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worn away and covered with water. It is a mile round, and is covered thickly with timber. The bridge by which the island is entered is a hundred yards above the lesser Fall. This lesser cataract is terribly shorn of its majesty when compared with the greater Fall of the main stream.
7. We will go at once to the glory, and the thunder, and the majesty, and the wrath of that upper turmoil of waters. Crossing Goat Island we come to that point at which the waters of the main river begin to descend. The line of ledge stretches away to the Canadian shore inwards against the flood, -in, and in, and in till one is led to think that the depth of that horse-shoe is immeasurable.
8. There is no grander spot about Niagara than this. The waters are absolutely around you. You see and hear nothing else. And the sound, I beg you to remember, is not an ear-cracking crash, and clang of noises; but is sweet and soft withal, though loud as thunder. fills your ears, but at the same time you can speak to your neighbour without an effort.
9. It is glorious to watch the rush of waters in their first curve over the rocks. They come green as a bank of emeralds; but with a fitful flying colour, as though conscious in one moment more they would be dashed into spray and rise into air, pale as driven snow. The vapour rises high into the air and is gathered there, visible always as a white cloud over the cataract; but the bulk of the spray which fills the lower hollow of that horse-shoe is like a tumult of snow.
10. Close to the Cataract, exactly at the spot from whence in former days the Table Rock used to project from the land, over the boiling cauldron below, there is now a shaft down which you will descend to the level of the river, and pass between the rock and the torrent. The visitor descends this shaft, and finds himself on a broad safe path, made of shingles, between the rock over which the water rushes and the rushing water. He will go in so far as the spray rising back from the bed of the torrent does not incommode him. And then let him stand with his back to the entrance, thus hiding the last glimmer of expiring day.
11. He will feel as though the flood surrounded him, and he will hardly recognize that though among them, he is not in them. And they as they fall with a continued roar, not hurting the ear, but musical withal, will seem to move as the vast ocean waters may perhaps move in their internal currents. He will lose the sense of one continued descent, and think they are passing round him in their appointed courses. As he looks on, strange colours will show themselves through the mist; the shades of gray will become green or blue, with ever and anon a flash of white; and then some gust of wind blows in with greater violence, and the sea-girt cavern will become all dark and black.- Trollope's North America.
LESSON 51.—THE AMERICAN INDIANS.
1. The Indians are of a red-brown colour. The men are of spare make, strong, and capable of enduring great exertion. Their mode of life requires the greatest activity. Probably for a day or a week's march in the woods the Indians would tire the Europeans, but for constant fatigue they cannot compare with their white brethren. Some of the squaws (Indian women) are pretty, but as they advance in years they grow fat and ugly.
2. While in camp or in villages the work of the squaws is mostly confined to the wigwam; they attend to the household or wigwam duties, tan deer skins, make baskets, brooms, and deer-skin moccasins, which they ornament very prettily with porcupine quills or beads.
In their hunting and trapping excursions it is the squaw's duty to steer the canoe, build the wigwam, and assist in skinning the animals taken in the chase; they are very industrious—indeed it is difficult to find them idle.
3. The Wigwams are constructed of a frame of poles, covered with birch bark. A hole in the roof serves as a chimney. The door is opposite the fire and is covered with a blanket.
4. The men employ themselves in hunting, fishing, and in making articles of hollow-ware out of wood, such as troughs, butter-dishes, bowls, and barn shovels. Their canoes are made of birch-bark; they are light, strong, and are most ingeniously constructed. The pieces of bark are sewn together, the inside is lined with strips of cedar an eighth of an inch thick, and a preparation of pine gum mixed with pitch is rubbed over the seams.
5. A man or squaw can carry such a canoe for miles over the roughest portages. The dug-out, or log-canoe, in general use by the settlers, is derived from the Indians, who still continue to construct them. Pine, black walnut, butter-nut, and bass-wood are used for these canoes.
6. The Indians are very fond of the water, the men, women, and children are excellent swimmers and divers. Indeed, during the hot months the children are continually in the water, splashing and swimming about like a flock of wild ducks.
7. Till the authority of the English came to be known and respected, wars were frequent among the various tribes. At present their greatest vice is due to contact with white men—it is the sin of drunkenness. The missionaries have done much to check this passion for “ fire-water” as
ey call it. 8. Compared with uneducated peasants of other lands they are quick and clever. They learn to read and write well, and quickly, and they have talents for music and drawing. I have seen an Indian construct a very correct map, with the rivers and lakes delineated with great exactness.
9. Though naturally taciturn, they excel in public speaking. Their language is simple, beautiful, and fitting. Their deportment is grave, dignified, and reserved. But when once you win their confidence, they open themselves out to you, and the coldness of their manner disappears. - Major Strickland.
1 Portages are places where goods have to be carried from one navigable point to another. Many of the American rivers are connected by short portages. Portages are also necessary to avoid falls and dangerous rapids.
LESSON 52.- EMPLOYMENTS.
1. Agriculture is the principal occupation. The climate in all parts except Labrador and the Polar Region admits of the cultivation of corn, potatoes, pulse, roots,
2. The winters are long, for the snows which usually fall in November and December cover the ground with a hard coating till April. This is a hindrance, but not altogether a disadvantage, to farming, for the land obtains perfect rest during several months of the year. In winter the air is bright, clear, and dry, making out-door life both pleasant and agreeable. At this season also the frost and snow, by providing everywhere a hard smooth surface, render travelling and the conveyance of goods by sleigh or sledge an easy matter.
3. The summers are as hot as in the south of Italy. The most temperate districts are about the St. Lawrence lakes, where tobacco, grapes, and peaches ripen in the open air. During the warm weather vegetation is rapid and luxuriant.
4. The farmers pay most attention to the raising of Indian corn, oats, and wheat, and to dairy work. Factories have been established in many places for the manufacture of butter and cheese. The neighbouring farmers send their milk to the factory, and it is made for them at a fixed charge.