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of 200,0001. for immigration. He nium of free trade ? Turning to could not bring himself to think Mr. Cobden, Mr. Disraeli conthat such a

could exer- cluded with a pointed and emcise any influence on the distress phatic denunciation of the quackery of the Colonies; it could not exer- of economic science. cise any influence at all ; and there- Lord George Bentinck, in his fore he would not encourage the lax reply, explained why he could not practice of public men, who, after yield to the recommendations of having got themselves, by want of Mr. Hume and Mr. Ellice to prescience, into difficulty, endea withdraw his motion. If either voured to extricate themselves from of those gentlemen had expressed it by a grant of public money. If a readiness to support any subthere were the money to spare, it stantial measures of relief to the might become a question what West Indies, he would have acwould be the best thing to do with ceded to their request ; but all it: perhaps it might be, to build that he had heard from them was new National Gallery.

that Government would not do He contrasted the brief notice more than what it had announced, bestowed on the avowed remedies and that his Committee would excite --the ten minutes devoted to mo. hopes which would only be disaplasses and immigration-with the pointed. He thought it worth try. hour and a half given to secret and ing whether he could not obtain by inuendo remedies--the cardinal vir- this Committee such evidence as tues of " energy” and “enterprise," would at last bring conviction even preached by Her Majesty's Govern. to the House of Commons. ment, in jingling words, in smooth The notion for a Committee was phrases, and loose abstractions.

agreed to without a division. Sir Charles Wood had preached The next proceeding in Parlia“competition, "but competition pre- ment relative to West Indian affairs, sumes equality of circumstances ; was a proposal made by the Chanand what is the equality between the cellor of the Exchequer, on the 1st Spanish and British Colonies in the May, to the House of Commons, to West Indies ? the Spanish Colonies authorize a loan of 200,0001. for having abundance of labour, for the purpose of promoting the imwhich they pay nothing; the British migration of free labourers into the Colonies deficiency of labour, for Colonies of British Guiana and which they pay dear? Our head- Trinidad. This motion was stoutly long legislation, in fact, has created opposed by Mr. Hume, who urged a differential duty in favour of the that, as the report of the Select Spaniards. Such is the effect of Committee on West Indian affairs being ruled not by facts, but by would shortly be presented to the phrases !

House, it would be more advisable The West Indian supply of to postpone the proposed grant 250,000 tons of sugar will disap- until that time. It appeared, howpear from the markets of the world; ever, on further explanation, that and what will then become of cheap the money had already been exsugar? Of what use will the pended, upon the authority of the Colonies be, except as garrisons ? Colonial Secretary, Lord Grey; a and, indeed, what use can we have proceeding against which the Earl of garrisons, in the coming millen- of Leicester and some other Mem. England.]

bers protested as contrary to been completely successful. The usage and constitutional rule. Ul. main object of the Act of 1834 was timately, upon the suggestion of to give freedom to 800,000 slaves, Mr. Herries, Lord John Russell and to place them in a condition of consented to take a reduced grant independence and prosperity. That of 170,0001., which was carried on object was admitted on all hands a division by 70 to 21.

to have been attained. The main As the Session advanced it be- object of the Act of 1846 was to came evident, from the increas. obtain a cheaper and larger supply ingly adverse tenor of the accounts of sugar, with a diminution of received from the West Indies, burdens to the people of England ; that some measure of relief or as. an object which he showed by sistance must be extended to these financial returns had been comColonies, as the only means of ex- pletely accomplished. The contricating them from imminent in- sumption of sugar had increased solvency and ruin. Although the from 244,000 tons in 1845 to Ministers had some months before 290,700 tons in 1847, and was still avowed their determination to ad- increasing. The revenue derived here to their settlement of the pre- from the duties on sugar had inceding year, symptoms of conces- creased from 3,745,0001. in 1845, sion began to manifest themselves; to 4,596,0001. in 1847. and at length, on the 16th of June, Lord John reviewed the meaLord John Russell laid before the sures which had been taken for inHouse of Commons his proposed troducing labourers from the East measure of relief. In moving that Indies into the Mauritius, and the House should resolve itself into from the East Indies and Africa a Committee to consider the Act into the West Indian Colonies ; of 9 & 10 Vict. c. 63, Lord John which he admitted had not been reviewed the past legislation affect- very successful. The present state ing the West Indies, especially of the case was, that labourers might referring to the Emancipation Act be introduced from any British of 1834, and to the alteration possession in Africa, with only this of the Sugar Duties, by admitting provision, that there should be an foreign free-labour sugar in 1845, officer on board the vessel who and all foreign sugar in 1846. should take care that there were no The first measure he declared to transactions resembling the purbe an act of humanity and justice, chase of slaves or the slave trade, and he verily believed, that if it had and that the person who emigrates not passed, we should have had a to the West Indies, should go there series of insurrections and disturb- with his own consent. Also, “liances, which would have been fatal berated Africans," from captured to the prosperity of the West slave ships, were conveyed direct to Indies. The gift of 20,000,0001. tbe West Indies, instead of being to the West Indian proprietors sent first to Sierra Leone. But showed that the Parliament and the suspicion entertained in this people of England were disposed country, that the slave trade might to make important sacrifices to pre- be revived under the pretence of vent distress and ruin from falling immigration—the fear that slaves on them. Both that Act and the should be compelled to work in the Acts of 1846, he maintained, had West Indies-retarded for a longer period than was quite fair or just 1816. What he proposed was, to the West Indian proprietors the that the duty on colonial sugar immigration into the West Indies. should be reduced after the 5th of He proposed, therefore, to do more July in the present year to 138., now than he should have done had and should be reduced subsethat question been settled some quently a shilling every succeedyears ago, and had there been a ing year until it reached 10s. He fair import of labour since the year likewise proposed that the duty on 1834. He proposed to make an ordinary foreign Muscovado sugar advance to the Colonies, on the should remain as fixed by the Act security of the colonial revenues, of 1846; but he proposed a new for the purpose of meeting the ex- distinctive duty for foreign brown pense of immigration; or rather, clayed sugar. In this species of he should say, that he proposed to sugar, the foreign producer had an guarantee a colonial loan, not ex- undue advantage, from the wide ceeding 500,0001., in addition to variation of quality which might 160,0001. which the House bad be made to come under that head; already guaranteed this Session. and thus the foreigner was able to

Complaints had been made of introduce a very high quality of the too rapid operation of the Act that sugar under the low range of of 1816; and that under it one duty. Lord John proposed a disclass of sugar had an advantage over tinctive scale for brown clayed, or every other class in the classifica qualities equal to brown clayed, tion of duties, which it ought not foreign sugar: from the 5th July, fairly to have. In considering that 1848, to the 5th July, 1849, the subject, he frankly avowed that he duty would remain at 208.; and it did not think it fair to the British would then be reduced by Is. 6d. consumer to impose a differential a year, until it reached a 10s. duty duty of 10s. on sugar, to last for in July 1854. The proposed duties, ten years or more, for the purpose then, would stand thus:of reviving the industry and pros: Year ending Foreign. Colonial.

July 5. perity of the West Indies. "He


d. 8. d. therefore looked in another direc- 1849 20 0

13 0 tion : he looked to the experience 1850

17 0 12 0 of late years, in which he saw that,

1851 17 0 15 6 11 0 1852 15 6 14

10 0 with regard to many articles on

1853 14 6 13 0 10 0 which the duty had been dimi


12 0 10 0 nished and the price had been lowered, the revenue had been no Equal ... 10 0 10 0 10 0 loser, whilst the consumer had been Of course such a change in these a great gainer. He quoted a table Sugar Duties would require a corshowing that from 1825 to 1841 responding change to be made in every fall in the duty on sugar had the duties on retined and double been accompanied by a rise in the refined white-clayed sugars, and consumption, and every rise of duty on molasses. by a fall in the consumption; a Complaints had been made by fact also shown by the returns for the West Indian proprietors of the 1815-7. He therefore looked to differential duty on rum. Last a large consumption of sugar for year, the Chancellor of the Exthe means of modifying the Act of chequer had proposed that the dif

Brown Clayed.


Musc. Muscovado. 8. 18 6

18 6


13 0


ferential duty on rum should be sharply accused the Government 6d. Some difficulty arose on that of breaking faith with the West proposition, and the Chancellor of Indies. Lord George fastened the Exchequer raised it to 9d., a serious imputation upon Mr. although he maintained that 6d. Hawes, of having withheld from was quite sufficient. The Chair: the Committee on the West Indies, man of the Board of Excise thought for fifty-six days, a despatch of that 4d. was sufficient as a differ- Sir Charles Grey, Governor of ential duty; and Lord John there. Jamaica, suggesting a plan of refore could not agree to impose a lief for the West Indies. higher differential duty on rum The measure was attacked on free. than that sum.

There was one trade grounds by Mr. Bright, Mr. question connected with this reduc- Cobden, and Mr. Charles Villiers ; tion of duty, which would make it Mr. Cobden and Mr. Bright calling necessary to withdraw the permis- upon the House not to overlook the sion given last year to use sugar in sufferings of their own fellow-counbreweries. With regard to the use trymen in Yorkshire and Lancaof sugar in distilleries, no change shire. in the present law would be made. On the 18th the subject was

The proposition of the Govern- renewed, Sir John Pakington proment was received with a good deal posing an amendment condemna. of disapprobation in several quar- tory of the Ministerial scheme in ters of the House.

the following terms :Sir Robert Inglis and Sir John " That this House, considering Pakington condemned it, on the the evidence taken during the ground that it would encourage present Session before a Select the slave trade.

Committee, is of opinion that the Mr. Bernal, Mr. Barkly, Mr. remedies proposed by Her MaHenry Baillie, Mr. Hume, Mr. jesty's Government for the great Henry Drummond, Mr. Philip distress of the sugar-growing pos. Miles, Mr. Henley, Mr. Hudson, sessions of the Crown, and which and Mr. Evelyn Denison, all con- that Committee has said will redemned the plan as totally insuffi- quire the immediate application of cient to avert the ruin of the West relief, will neither effect that obIndies. Mr. Barkly declared that ject, nor check the stimulus to the the loan of 500,0001. would be slave trade which the diminution useless for purposes of immigra- of the cultivation of sugar in those tion—it might as well be thrown colonies has inevitably occasioned.” into the sea. Mr. Bernal claimed, The object of this amendment, he on behalf of the West Indian pro- said, was not to create embarrassprietors, the right to import their ment and delay, but to rescue the produce into this country free from Colonies from the danger which all duties whatever.

was impending over thein. He Mr. Herries, Lord George Ben. did not argue the question as one tinck, and Mr. Disraeli, vigorously of protection or anti-protection, but urged both objections—the encou- contended that the differential ragement of the slave trade, and duty now proposed by the Govern. the insufficient aid to the Westment was quite inadequate to the Indies. Mr. Disraeli called it a present crisis, and totally incapable paltry and perilous measure; and affording relief to the distress of the British Colonies. He proved approach the question altogether this by referring to the comparative with the same views as Sir J. cost of producing sugar in the Pakington. The true policy of British West Indies and in the this country was, he thought, to slave colonies of Cuba and the exclude from its shores all slaveBrazils. He also objected to that labour sugar, and to admit from part of Lord John Russell's scheme every country, without any restricwhich permitted the captured Afri- tion, sugar the produce of free cans to be landed in Jamaica and labour. He was anxious to let the the other West Indian islands people of England have sugar at a free of cost, on the ground that it low price ; but he firmly believed may lead to the renewal of the that if they were informed that slave trade. He likewise com- they could not have low-priced plained of the mode in which the sugar without the destruction of Act of 1846 had been passed, and the man who made it, they would of the results which it had pro- reject it with abhorrence, and would duced in the West Indies. No less gladly give a higher price for the than eighteen mercantile houses in sugar raised by the freeman, the West Indies had already be- The Chancellor of the Exchequer come bankrupt, and if the present had listened to the speeches of the state of things continued, other mover and seconder of the amendfirms must be involved in the same ment with great attention, in the ruin. He showed that equally vain hope that he should find in some melancholy results had been pro- portion of them a substitute for the duced by the same cause in the measure of the Government which Mauritius and in the East Indies; they condemned; but with all his and quoted the opinions of the desire to dive into the meaning of most competent authorities in all Sir J. Pakington's amendment, he our Colonies to prove that our sugar could not make out either what he planters could not cultivate their would do for the relief of the West estates to advantage without com- Indian planter, or what protection petent protection. He then turned he would grant to his sugar. Sir to that portion of the subject which E. Buxton was somewhat more exis connected with slavery and the plicit, for he proposed the perpetual slave trade, and contended that the exclusion of slave-labour sugar ; Act of 1816 had increased both toan but, unfortunately, Parliament had extent almost incalculable. If we already decided against that prowished to exterminate the slave position, as well as against the trade we must enable the British perpetual high protective duty to planter to enter into competition which Sir J. Pakington appeared with slave labour, and to do that inclined. He then proceeded to we must give him competent pro- contend, in opposition to the same tection. He therefore implored gentlemen, that the Act of 1846 the House to retrace its steps, as it had not caused that increase of valued the dependencies of the slavery and the slave trade which British Crown and the reputation had been attributed to it; that and character of this Christian neither slavery nor the slave trade land.

could be put down by high protecSir E. Buxton seconded the tive duties ; and that the only amendment, though he did not mode of extinguishing either was

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