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Picture Study


chosen from each school of artists. The children lear

through these studies, not only the progress made in Marie Lucile Linthicum

painting, but also to place the artists in their respective ages.

To encourage the children to look at pictures outside HE most interesting lessons in the school curricu of school, give them such assignments as: Describe the

lum should be the study of pictures. Children picture in your dining-room which you think the most see things as wholes — they enjoy pictures as beautiful; tell us about the picture which you like best

wholes, hence the lack of child interest in the of all in your home, in your Sunday-school room, in some dissecting method of studying pictures. They enjoy building which you have visited lately. Questions from pictures only if they have a meaning to their minds — the class will compel the person describing to examine often not the same meaning as they have to teacher's his picture very closely, for they consider he has failed mind. The teacher is apt to think that she must give if he cannot present it to them clearly. the meaning to the class by a circuitous method in which Although a biography of the artist should usually be she does most of the talking. She usually begins with: the last thing in the study of pictures, Corot's pictures “What do you see in the picture?” The reply is, “Three may often be approached by telling interesting facts women, or “A girl with a sickle,” or “A man and a in his life, or by reading some of his beautiful letters woman, or a similar mention of the objects observed. to friends about his pictures. The children will appreciate "What are they doing?" asks the teacher, "Picking wheat" these letters, for they have had similar experiences. Many or "Standing with her mouth open,” or, in the case of children have risen in the country before sun-up, to see a beautiful copy of “The Angelus," I once heard a child the first rays of sun dart through the trees, to reflect in answer, “They are burying a baby.'

the dewdrops on the grass and wild flowers of a clearing After asking questions similar to the above, on Breton's in the woods, to hear the matins of the birds, and to ex“Song of the Lark,” a teacher, seeking to gain attention perience the joyousness depicted in Corot’s “Dance of by starting the imagination, asked, “What is she going the Nymphs." Whenever possible, pictures should be to do with the sickle?” “Kill the lark," one bright young- approached through personal experiences. ster informed her. Such emphasis of petty details dis Children always enjoy posing pictures. Their dramatic tracts the attention from the meaning of the picture. instinct, and love of "dressing up” will sometimes help

Before beginning the study of a picture with a class, them to gain the meaning, the feeling of the picture, quicker the teacher should place it low-on level with the eye than any amount of study by questions or discussions. in some conspicuous place in the room. After allowing “Picture gallery” will become a favorite and instructive it to remain there for several days, place it directly before amusement with the children. They will like to pose the class, with the question, Have you looked at this “The Angelus," "The First Step," "A Reading from picture? Those who have will at once be interested. Homer,” “The Balloon,” “Age of Innocence,” “Dance of Those who have not will wonder why they have not. the Nymphs,” “Strawberry Girl,” or “Lilacs.” The chilThe teacher will find that, after several pictures have dren divide into groups, each group choosing a picture been thus posted, every one will look at the picture which which has been tudied. After examining it closely appears in that place.

and choosing characters, the group poses, while the class Did you like it? What thing did


like most? Why? closes eyes, or remains before a screen. At a signal from These questions will start a discussion which will usually the group leader, eyes are opened, or the screen removed, bring out all the points the teacher wants. During the and the posed picture examined for a moment, then the discussion, the picture is frequently examined to justify group relaxes. The class criticises first the spirit of the the opinion expressed. The discussion and the examina- presentation, then details of position, expression, etc. tion of the picture never fails to explain it, to bring out This, of course, compels further examination of the picture. its meaning, to make all the participants enjoy it. Each character is responsible for his part. Those who

After the lesson, hang the picture where they can see do not succeed in giving a good r presentation, are allowed it easily — they will enjoy it more now — and ask them another trial later. to find other pictures by the same artist. Children love Costumes of bunting are inexpensive, and easily made to lend things from their homes. Make a collection of by the children themselves. These make the posed picturo that artist's pictures. Allow the children to look at them look very like the original. Children delight in giving several days, then ask, Which is your favorite of the group? the class surprises by posing some pictures which the or, If you could have one of these, which would you others have not seen, but which were painted by a familiar take? Why? What characters did the artist usually artist. The surprise pictures are always presented in choose to paint? Why? Does he make these characters costume. If no one can give the title and artist, a search real to you? Why was he able to do this? Answering is made until it is identified. Posed pictures in costume these questions will give the children the artist's character make enjoyable entertainment for visiting classes and istics, and they will want to look up his biography.

assemblies. The study of pictures, and especially of the Lead the class to contrast such types as the Raphael costumes, brings out interesting history, and often geo and Murillo or Botticelli Madonnas, the Millet and Breton graphical features of various countries. It also introduces peasants, the Bonheur and Landseer animals, etc. A series a wealth of literature. of stu ies such as the Madonna in art, the peasant in The teacher should seize every opportunity of visitart, the child in art, the wild animal in art, the landscape ing, with her class, near-by galleries. If her lessons are in art make very interesting lessons and give unified and sufficiently enthusiastic, her pupils will be willing to pay wide knowledge of pictures. Of course, the studies could their fare to distant cities for the purpose of seeing originals. be only mere introductions to the subjects; four or five On such excursions the pupils should be made to see artists to each subject would be sufficient. Select one certain pictures, not to “do” the whole gallery, as is the picture to represent each artist. The children examine usual course followed. all the pictures on a subject, then each selects and de Pictures studied by the method suggested in this article scribes the one he likes best. The child then has a chance will train observation and concentration, enable the chilto do individual and independent work. In studying dren to recognize the “picture on the wall” as a friend, the Madonna in art, a picture may be selected from each not as a cold meaningless thing, and give an enjoyment, of the following: Murillo, Raphael, Ferruzi, Michel an appreciation, and a love of beautiful pictures, creatangelo, and Sichel. In studying the peasant, select one ing a desire of ownership which will influence the decoeach from Millet, Dupre, Breton, Adam or one may be ration of their school, homes, and all future habitations.

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The Story Stand-Ups

String the hearts in the following order: Heart size 1,

2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Repeat until three sets are strung. Johanna Holm

At the beginning of each group of hearts, pin a dove,

catching the string, so as to form three loops. A Green-house Poster Make two such units and in the center place the 18 inch

heart, upon which has been mounted an appropriate Draw two horizontal lines an inch apart the full length

picture. of the blackboard and six inches from the top. Draw a line from top of blackboard to this line at right angles with it and in about the center of blackboard. Draw the other lines from top to horizontal lines, gradually slanting them as shown in picture.

Ruth Ash Below the horizontal lines, and intersecting the shorter lines above, draw parallel vertical lines twelve inches or The Pied Piper of Hamelin more in length. The above represents the panes of glass. Eight inches from horizontal lines, or fourteen inches and the children that he enticed away, and the perfidious

Here is the Pied Piper and all the rats that he drowned, from top of board, draw another horizontal line. Four Mayor who caused the final disaster. inches below this, draw another. Color the space between

The children will love to make these toys while they are these two lines cream or white and shade with black chalk. studying this story. The handwork lesson in itself is of

This represents the shelf. Draw several brackets as shown in print. Mount the flower pots containing gera- clearer conception of the events of the story will be gained.

value and by using the figures in dramatization a much nium plants, previously cut to line by the children from

And these people do not always have to walk in one direccolored paper, on this shelf.

tion. They can turn about as they choose and go the In center front of blackboard draw a table like those used

other way, as there is no embarrassment of one side being in green-houses for raising of plants. This table is six feet

incomplete. long and one and one-half feet high. Color ground or

Directions for Making earth brown, the table cream color or white. Indicate the cement block foundation in the rear of the table by lines Fold the paper to be used in the middle and put the and shading.

dotted line of the pattern on the folded edge, thus making Place empty flower pots as shown in picture. Plant the two sides at once. Cut them out of colored paper or tulips cut out and painted by the children in the table, of white paper and color as suggested. Paste the figures and put in shadows with black. This makes a very effective together half way down, bend in the laps at the bottom border.

of the feet and paste on top of each other, and then fasten

to a piece of cardboard so that they easily stand upright. Valentine Decoration The legs should be made stronger with another thickness

of paper or of cardboard. Bertha Toelle

The Mayor's body is tan, with purple hat and red coat The following is an effective way of utilizing a long, edged with white ermine. narrow space over the blackboard. The design covers a The Pied Piper's body is tan, with apple green suit and space 20 x 1/2 feet, but can be adapted to spaces of almost hat. One side of his cape is red and the other side yellow. any length.

The children's bodies are tan, and dress for the first is Cut from red cover paper

blue, second is white, third is gray blue, fourth is yellow, Twelve hearts, 12 inches high (size 1)

and fifth is brown. If more children are needed, repeat Twelve hearts, 212 inches high (size 2)

the first four, changing the color of the dresses. The Twelve hearts, 31, inches high (size 3)

first and second children should be pasted on the same Twelve hearts, 412 inches high (size 4)

piece of cardboard, as they are holding hands. Six hearts, 512 inches high (size 5)

The rats are brownish gray and the four patterns should One large heart about 18 inches high

be repeated several times. Also cut six doves, natural size, from white drawing paper See pages, 102 103, 105

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Graded Course in Seat Work for First and

Second Grades VII


Belle Brady
Primary Critic, State Normal School, Superior, Wis.

(Book rights reserved) IV Numbers

mounting 5 trees in one group and 6 trees in another group. 1 Have pupils write on paper a specified series of num

The combination may be written in a lower corner of the

card. bers, as from 100 to 200, or from 200 to 400.

23 Build with number cards all the combinations that 2 Place on the board a list of numbers, as 221, 430, 500, 799, 301, 311, 619, etc. Tell the pupils to write the

make 10, 12, 15, etc. number which, when we count, comes just before and just 24 After new combinations have been learned in class, after each of these numbers. The correct list is:

let the children draw pictures to illustrate each of these 220, 429, 299, 798, 300, 310, 618.

facts and write the numerical form beside the picture. 222, 431, 501, 800, 302, 312, 620.

25 Give each child a hektographed sheet of simple, 3 Across the top of a sheet of paper have each pupil concrete problems. Have the children read each problem write:

carefully and write out the numerical form and the answer 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 in the margin beside the problem. Place on the board a list of numbers, such as, 836, 125,

26 Hektographed sheets of number facts arranged in 840, 327, 901, 512, 209, 345, 999, 663, 187, 310, 598, 225, promiscuous order should be prepared early in the term. 640, 721, 111, 837, etc., until a long list has been written

They are very useful for seat work and a large quantity of in promiscuous order. When the pupils have arranged them should be kept on hand. Prepare seven different these in the proper columns, they will have:

forms arranged as follows: 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

a All the additional facts (the 45 combinations) in 111 209 310 512 640 721 837 901

promiscuous order. 125 225 327 598 663 736 840 999

6 All the subtraction facts (21 in all). 187 345

C All the addition and all the subtraction facts 4 Write the number series by l’s from 1 to 1000.

mixed. Teach the pupils to leave plenty of space between columns d All the multiplication tables which are taught and to place the figures so that those of one order come in

in the second grade in mixed order. a vertical line.

All the division tables which are taught in the second 5 Write the number series backwards by l's beginning

grade arranged promiscuously. with 1000. This will require several seat work periods. r All the multiplication and division facts mixed. (Series subtraction.)

8 One sheet bearing the most difficult facts selected 6 Using the number boxes, have the children lay the

from the addition tables, the subtraction tables, numbers by 2's to 100.

the multiplication and division tables. 7 Arrange the number cards backward from 100 by

For seat work on. of these sheets is given to 2's; backward from 99 by 3's; backward from 100 by 5's;

each pupil and he writes the answers. Suppose backward from 100 by 10's.

it is the sheet with the addition facts on it: after 8 Arrange the number cards by 2's to 100, beginning

the teacher has checked the errors with red ink with 1 instead of 2; and backward by 2's beginning with

she may return it to the pupil and give him an 99 instead of 100.

opportunity to correct his errors. She will then 9 Arrange the number cards by 10's, beginning with 2

file these sheets and she has a record of the comand extending to 92; by 10's beginning with 1 and extending

binations which each individual has trouble with. to 91; beginning with 7 and extending to 97; beginning

In another week she may wish to ascertain what with 3 and extending to 93; from 4 to 94; from 5 to 95;

improvement, if any, has been made by the class, from 6 to 96; from 7 to 97; from 8 to 98; from 9 to 99. (One such series is 1, 11, 21, 32, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91.) B

so she passes out fresh copies of the addition sheet 10 Write backwards the series by 10's spoken of in 9.

and the pupils write the answers to the combina

tions. By comparing the results of this test with 11 Write by 10's from 10 to 100.

the previous week's result, she finds out the present 12 Write by 5's to 1000.

standing of her class. She sees which pupils need 13 Write backwards by 10's from 300 to 10.

help and just which combinations are giving them 14 Write

500 to 300.

difficulty. Later the subtraction sheets and the 15 Write

700 to 500.

other sheets me ioned above will be used as 16 Write “ 1000 to 700.

needed. 17 Write backwards by 5's from 200 to 5. 18 Write

600 to 400.

27 Copy such problems as the following and write the

answers: 19 Write

800 to 600. 20 Write

400 to 200.

We played the bean bag game to-day. Each time we 21 Write " 1000 to 800

threw the bag into the circle, it counted 2.

Mary threw it in 3 times. Her score was Note Before the pupils have fully mastered various number

Henry threw it in 10 times. His score was series mentioned in the exercises from 4 to 21 inclusive, laying the Jane threw it in 5 times. Her score was number cards or writing the series should be guided by the same Tom threw it in 8 times. His score was series written on the board by the teacher. This prevents errors on the part of the child, and having this guide he can teach himself

Jack threw it in 12 times. His score was the series in performing his seat work. After he has had sufficient 28 Put a list of addition facts on the board. Have the work on each series, his knowledge may be tested by having him write the series from memory.

pupils write the subtraction facts which are the converse

of each of these addition facts. Except in the case of 22 Let the children cut objects from colored paper and

double numbers such as 4+4, 6+6, 8+8, etc., there will mount them in such a way as to represent a combination.

be two subtraction facts for each addition fact. Have them To illustrate, the combination 5 + 6 = may be shown by grouped so as to show the relation:

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After the material has been prepared, give to each child

for seat work one of the large cards and a handful of the 13–7=6

15-9=6 little answer cards. The child will select a card from the 7+6=13 9+6= 15

pile and if it answers one of the problems on his card, he 13–6=7

15—6=9 puts it in the space with that problem. If it is not the

answer for any of his problems he lays it aside and takes another one. He continues in this way until he has either

found the answer for every problem on his card or has 297 Let the pupils write number stories. At class time looked over all his answer cards, without finding one or let each pupil read his problems and call upon another more numbers which he needs to complete his problems. member of the class to answer.

In either case, when the child has done all he can do, he 30 Let the children fold and cut pieces of paper 2" x 4. places his card near the top of his desk (to reserve it for Suppose they are learning the multiplication facts of 2X, the teacher's inspection) and goes to the board and writes the teacher places the table on the board with the answers. his name. If he is the first one to do so, he puts number 1 Upon one side of these small pieces of paper have the in front of his name, if three others were there before him, children write in large clear figures 1X2, and on the back he puts 4 in front of his name. Then when the teacher is of the same paper the answer. Then on another paper ready to inspect the seat work she glances at the cards, write 2x2 and on the back of it the answer, 4. After the and if there are any errors points them out and in this child has completed the set, he may play with them by

case the answer card is removed. That child with the mixing up the cards well, then trying to say the right greatest number of correct answers who is nearest the top answer for each card. If he cannot remember, or is not of the list of names on the board, is the winner. sure of the answer, he may look on the back and find it out. Children will enjoy playing with these cards in couples during an indoor recess. One child holds the cards and

8+5= 10+5= 18--9= 6X 10= shows the other child the side of the card bearing the problem. If the child can name the right answer he takes the card. After going through the set of cards he may call himself winner, or the game may be continued until

3X2= 40+10= 7X7= 12-8= every card has been correctly named and won by the child who is giving the answers. The object in the latter case is to get all of the cards in as few relays as possible, that is, if a child names all of the cards correctly the first time they

15—7= 3+9= 4X5= 15:3= are shown him, he does better than if he had to go through the set three times before he won all the cards.

31 Of manila tagboard make cards similar to these shown below. Also cut a large number of little squares

14:2= 14--5= 2X3= 9+7= of tagboard and on each of these write a number with red

The samples of cards shown in the accompanying illus7X5= 6+3= 1748= 16:2=

trations have a mixture of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It is well to have such a set of mixed problems. There should also be a set of cards with

addition problems only, for use when studying these facts. 146= 12-3= 8X10= 8+3= some with addition and subtraction, others with only

multiplication and division.

If the game is used in recitation period it is varied some

what. Each child has a large card; the small cards are 9+5= 4X2= 50+10= 15—9=

put into a box or basket. The teacher passes down the aisle with this box, letting each child take five answer cards. Then she begins with the first pupil; he chooses

one of his cards that answers one of his problems, places 25+5= 12-7= 3X3= 5+6=

it in the right space on his large card and states aloud to the class the answer he chose, together with the problem it answers. If it is right, he has succeeded in covering

one of his spaces; if it is wrong, however, he must remove ink or crayon. The number is an answer for some number it from the card and is not allowed to substitute another fact which the children have been taught either in addition for it. Then the next pupil has a turn, and so on around (one of the 45 combinations), or subtraction (one of the the class. If it so happens that out of the five cards which si fundamental subtraction facts), or in the multiplication a pupil drew, only two can be used to answer problems on or division tables that are taught in the second grade. his card, he will be obliged to forfeit three of his turns. To be clearer, 23 would not answer the purpose, because But he may have better luck next time, for as soon as the 23 is not an answer for any of the 45 combinations or any rounds of the class have been made five times, then each of the 81 fundamental subtraction facts, it does not occur one draws five more cards and the game continues. The as an answer in any of the multiplication or division tables. pupil who is fortunate enough to draw cards which answer On the other hand, 25 does answer the purpose, because his problems and who places his answers correctly, succeeds it is the answer for 5 X 5; 3 is needed on many cards in getting his card covered quickly and so wins. because it is the answer for 2+1, 4–1, 6–3, 744, 845, 32 Write on the board the Arabic numerals from 1 946, 10—7, 11–8, 12-9, 1X3, 3:1, 6:2, 9:3, 12:4, through 12. Have the pupils write the corresponding 15:5, 30-10. Since many pupils will use the cards, a Roman numerals. large number of the little answer cards will be needed, 33 Write the Arabic numerals in irregular order and have with an especially large number of those answers, which the pupils copy them and write the corresponding Roman like 3, are needed many times.


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