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among Irish cities in respect of population, having about 80,000 inhabitants. One of the Queen's Colleges is here.

7. Queenstown, formerly called the Cove of Cork, is prettily situated on the steep shore of Great Island in Cork Harbour; it is a place of call for the Liverpool steamers on their way to and from America, and from its salubrious climate and sea-bathing is a favourite resort. It is an important naval station. Bandon has a considerable inland trade. Kinsale, at the mouth of the Bandon, is a very important fishing station. Youghal (Ya'-al"), on the estuary of Blackwater, carries on salmon fishing and has a small coasting trade.

8. The town of Waterford, which has over 22,000 inhabitants, is situated near the mouth of the Suir, on Waterford Harbour, the estuary of the Suir and Barrow. It has a good foreign and coasting trade, exporting butter, bacon, and other agricultural produce.

9. Clonmel, on the Suir, is the largest town of Tipperary. It carries on tanning and brewing, and has a good trade. Tipperary (Tip-pe-rā'-ri), in the midst of a rich district, has a butter market second only to that of Cork. Carrick-on-Suir has linen and flax factories, and a large trade. Cashel, the ancient residence of the kings of Munster, is built at the foot of an isolated rock on which stand the ruins of a cathedral and other buildings as well as a round tower.

10. The city of Limerick stands on the banks and an island of the Shannon where the river begins to widen into an estuary. Situated in the midst of the Golden Vale, the finest pasture land in the United Kingdom, Limerick is an important port and the largest town in the west of Ireland. It contains 40,000 inhabitants, and has manufactures of woollen, lace, and linen goods.

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11. The county of Kerry, forming the south-west extremity of Ireland, is rugged and mountainous. Carn Tual, the highest mountain in Ireland, is in this county, as are also the picturesque lakes of Killarney. Tralee is a port carrying on a brisk trade in agricultural produce. The town of Killarney chiefly depends upon the visitors who are attracted by the mild climate and beautiful scenery of the lakes.


1. Limerick is an ancient city of much historical interest. During the many centuries that Ireland had its provincial kings, Limerick as the capital of Munster was constantly the scene of sieges and its neighbourhood the seat of war. The last assault of the city was in 1690 by the army of King William, when after a long resistance a treaty was signed upon a stone which is still to be seen on the bank of the Shannon.

2. The city, which is about 90 miles from the sea, is divided into three portions-English Town, Irish Town, and Newton Perry. English Town is the most ancient and is built on an island formed by the Shannon. The river is crossed by several bridges, of which one, the Wellesley Bridge, is a very handsome structure.

3. The place is noted for its trade in agricultural produce, as well as the manufactures of linen and lace. The harbour has been greatly improved and for amount of commerce ranks first among the western ports.

4. In the way of public buildings, Limerick has little of which to boast. The cathedral is venerable for its antiquity, having been founded in 1180. King John's castle, near Thomond Bridge, and the remains of the wall which enclosed the city, are objects of interest.

5. We journeyed through the county of Limerick, which appeared to be well cultivated, and entered the mountainous county of Kerry. I had often heard of the Kerry cows; they are remarkably small, thicker but not much higher or longer than donkeys, hardy, and distinguished by their staring eyes and the buffalo appearance of their horns. The milk-maids in this part of Ireland carry their full pails upon their heads, which probably accounts for their upright bearing and good figures.

6. I need hardly say that the greatest source of attraction in Kerry is the locality where the Lakes of Killarney are situated. The lakes are twenty-two in number, of which the Lower, Middle, and Upper Lakes are the largest. The Lower Lake is six miles in length by three in breadth, and is studded with islets. On one of these islets is Ross Castle, an ancient ruin, and on the other are the remains of Innisfallen Abbey, which was founded 1300 years ago.

7. The Lower Lake is bounded on the south-west by a towering and extensive mountain, while to the east and north is a fine open plain, richly wooded and in some places highly cultivated. Southwards is the charming promontory of Muckross, with its handsome mansion, ruined abbey, tastefully laid out gardens, and rich and varied woodlands.

8. The Middle Lake is on the same level as the Lower Lake, and is bounded by woods and mountains of great beauty. A cascade among the rocks and forest between the two lakes is singularly pretty and fairy like. The stream flows down a deep defile in the bosom of the Turk Mountain, one of the highest peaks in Kerry. The precipice over which the waters leap is forty or fifty feet

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deep; alternately meeting and parting in their descent, they roll down their rugged bed, filling the place with the music of their roar.

9. On the further side of the wall and all along the hollow through which the rivulet runs, the huge mountain, too steep to be scaled by human being, is clothed with the most beautiful mantle of variegated wood on which the vision of man ever feasted itself. Oaks and larches overhang the cliffs, and by their foliage conceal the riven rocks amidst which they have struck their roots. Away to the north-east the landscape is lovely with mountains, lakes, islands, forests, plantations, and, in the distance, cultivated fields.

10. On the road to Kenmare and Bantry we had a fine view of the Upper Lake, which is on a much higher level than the others, and is richly studded with wood-capped islands, and bounded by high mountains. Lofty crags overhang the road, deep ravines with tree-clad sides have to be crossed, huge blocks of stone are lying around; the lake with its many windings lies peacefully below.

-R. Grant.


1. The city of Cork is beautifully situated, there is hardly an entrance to it which does not command a most delightful view; no stranger could enter it without being charmed with the view.

2. Entering from the west, the outskirts are ornamented with large trees, and a little to the left of the city runs a long walk formed by a double row of lofty elms on either hand. This walk extends a full mile between the two branches of the river Lee. The hills adjacent are studded with mansions, gardens, lawns, and plantations.

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