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timonies of esteem and confidence, with which they have honored me. But to the manifest interposition of an overruling Providence, and to the patriotic exertions of United America, are to be ascribed those events, which have given us a respectable rank among the nations of the earth.

We have abundant reason to rejoice, that, in this land, the light of truth and reason has triumphed over the power of bigotry and superstition, and that every person may here worship God according to the dictates of his own heart. In this enlightened age, and in this land of equal liberty, it is our boast, that a man's religious tenets will not forfeit the protection of the laws, nor deprive him of the right of attaining and holding the highest offices that are known in the United States.

Your prayers for my present and future felicity are received with gratitude; and I sincerely wish, Gentlemen, that you may in your social and individual capacities taste those blessings, which a gracious God bestows upon the righteous.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

TO THE MERCHANTS AND TRADERS OF THE CITY

OF PHILADELPHIA.
MAY 16TH, 1793.

GENTLEMEN, Fully persuaded, that the happiness and best interests of the people of the United States will be promoted by observing a strict neutrality in the present contest among the powers of Europe, it gives me pleasure to learn, that the measures, which I have taken to declare to the world their disposition on this head, has given general satisfaction to the citizens of Pennsylvania. The friends of humanity will deprecate war, wheresoever it may appear; and we have experienced enough of its evils in this country to know, that it should not be wantonly or unnecessarily entered upon. I trust, therefore, that the good citizens of the United States will show to the world, that they have as much wisdom in preserving peace at this critical juncture, as they have heretofore displayed valor in defending their just rights.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

TO THE MERCHANTS AND TRADERS OF BALTIMORE.

May, 1793.

GENTLEMEN, At this eventful period, when caution must be united with firmness to preserve to the United States the

ssings of peace, and at the same time to maintain our rights as an independent nation, it affords me no small degree of satisfaction to find, that my endeavours to promote these objects by declaring the neutrality of the United States have met your approbation. While the measures of this government are taken upon constitutional ground, and have for their object the public good, it would be injurious to our enlightened citizens not to rely upon their countenance and support in carrying them into effect.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

TO THE FREEHOLDERS AND OTHER INHABITANTS OF

SALEM, IN MASSACHUSETTS.

JUNE, 1793. GENTLEMEN, Placed in the situation I am by the free voice of my fellow-citizens, it becomes a duty, pleasing as it is strong, to pursue such measures as appear best calculated to promote their true interests. Under this impression, I issued the late Proclamation, declaring the neutrality of the United States in the present contest between France and other European powers. In making this declaration, I was persuaded that I spoke the wishes of my countrymen, without violating any political or moral obligation. And the evidences of satisfaction, which have been exhibited on this occasion, as well as the assurances of good citizens to use their influence in preserving the peace and prosperity of our infant republic, afford a new proof of that liberal and enlightened sentiment, which has been so often and so honorably manifested by them on great occasions.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

TO THE INHABITANTS OF ALEXANDRIA.

JULY 4th, 1793.

GENTLEMEN, Deeply impressed with the important advantages, which the United States will experience by remaining in peace, during the present contest among the powers of Europe, it is with the highest satisfaction that I receive this manifestation of your wishes for the preservation of that invaluable blessing, and the approbation, which you express, of the measures which have been taken to secure a continuance of our present happy situation. To complete the American character, it remains for the citizens of the United States to show to the world, that the reproach heretofore cast on republican governments for their want of stability is without foundation, when that government is the deliberate choice of an enlightened people. And I am fully persuaded, that every well-wisher to the happiness and prosperity of this country will evince by his conduct, that we live under a government of laws, and that, while we preserve inviolate our national faith, we are desirous to live in amity with all mankind.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

TO NICHOLAS CRUGER, CHAIRMAN OF A MEETING OF

THE CITIZENS OF NEW YORK.

AUGUST 18Th, 1793.

SIR, Your letter, conveying to me the resolutions of the citizens of New York at their late meeting, affords me much satisfaction. The approving voice of my fellow-citizens can never be heard by me with indifference. That of the inhabitants of your respectable metropolis must always give particular pleasure. A unanimity so perfect, as appears to have prevailed among them, upon an occasion so interesting to our national peace and happiness, furnishes an example of good sense, moderation, and patriotic virtue, which cannot cease to be remembered to their honor.

VOL. XII.

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Discerning in it a sure pledge of their firm and persevering support, I request you to make known to them the high sense I entertain of the dispositions they have manifested, and the complete reliance I place upon those dispositions.

I cannot omit the opportunity of publicly uniting with them in acknowledging the prompt and decided coöperation of the government of New York, towards the support of the neutrality of our country. The disposition hitherto shown by the chief magistrates of the several States, in relation to this point, is a pleasing evidence of a spirit of concert for the general good, happily calculated to harmonize and invigorate all the parts of our political system,

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

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TO THE INHABITANTS OF RICHMOND.

AUGUST, 1793.

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FELLOW-CITIZENS,

Among the numerous expressions of the public sense in favor of the measures, which have been adopted for the observance of neutrality in the present war of Europe, none is more grateful to me than that of the inhabitants of Richmond and its vicinity. The manner in which it is conveyed lays claim to my affectionate acknowledgments.

In recollecting the anticipations, which were entertained, of a pacific policy, as most consonant with the situation of the United States and the genius of our government, it is a pleasing reflection, that, when the occasion for exemplifying it occurs, sentiments corresponding with it appear to pervade every part of

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