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tional Assembly is dissolved-Suppression of the Insurrection-Conduct of

General Courtais and M. Louis Blanc-Defence made by M. Caussidière of

his Conduct Address by Executive Committee-Appointment of Com-

mittee to draw up Plan of Constitution-Disturbances at Lyons-Decree of

Perpetual Banishment pronounced against the ex-Royal Family-Impeach-

ment of M. Louis Blanc-Election of Prince Louis Napoleon Buonaparte

as Deputy-Discussion on this subject in the Assembly-The Prince de-

clines to take his Seat-Proof of Conservative Feeling in the Assembly--

Attack on the Ministry in the Assembly-Speech of General Cavaignac-

Defence of the Executive Committee by M. de Lamartine-Debate respect-

ing Prince Louis Napoleon-Plan of the Constitution—The National Ate-

liers-Body of Provincial Workmen ordered to quit Paris-Commencement

of Disturbances—The Générale beaten-Barricades and Insurrection-

Desperate Combat in the Streets of Paris-Resignation of the Executive

Committee-General Cavaignac invested with supreme Authority_Suc-

cesses of the Military-Destructive use of Artillery-Death of the Arch-

bishop of Paris–Termination of the Struggle-General Cavaignac ap-

pointed President of the Council-His Cabinet—Report of Committee on

the Insurrection—Leave given to the Attorney-General to prosecute MM.

Ledru Rollin and Caussidière-General Cavaignac and the National Work-

shops-Project of the Constitution—Speech of M. Thiers on the Second

Article relating to Property and Labour-Louis Napoleon takes his Seat

as Deputy for the Department of the Moselle-His first Speech–Import-

ant Debate on the Twentieth Article, confining the Legislative Power to

one Assembly-Speeches of MM. Lamartine, Odillon Barrot, and Dupin-

Majority in favour of a Single Chamber-Discussion on various Articles

of the Constitution—The Election of the President submitted to the Votes

of the People-Republicanism on the wane-Final Adoption and Pro-

clamation of the Constitution—Charges brought against General Cavaignac

by M. Barthelemy St. Hilare-His triumphant Defence-Election of Prince

Louis Napoleon as President of the Republic-His Address to the Assem-

bly--Formation of a Cabinet-Reflections on the Rise and Fall of popular

Favourites in France

[264

Italy, continued.-PAPAL STATES.—New Organization of the Executive at

Rome–The Pope promises a new Constitution to his Subjects-His un-

willingness to engage in the War against Austria-New Ministry at

Rome-Programme of its intended Policy-Assassination of Count Rossi

,

at Rome-State of the Capital at this Juncture-Formation of a Radical

Ministry-Flight of the Pope from Rome_He takes Refuge in the

Neapolitan Territory.

NAPLES AND SICILY.-Outbreak of Insurrection at Palermo-Conflict between

the Populace and the Military-New Ministry appointed at Naples—The

King promises a Constitution, Enthusiasm of the People Insurrection

at Messina -Disturbances at Naples-Sanguinary Conflict in the Streets

-The King victorious Downfall of the Bourbon Dynasty-Decrees by

the Sicilian Chamber at Palermo-The Sicilian Throne offered to the

Duke of Genoa, and declined by him—Expedition sent from Naples

against the Sicilians_Bombardment and Capture of Messina–Energetic

Measures of the Revolutionary Government at Palermo.

DENMARK AND SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN.-Death of Christian VIII., King of

Denmark, and Succession of Frederick VII.-Plan of new Constitution

promulgated-Narrative of Events leading to a Quarrel between the

Crown of Denmark and the two Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein-

Deputation sent from the Meeting of the States at Rendsburg to Copen-

hagen--The King's Reply-Explosion of the Revolution at Kiel-Strong

Feeling in Denmark against the Separation of the Duchies-Proclama-

tions by the King–The Prussian Troops cross the Holstein Frontier-

Conduct of the German Assembly at Frankfort–Protest of the Danish

Ambassador–The Danish Forces attacked by the Prussians-Schleswig

and Flensbourg taken by the latter-General Von Wrangel invades Jut-

land–The Danish Army retires to Funen and Alsen-Interference of

Sweden in the Struggle—The Prussian Troops withdrawn from Jutland

--Blockade of the German Baltic Ports by the Danish Fleet-Note

addressed by the Danish Government to Foreign Ministers— Termination

of Hostilities by Armistice concluded at Malmö Provisions of the Ar-

mistice-Speech of the King of Denmark at the opening of the Diet.

NETHERLANDS.-Appointment of Committee to revise Constitution.

BELGIUM.--Abortive Attempt of French Democrats to excite a Revolution

-Speech of the King on opening of Session of the Chambers.

(328

Prussia.—Speech of the King in closing the Session of the United Diet-

Great Reform Meeting at Berlin-Remarkable Manifesto of the King-

Censorship of the Press abolished-Unfortunate Collision between the

Military and the Populace at Berlin, Decree authorizing a National

Guard-Address of the Minister, Count Schwerin, to the Students-

Liberation of the captive Poles—Frederick William's Address to the

Students—Royal Proclamations-Deputation of Poles from Breslau-

Rapid Changes of Ministry at Berlin-Opening of Second Session of the

Prussian Diet—Royal Speech-Programme of the Electoral Law-Ad-

dress of the Diet-Ministerial Explanation-Resignation of Count Arnim-

Basis of new Prussian Constitution-Question of direct or indirect Elec-

tion for the National Assembly at Frankfort—General Election-Meeting

of the Prussian National Assembly-Speech from the Throne_Outline of

the Constitution—Tumult at Berlin, and Attack on the Arsenal-Resigna-

tion of the Ministry—The Auerswald Cabinet—The Army and Political

Questions—Change of Ministry-General Von Pfuel forms a new Cabinet

– Proclamation to the Army—General Von Wrangel's Address to the

Troops—Invasion of the Assembly by the Mob-Count Von Brandenburg

made President of the Council-Sitting of Assembly transferred to

Brandenburg-Tumult in the Assembly-Interference of the Military-

Burgher Guard disbanded— Berlin declared in a state of Siege-Disarming

of the Burgher Guard-Obstinate Conduct of the Assembly-It denies to

the Brandenburg Ministry authority to levy Taxes—The Government suc-

cessful in the struggle-Address by the Archduke John to the German

People—Meeting of the Assembly at Brandenburg—It is dissolved by a

Royal Edict.

GRAND DUCHY of Posen.-Outbreak of Polish Insurrection in Posen-

Horrible Atrocities committed by the Insurgents—Defeat and surrender

of Mieroslawski–Termination of the Rebellion-Resolution of the Frank-

fort Assembly as to the Partition Line drawn in Posen-German view of

the Polish Question.

(375
CHAPTER XIV.

AUSTRIA.— Population of Austrian Empire-Review of Events in Hungary

-- Prince Metternich proposes Dissolution of Hungarian Chamber-Open-

ing of Session of Diet for Lower Austria- The Chamber invaded by the

Mob-Contlict with the Military-Proclamation by the Emperor-Flight

of Metternich from Vienna-Conduct of the Bathyany-Kossuth Ministry

in Hungary—Baron Von Jellachich appointed by the Emperor Ban of

Croatia - New Ministry at Vienna–Declaration of Amnesty-Outline of

New Constitution-Promulgation of the Constitution—Changes in the

Ministry at Vienna-New Electoral Law- The Emperor abandons the

Capital for Innspruck--Proclamation to the Austrian People-Quarrel of

Races in Bohemia—The Czechs and the Germans-Great Pansclavonic

Congress convoked at Prague-Provisional Government established there

-Sclavonic Diet convened by Jellachich-Outbreak of Insurrection at

Prague, The Princess Windischgrätz killed by a Rifle Shot-Bombard-

ment of Prague—The Rebellion crushed—Jellachich stripped of his

Office by the Emperor-Reconciliation effected at Innspruck-Failure of

attempted Adjustment of the Quarrel between the Hungarians and

Croats-Manifesto of the Ban-Opening of Session the Hungarian

Diet-Speech of Kossuth in the Diet, on the Question of Magyar Nation-

ality-Address of the Hungarian Chamber-Constituent Assembly of

Austria opened at Vienna-Speech of the Archduke John-Return of the

Emperor to Vienna—His enthusiastic Reception-Contest in Hungary

between the Magyars and the Croats-Deputation from Pesth to the

Emperor-Threatening Advance of Jellachich-His Proclamation-The

National Assembly at Vienna refuses to receive Second Hungarian Depu-

tation-Murder of Count Lamberg, at Pesth- The Ban of Croatia ap-

pointed by the Emperor Commander-in-Chief and Commissary Plenipoten-

tiary in Hungary-Revolt at Vienna-Flight of the Emperor-Jellachich

marches upon the Capital-His Reply to the Messages of the Diet

-Approach of the Hungarian Troops--Situation of Vienna at this Crisis

-Prince Windischgrätz takes the Command of the besieging Army-

Prague declares for the Emperor-Storming of the Suburbs of Vienna-

Surrender of the City-Execution of Blum and Messenhauser-Protest

of the National Assembly at Frankfort——The Austrian Army marches

against the Hungarians--Change in the Viennese Cabinet-Meeting of

the Diet at Kremsir-Abdication of the Imperial Throne by the Emperor

— Proclamation by the New Emperor, Francis Charles-Reflections on the

Position of Austria.

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