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associates bed and “b” with Bernice and stores this away class pupil, but cannot sound with the A class; of till the next phonics lesson; where the thought of the course he is pleased to think he can come to the B story concerning the bed is recalled and the word bed class phonics too - and thus be doing two classes in one put on the board, the sound of “b” is given in other words day; think of it! by other pupils, and so on, until finally Bernice finds “b” Many; many 'illustrations can be given to prove that on the chart and can: pronounce ever so many words if in a room of over fifty pupils, the teacher can, in this with “b.” The next day the consonant “b? appears practical way, associate the needs and lacks and good upon the board among the other review sounds. Now, points of each child in her mind she will be causing the was all that worth while?

pupils to really and truly know. What a wonderful thing To-day the “B” class go to the board to count to one it is to see the child when he awakens to a realization hundred. Edward turrs his four the wrong way: while that he has power within him self to progress. the others continue their work the wise teacher helps If each teacher knew her own work as well as that of Edward to make his fours right and by so doing she saved the grades above and below, she could use that of the the child and future teacher both much trouble. Was grade below as a fount of stored away supply from which it worth while? Another child makes “m” with only she could draw at any needed time and use the work of two “overs” at the board; what a small matter for the grade above as a beacon, and children would not the teacher to guide the hand to make three “overs. have to suffer from indiscreet remarks from their It took a little time, but how much trouble it saved! It teachers. only took a minute to whisper to dirty little Joe that Let us remember that schools are for the children to-morrow he might surprise you by having clean hands and that it is a wonderful and yet a sacred privilege to and face and so help sister while Mother is sick. Here train these little souls who will soon be men and women, is James, who has come from another school as an “A” better, let us daily pray, than we ourselves.

Our Little Citizens

Etta V. Leighton
Civic Secretary, National Security League

(Book rights reserved)
Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul,

up their strong characters. Be sure to bring in Washing As the swift seasons roll!

tons Rules of Conduct; by citing him, you can inspire your Leave thy low-vaulted past Holmes

children to deliberately set themselves to forming good

habits. After years of exhortation, the schools and the public are awake to their joint responsibility in child body

Washington Helps Americanization building. They have gotten down to definite procedure, to rules of health and standards of well being, and planned conditions – be sure the children see the connection.

Certain of the rules of conduct apply to present-day diet lists. We have got to do the same thing in civics – we must definitely plan for character building. We have

Think before you speak; pronounce not imperfectly nor bring out talked a long time about it; now it is time to do something your words too hastily but orderly and distinctly.

In this day of destruction, this day of wild talk about When another speaks, be attentive yourself, and disturb not overthrow, this day of unrest in which our children are the audience. If any hesitate in his words, help him not, nor prompt

him without being desired; interrupt him not nor answer him until growing up, we must, by “precept on precept,” show that

his speech be ended the only permanent helpful change is through growth,

Undertake not what you cannot perform, but be careful to keep development, construction, not through destruction. Our

your promise. dangers exist because men of weak and faulty character are Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire

called conscience. easily led astray by wily agitators. We must make building character one of our main aims in citizenship teaching. There would be no wild mis-statements of facts — no

howling down of audiences, no breaking of contracts, and Our nation needs a basic loyal following of good citizenship. In the mistaken conception that good character will come spontaneously

no attempts to profit at the expense of our neighbors, if as the fruitage of intellectuality and scholarship we have neglected these four rules of Washington were lived up to. the moral training of our people until we witness today the threatened Building up our homes and our towns is universally disruption of social, industrial and governmental systems, with all recognized as civics work — building up our personality is that goes to make civilization. One or two hours a week of religious instruction in church or Sunday school, reaching but a meager per

equally a civic duty.. We have no right to let the gates centage of our youth, is wholly inadequate to the character building

of our fence sag off the hinges, we have no right to a dirty of a nation. The absence of real home life, under strong parental yard, equally we have no right to act and appear slovenly. care and discipline, in the congested sections of our great cities wholly We have Clean Up and Paint Up Campaigns for our town; precludes that moral training in the home that characterized the

we would do well to have Brace Up Campaigns for ourpioneer period. The one opportunity still open is found in our public school system, where attendance is compulsory and where all the

selves. Tell the children that all during February we are necessary organization and power for moral training exist, awaiting going to try to be like Lincoln and Washington, careful in only proper direction. -- H. o. Rillenhouse, Commander, Ú. S. N.

our speech, kind, hard working and helpful. Remind them (Retired)

that Washington, born in good circumstances, worked hard,

just as Lincoln did, that he was willing to undertake hard In February we can set the children consciously at

and dangerous tasks like his journey to the French Fort, work, building up their own characters by properly teaching

that he worked hard on his estate and kept strict accounts Washington and Lincoln. Oh, what a waste, year after

and was a good business man, and that he shared the year, what a mass of irrelevant facts, totally unrelated to the child lives are taught, though by selection and relation, privations of his soldiers. an actual contact with the spirit of the great leaders can

The Secret of Success be made, so that their lives actively and decisively influence the thought of our little citizens!

Lincoln, born poorer than anyone we know, won success. Show how Washington and Lincoln, starting at opposite Washington won success, so did Benjamin Franklin, so do ends of the economic scale, both by conscious effort built thousands every year, and almost every one of them won

Primary Education, February 1920

by work. James A. Garfield, who, born poor, died President our pupils realize about Lincoln and others who rise in life.of the United States, said:

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that they rise not for themselves alone but that every step

they take upwards makes progress possible for others. A pound of pluck is worth a ton of lucki

Civic Clubs They know that Ruskin was right when he said:

Action is the goal of civics teaching. - Henry Suzullo If you want knowledge, you must toil for it; it good, you must To get action of the best kind keep your clubs - your toil for it; and if pleasure, you must toil for it. Pleasure comes “Civic Guards" - alive. Wisconsin has state-wide orthrough toil, and not by self-indulgence, and indolence. When one

ganization of school clubs and Cincinnati has a system of gets to love his work his life is a happy one. - Ruskin

school clubs and citizen co-operation that is of the greatest I hear some teacher say, “Does Miss Leighton expect

value. The co-operation from outside comes from a us to teach such civics to first and second grade children?

Committee of Sponsors of the Chamber of Commerce and The answer is, “Yes." The substance of all of this attempt

of the Woman's City Club. Cincinnati's announcements at character building is easily understood even by a child of

note that “Lessons do not often function in out of school five. He knows he can do almost anything he attempts if

life club activities do." he tries hard enough. Our children are living in an atmo

The club president attends the Board of Directors meetsphere of disgust and whining. Statistics show that hardlyings, and brings back a report of his own school. His anyone is working up to his pre-war capacity, and we must,

attendance brings him into contact with club presidents through our civics teaching, build up the ideal of the

from the other schools and helps to promote unity. The American citizen as "able, energetic and willing.”

outings and week-end hikes are features of club life.

They have a paper, The Civic and Vocational League Child Personality

Herald, which is issued on the second Tuesday of each

month. It is used to disseminate ideas developed within Then, too, there is no more favorable time than child.

the clubs. hood to begin to build personality. We all know heart

There are over 4000 ldren in the Civic Voca na rending tales of misunderstood children. Why, then, do we

League. The dues are two cents per member. The chilnot help our children to bring out and develop the better

dren are supposed to handle finances of the club by check side of their characters, basing our appeal, not on the

and on the model of large organizations. selfish ground of greater personal attractiveness, but on the noble foundation of better citizenship?

Parliamentary Law Makes for Americanism Some one has called February the "high tide of the school's patriotism,” and there is no doubt that the In the regular meetings of the Civic League, the children recurring of Grand Army Flag Day, celebrated on Lincoln's

observe order and decorum. They adhere to parliamentary Birthday, February 12, and Washington Birthday celebra- procedure. The importance of this is evident in the antions have been potent factors in teaching love of country.

nouncement that a large and radical meeting held to vote The wise teacher will not let these celebrations become on a matter of the utmost importance, refused even to have hackneyed. Every year she will try to do some library

a chairman or put on record the motion for vote in any reading herself on the lives of these two great shapers of our regular fashion. Of course, there was no real registering country, and will set the children at work to bring in from of opinion in a noisy mob. Most of the decisions of radical home papers and magazines articles for the Washington bodies are merely the say-so of a few vociferous leaders and Lincoln File. Most valuable material, especially by and men have been howled down in I. W. W. meeting for way of pictures, can often be obtained from magazines. even suggesting that the leaders should account for funds

in their hands. It is of the utmost importance that our Public Appeals to Patriotism

children be trained in the orderly process of learning the We learned during the war that instead of subtracting register that opinion, if we are to continue to govern by the

opinion of a body and the legal way of casting votes to from our efficiency, community service vitalized all the will of the majority expressed in accordance with law. activities of the school. There is every reason now, while

The Cincinnati plan brings the child into direct contact sedition is rampant, for our attempting to bring our Lincoln

with opportunities for civic service; he learns that "his coand Washington celebrations to the notice of as many as

operation is as important as that of the adult." Anyone possible. If it is at all feasible, the public should be

who has seen the beautiful earnestness with which these invited to witness the program. Any ordinary sized school

young citizens work know that they will in the future can secure enough pictures having to do with the lives of

continue to be found on the side of righteousness. Lincoln and Washington to make several interesting window exhibits, which store-keepers will be glad to give space to,

Valentine Day beside the placards inviting the public to attend the school observance. Even if you can't invite the public, school This year Valentine Day will fall on Saturday, but it is window displays are worth while.

worth while, if you can possibly spare the time, to devote

thirty minutes of the last Friday to a Valentine Party. Invite the G. A. R.

Of course, the drawing period has been given up to the

making of valentines, and we teachers are glad to note the February 12 is G. A. R. Flag Day, and wherever possible almost total disappearance of the so-called “comic” that veterans of the Civil War and members of the Women's was intended to hurt and wound the recipient. Valentine Relief Corps should be honored guests at the celebration. Day can be one of civic value if it teaches "artistic kindThe G. A. R. are fast passing on. They saved the Union

ness,” the pretty way of adding to the happiness of our and their patriotic citizenship in the last fifty years en- neighbors. Largely due to school celebrations, Valentine's titles them to respect and is already the accepted model of day is not now one of lovers' sentimentality, but more and the American Legion. Children taught to respect the old more becomes an excuse for kind and friendly greetings. soldier are acquiring one virtue of citizenship.

The Valentine Party offers a good excuse for teaching Elsewhere in this article is suggested the lesson that

manners. should be impressed on everyone at the close of a Lincoln

Cultivate Civic Imagination celebration; that is, with everything against him he built himself a character and achieved a success that is the You can have a Postman who, besides his U. S. Mail beacon light of all time. He realized what we must make insignia, wears a great red heart on his coat, to distribute the valentines. You can get a little civic information into ones they make in school have a money cost in paper, the play by reminding the children of the great increase pencils, paint, and remind them that maybe half the in mail matter Valentine day brings. Some persons will children in the United States are making valentines when not receive any valentine, but others will get several - they are. Let them also know that people send flowers or remind them that this will happen in forty-eight states. books as valentines, so that they can get some idea of the Have them note the cost of purchased valentines — the commercial results of the day's observances. This sort of fact that people were paid for designing them and printing teaching cultivates the civic imagination and brings home them as well as for selling them. Let them note that the the interdependence of all of us.

Greetings for the Rew Year! The day has come when every teacher in this nation must stand up and be counted. Are you 100 per cent American? Are you inculcating the highest principles and the loftiest ideals of American citizenship in your pupils? Do you realize the full responsibility that rests on your shoulders for training future American citizens? Are you able to give this message of Americanism in such terms that the children understand and carry the words home to parents who perhaps are not so thoroughly imbued with the American ideals?

- If so, then you are the kind of teacher that we need in our schools to-day. You are the type of person that should be crowding the normal schools and teacher training centers. You are the person that should be guiding the destiny of young America. If you are slighting this responsibility there is no room for you in the schools of our nation, for you are a liability rather than an asset. 11 Never has there been a more urgent call for high-minded, great-hearted, thoroughly trained, 100 per cent American educators to drive home the vital lessons that these times hold. Never has the future of the nation been so entirely committed into the hands of the teaching profession. The lessons of patriotism, loyalty to the flag and government are the lessons taught to the young. These are the lessons which should be carried home to the fathers and mothers. Are you teaching such lessons to-day?

The new year 1920 must signalize the new service of education. The new service of education must include training for every individual life activity and every community life expression.

To this new service of education I call you teachers of America. For this service I ask you to make ready. As true American citizens accept this responsibility and my faith in the certainty of your achievement.

JOSEPHINE CORLISS PRESTON

President National Education Association

O

Nothing New Under the Sun accomplishes. (The common school is the bulwark of

American institiutions.) "Other nations have arms, the NE of the advantages or disadvantages of a classical lords of the Romans alone have eloquence.” Accord

scholar is that he is forever reminding us that there ingly, the king lays it down that the senate should support is little or nothing new under the sun, and that with its full authority and with generosity the teacher

situations in human socirety are constantly re- of rhetoric and grammar "if he be found suitable for his creating themselves. How much benefit accrues from work and obey the decrees of the Prefect of the city.(Were these reflections is very much a question. Certainly there Bolshevists lying loose about the Forum, disconteachers and professors cannot derive any too great tented by reason of poor pay? one asks.) Apparently satisfaction from the thought that they belong to a pro- in those days not only were teachers poorly compensated fession that from earliest times has not received adequate but they had also sometimes to wait for their pay. And compensation; indeed, such a thought may be entirely so the king with fine insight writes: “The Grammarian disappointing, since blasphemers will say that if the world is a man to whom every hour unemployed is misery and has for a thousand years or more been able to secure men it is a shame that such a man should have to await the and women who will teach at absurdly low salaries, it caprice of a public functionary before he gets his pay." is probable that the world can get along in the future But the most interesting parallel follows: we are reminded without worrying too much about the justice or even of "train the mind and mind the train” when we read the expediency of proper compensation. Probably, in further: “If we provide generously salaries for the playIan Hay's phrase, the teacher's calling will be for many actors who minister only to the amusement of the public, years to come “the most responsible, the least advertised, and take pains to pay these who are not really necessary, the worst paid, and the most richly rewarded profession how much more

should we

look after those who in the world.

are the moulders of the style and character of our It is also probable that there will always be men in youth!” public life who see clearly the irony of the situation and Athalaric concludes with the argument, now so familiar, who make strenuous efforts to improve it. If after all that teachers cannot do their work if they have to worry the college drives and publicity there are anywhere in too much about their salaries: “therefore let them not the United States men who are still reactionaries on this have to try the philosophical problem of thinking about point, I would commend to them the words of King Atha- their subsistence, but devote themselves with all their laric to the Senate of the City of Rome written shortly might to the teaching of liberal arts." before his death, which took place October 2, A. D. 534. This whole letter of Athalaric, grandson of Theodoric He begins his letter in a manner familiar to all those who the Great, from which these extracts are taken, is well have had reason to address Boards of Education, school worth the study of those who are advocating more pay committees, or college trustees: “You who are called for teachers; and we are grateful to Cassiodorus for preFathers should be interested in all that concerns the edu- serving it for us. For if the grandson of a Goth could cation of your sons.” He then goes on to say what might write so intelligently, have we a right to pride ourselves be repeated to-day in New York or Boston: “We hear too much on our distance from the dark night of Gothic by certain whisperings that the teachers of eloquence at ignorance, if the same problems still confront us and if Rome are not receiving their proper reward.” And this we are no less stupid in their solution? — Kenneth C. M. is followed naturally enough by praise of what the school Sills in The Review, Dec. 27, 1919

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Suggestions for Coloring Color the background cream, the floor light brown, Polly's face, hands and legs

flesh color, her dress soft blue with darker spots, sash white, hair yellow, ribbon and socks blue, shoes black, fire yellow, bowl blue with green leaves and yellow flowers.

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Projects in Primary Grades II Concrete Project Work in First

and Second Grades

T

The stimulus came from reading and dramatizing the “Little Red Hen." The farm began with a very small barn and a yard 12 x 12 inches. It grew through an in

creasing knowledge of what a farm should be, what materials HOW IT STIMULATED READING

were needed to improve the first efforts, and how each

child should co-operate to make it a success. Mary B. Pratt

Three regular class lessons only were given for specific State Normal School, Worcester, Mass.

needs. One lesson on wheelbarrows with construction HAT education is actually broadening out and

paper, one on pigs, and another on barrels. The last two beginning to work along natural lines is felt and

were made of clay. In these lessons the best results were admitted by all educators, but is acted upon, by by an individual child or by a group organized by the

chosen for the farm. Everything else was made freely only a few as yet. Many of us are still reading children themselves. Changes were continually made as books, thinking abstract thoughts, going to meetings to discuss the progressive procedures, and yet not really of the project. Occasionally advice was asked for and

observation and judgement developed through the growth doing anything to make our own schoolroom a place where children may be natural and free; where there may be given, but adult domination was not tolerated. found a whole-hearted soul activity, and where labor

The working out of this farm project by concrete material in work or play — is being made worth while. There is

gave the children a good social training. It taught the too wide a gap even to-day between theory and practice leaders what good leadership must be, and it developed in our educational syste s. Why are we afraid to let go? leadership in four children who had hitherto been passive

In many cases it is the fault of the superintendent. incidentally derived. Several worth-while discussions. He is holding back his group of open-minded, enthusiastic

about industry came up, and the children's questions were teachers. He is bound by tradition.

answered in so far as their understanding would permit In other cases the fault lies wholly with the teacher. She is afraid to do anything radically different in her room.

It also served as a basis for language lessons. Arithmetic The thought of freedom sends a chill to her soul. She continually came into play through the need of counting, wonders how an undesirable reaction on the part of the measuring and proportion, children could be controlled.

Finally phonics and reading came out of a clear sky one That these fears are normal and somewhat desirable, day, and a series of lessons developed naturally, adding a

new interest to first grade reading. the really thoughtful person must admit. While we are endeavoring to bring about radical changes in the schools, the objects in their very own projects instead of pictures

It is practically the See and Say method, using, however, we must be careful not to swing too far on the other side, in books. and to defeat our end, which is to produce citizens fitted to live in a democracy. A freedom that is not purposeful, children went to the farm and found objects beginning with

The sound ă was given as written on the board. The that is not using the best in the child toward something that sound: apples, animals. This was continued each constructive, that is not consistent with good physical day until words beginning with all the consonant sounds and mental hygiene, and that is not developing the right sort of social standards in the individual child, is not the

were listed. type of freedom that we must appreciate, achieve and maintain

1 in our school systems.

apples

lamb But at all events, let us experiment and get somewhere

animals

ladder through our successes and our failures. The scientific approach is the approach in the working out and in the

b. settling of these modern educational problems.

box

milk A good deal is being said to-day about the PROJECT METHOD

barn

mother as being a method through which we can develop the child

barrel

mat along the lines stated in the preceding paragraphs. While

brother this method is not new, it has recently become revitalized

basket and is playing an important part in our theoretical dis

bed

n cussions and in some of our practice. For some time the

boy best teachers have been using it in geography, history and other upper grade subjects. In these grades the projects

P are for the most part abstract. In the progressive kinder

.cat

pig gartens the projects are working along concrete lines

pen because little children must handle and use all sorts of

cart concrete material as a means of expression.

sh Our psychology tells us that the first and second grade

d

sheep children are on the same plane of development as the

door kindergarten child. This being so, they should have similar

dog treatment in school. If the projects of the kindergarten

donkey

stall emphasize the use of concrete materials toward a purposeful

sand and social end, then the first grade child should also have

f

sister an opportunity to use such materials toward the same end.

father

sticks In either case the education will of necessity be connected

farmer

stones with some phase of everyday life.

flag This photograph shows a project worked out by the

fence

t first and second grades. It represents a farm. The chil

turkey dren were about two weeks making what is evident in the

table picture. They worked before school, at recess, on rainy

train. days, at home and several times during school hours.

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