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6. The Forth rises in Ben Lomond, and flows eastward through a wide valley lying between the southern slopes of the Grampians and a branch of the Ochil range. It becomes navigable at Stirling, has a length of 130 miles, and is remarkable for its many windings, and for its deep, broad estuary with convenient ports and anchorage grounds. The Teith, a tributary, receives the waters of Loch Katrine.

7. The rivers of the Lowland watershed are the Tweed and Clyde, flowing respectively east and west, and the Nith and other streams running into the Irish Sea.

8. The Tweed rises in Hart Fell, has a course of about 100 miles, and, with its tributaries, drains the eastern Lowlands. Its lower course forms the boundary between England and Scotland.

LESSON 14.—THE CLYDE.

1. The river Clyde, though only the third in size among the rivers of Scotland, is by far the first in commercial importance, and in beauty of scenery is excelled by none.

2. It is formed by the union of several streams in the dreary and mountainous region at the southern extremity of Lanarkshire, where also the rivers Tweed and Annan take their rise. At one point on its upper course it is so peculiarly situated at the very edge of its basin that when there is a flood it overflows and sends some of its surplus water to the Tweed by a tributary of that river.

3. Gradually increased in size by numerous inflowing streams, of which the Douglas is the largest, it prepares to leave the uplands near the small manufacturing town of Lanark. Here it descends to the lower grounds by a series of falls and rapids, its course being now between steep rocky walls and overhanging cliffs richly adorned by hanging woods and clumps of trees.

4. At the uppermost fall, Bonniton Linn, the river takes a leap of 30 feet. Half a mile lower down is Corra Linn, the grandest of the falls, where the river descends 84 feet, but is twice caught by ledges of rock, so as to be broken into three cascades. The blending of rocks and woods and rushing waters here forms a scene of wondrous beauty and sublimity. The Stonebyres Fall, about three miles below, is similar in character, though somewhat less majestic

5. For the next sixteen miles the river winds through fertile meadows and gentle rising grounds backed by hills, the banks on either side being covered with orchards, groves, and cornfields. This part of Clydesdale has been called the garden of Scotland.

6. Passing the town of Hamilton it sweeps round the wooded height on which stand the extensive ruins of Bothwell Castle. Lower down the banks on either side become broad and fertile plains, this being now their character till the river reaches the great commercial centre of Glasgow, and becomes a tidal stream.

7. At Glasgow the river is spanned by several bridges, below which is formed the harbour of Glasgow. Till some distance into the present century the river channel here was quite shallow, and there may be men still alive who as boys have waded across where now there is depth sufficient to float ships of the largest size. At the quays on either side of the harbour lie vessels of all sizes and from all countries; while in the ship-building yards that border on the water are seen others in various stagessome almost completed, some presenting a mere skeleton of ribs and cross-beams. Connected with the harbour there are wet docks, one of them of large size.

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8. The river channel for eight or nine miles below Glasgow has almost entirely an artificial character, having been straightened, embanked, and deepened by the hands

The labour expended in improving the navigation of the Clyde, indeed, is very great. It is moreover ing, steam dredgers being constantly employed in scraping mud or soil from the bottom of the river. forty years as much solid matter has thus been removed as would make an embankment 100 feet wide, 10 feet deep, and over 30 miles long.

9. At Dumbarton, near which rise from the river the

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The Clyde and Dumbarton Rock, looking down the Firth.

In

famous Dumbarton Rock and Castle, the Clyde expands into an estuary, and at Greenock (Grēn'-ok) it has a width of about 4 miles. Below Greenock the firth suddenly bends to the south, and soon after expands into an open sea, enclosing the islands of Bute, the Cumbraes, and Arran, and terminating at the sea-girt rocky cone of Ailsa Craig, where it is 20 miles broad.

10. For lovers of scenery few localities have such attractions as the estuary of the Clyde. Lofty hills rise on every side and bound the far distance; lochs or arms of the sea branch off at various points on the west and north sides, carrying the eye into the nooks of the wild and mountainous districts, while the shores are studded with beautiful villages and clusters of houses, the summer residences of Glasgow citizens--all presenting a view of great beauty and grandeur.

11. The basin of the Clyde embraces the greater part of the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, and Dumbarton. Besides the tributaries already mentioned the rivers Kelvin, Cart, and Leven also belong to it. The lower portion of it contains some of the richest coal and iron producing districts of Scotland, and is studded with mining villages and manufacturing towns. Clydesdale is famous for a breed of powerful horses.

LESSON 15.–PEOPLE AND PRODUCTIONS.

1. In early times Scotland was peopled by Caledonians and Picts, Celtic tribes of the Gaelic family. The Scots, who ultimately gave their name to the country, were colonists from Ireland. The tribes from Germany and Scandinavia who invaded England spread over the Lowlands of Scotland and the east coast districts of the country, but mingled with them there probably always remained a considerable number of Gaels.

2. Thus the Lowlanders are of Teutonic race, with a mixture of Celts and Scandinavians. The Highlanders belong to the Gaelic family of the Celtic race; they retain in many parts their ancient language, though the Gaelic-speaking people now form but a small proportion of the total population. Part of Caithness, the Orkneys, and the Shetlands are inhabited by people of Scandinavian descent.

3. Like all dwellers among mountains, the Scotch are hardy, brave, and fond of freedom. The wild mountains, the poverty of much of the soil, and the bracing air of a moderately cold climate have all tended to make the Scotch strong, healthy, courageous, persevering, and deeply attached to their country. Habits of industry, prudence, and forethought are marked points in their character. The population of Scotland is rather less than four millions.

4. Building stone is common everywhere in the country; granite and slate are most abundant in the Highlands, sandstone and limestone in the Lowlands; excellent paving stone is obtained in Caithness and several other places. Scotch granite is esteemed for hardness and closeness of texture, and is employed for building and for street-paving; it takes a high polish and is much used for monumental work.

5. Some lead, containing silver, is obtained in the Lowland range, a part of which is called the Leadhills. Coal and iron, however, are the principal mineral riches of Scotland; they are worked in the counties of the plain bordering on the lower courses and estuaries of the Forth and Clyde.

6. Not more than one-third of the surface of the country

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