and so on. But you ask, “How his work, neither has she any right to send pupils unpre- can a teacher know all these things about every child?” pared to another teacher, who must then be burdened Had each teacher felt that she was responsible for what with the work of the grade below when she needs all her each child has when he leaves her, this boy would time for her own grade.

never, never have reached the eighth grade with such Think what it would mean to have each child, accord- results. Here is little John, who did not have as good ing to his own ability, rooted and grounded in what he a start in life either physically or mentally, as William. has been taught. The teacher ought to hold each child Shall more time be put upon William because he eagerly responsible on every occasion for what he has been taught; absorbs what is taught and makes it part of himself e. g., after the use of the comma has been thoroughly than upon little John? If the fact is true that the test taught, everything written by the pupil should use the of a teacher's ability is not in teaching bright children, comma, otherwise it is wrong for the teacher to accept because they will learn in spite of a teacher, then we see it. Concert work, too often not wisely used, is a good that little John needs all he can get. Shalí it be taken way to hide ignorance of a subject. Who does not remem- for granted that those new words presented to-day sank ber his own experiences? How glad we were, when not as deeply into John's mind as William's and never an prepared, to have every one in the class "yell” out the opportunity made to see just how much is part of John? answer. My, what a relief! How afraid we were that These opportunities are golden for the good teacher, for we might hear our own name! No teacher can be sure to-morrow she says, “We will make a garden (Children that every child knows the table of sevens if day after in circle) and plant some flowers” (words on paper). day the work is given in concert.

Different children pick as many flowers as they know: Again a teacher may be sure that something is very then comes John's turn, who only picks up two words radically wrong with herself and methods when the greater which he knows. To-morrow John must be given a chance

to review these two words he knows and also learn a new part of a class fails to grasp the point and the recitation falls ilat; too many times teachers do not take time to one. To-day Bernice does not know bed because she does plan their work, they trust to luck. Have you ever known not know the sound of “b.” The wise teacher immediately

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